Long before the creation of the CIA, the American government utilized special intelligence strategies with varying degrees of success. Even though critics throughout time have questioned the effectiveness and legitimacy of these tactics, presidents from George Washington to Barack Obama have employed secret operations to benefit the nation’s best interest. This book follows America’s history of intelligence gathering, undercover operations, and irregular warfare. Through chronologically organized chapters, the author examines secret military maneuvers, highlighting the elements common to covert and special operations across historical eras, and concluding with a chapter on national security since the attacks of September 11, 2001.
- References literature supporting both sides of the special and covert operations debate
- Explains how covert operations is used as a tool of American foreign policy
- Examines the changes in covert operations since the attacks of September 11, 2001