Fierce debate has long loomed over Title IX, the landmark legislation prohibiting sex discrimination in schools, whether in academics or athletics. Since its inception, Title IX has inspired both backlash and backlash-against-backlash commentary. Supporters contend that the legislation is a long overdue measure in securing equal opportunities for girls and women in America’s school and university athletics. Opponents argue that Title IX is nothing more than a government-enforced quota system that is damaging men’s sports programs. Caught in the middle are the schools that struggle to develop equitable sports programs for male and female athletes. From the hard fought passing of Title IX in 1972 to the most recent debates surrounding compliance, this encyclopedia explores the significant individuals, events, key concepts, controversies, and legal cases revolving around Title IX and its application in collegiate athletics.
This encyclopedia, the first of its kind, offers a comprehensive guide to various aspects and wide ranging issues associated with Title IX and sports. With more than 150 in-depth entries, this inclusive and authoritative reference will appeal to students, scholars, and general readers interested in both the historic framework and contemporary implications of Title IX and academic athletics. Sample entries include: A League of Their Own Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women v. NCAA (1984) Bonnie Blair Molly Machine Gun Bolin California NOW v. Board of Trustees of California State Universities (1993) Commission on Equal Opportunity in Athletics Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act Patsy Mink Ms. Foundation National Women’s Football League National Wrestling Coaches Assocation Pederson v. Louisiana State University (2000) Three Part Test