Styles of effective leadership in the much-admired research arm of Japanese organizations are examined for the first time in this scientifically validated study of research and development units. Creative R & D Leadership provides new data about how and why certain types of leaders are more successful than others and offers insightful social and cultural explanations for that success. Bess shows that it is the unique blending of personalities among leaders and subordinates that results in creative and innovative teams — hallmarks not only for good R & D performance, but organizational effectiveness as well. Bess’ findings and interpretations will have significant implications for policymakers throughout the world, including the United States, as new ways for American management to restructure organizational techniques and strategies to enhance competitiveness worldwide are revealed. A major contribution to the literature on organizational behavior and development, leadership studies, R & D management, and cross-cultural understanding.