ABC-CLIO

Ghosts of Halabja

Saddam Hussein and the Kurdish Genocide

by Michael J. Kelly

 

This work chronicles the story of the Kurdish genocide that was not told during the trial of Saddam Hussein. Here, Kelly brings attention to the treatment of the Kurds by the West, Saddam, and the Iraqi High Tribunal.

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Cover image for Ghosts of Halabja

October 2008

Praeger

Pages 196
Volumes 1
Size 6 1/8x9 1/4
Topics World History/Conflict

Saddam Hussein's execution for his crimes against Iraq's Shia not only brought an end to his reign of oppression, but also to the justice that was to be served to the Iraqi Kurds. The unspeakable atrocities visited by Saddam upon the Kurds of Iraq are explored here, together with the trials of Saddam by the Iraqi High Tribunal. However, this work is more than a litigation history. It is also an exploration of the motivations behind and the depths of organized evil in the context of a single, brutal despot at the helm of an artificially created multi-ethno/religious state lying atop massive oil wealth. Saddam's background and the context of his rule explain much about his actions, but not all. He remained an unpredictable tyrant to the end of his reign.

The Kurds have continually been subject to adversity since the end of World War I, when they were denied their own homeland, splitting them among three countries: Turkey, Iran, and Iraq. During Saddam's 24-year reign, the Kurds of Iraq were frequently under the knife of injustice. Between 1987 and 1989, Saddam unleashed genocide, razing over 2,000 villages and murdering at least 50,000 Kurds. As his dictatorship came to an end, the Kurds long-awaited opportunity to hold Saddam responsible for the atrocities against them seemed to have come, only to be sidetracked by the Iraqi High Tribunal, the Iraqi government, and the U.S. government. While the Shia rejoiced in their victory, the Kurds continued to be left behind. Saddam's death freed him of the charges against him by the Kurds. The world had turned its back on the Kurds in their age of genocide, and now appeared to turn a blind eye to the justice that was denied.

The unspeakable atrocities visited by Saddam upon the Kurds of Iraq are explored here together with the trials of Saddam by the Iraqi High Tribunal—both the completed prosecution for the Dujail massacre against the Shites and the incomplete one for the Anfal Campaigns against the Kurds. However, this work is more than a litigation history. It is also an exploration of the motivations behind and the depths of organized evil in the context of a single, brutal despot at the helm of an artificially created multi-ethno/religious state lying atop massive oil wealth, but situated in the most dangerous part of the world. Saddam's background and the context of his rule explain much about his actions, but not all. He remained an unpredictable tyrant to the end of his reign.

Series Description

Praeger Security International


As the world gets "smaller" through technology and globalization, the security risks we face grow and multiply.

International security in the 21st century is not a topic that can be adequately addressed in nightly news soundbites or online articles intended to be relevant for 24 hours or less. Comprehending these complex issues requires insight from foreign policy specialists, diplomats, military officials, peace scholars, historians, and security experts—participants and observers on all sides of each conflict. This series provides the tools for understanding security issues in our uncertain, unstable world.

Written by subject experts and well-known researchers, the books in the Praeger Security International series give readers access to carefully considered and highly informed viewpoints on the critical security issues that threaten to destabilize our world. With titles authored by diplomats, first responders, economists, journalists, civil servants, military leaders and combatants, legal experts, psychologists, and other knowledgeable specialists, these books offer in-depth reflections, thorough analysis, and international perspectives that are unavailable in mass media. These titles represent an invaluable resource for students and researchers as well as anyone who seeks a deeper understanding of the complex issues that affect our lives and future.

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Table of Contents

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONSFOREWORDPREFACEINTRODUCTION: SADDAM HUSSEIN & THE PRELUDE TO GENOCIDEPART ONE: GENOCIDE OF THE KURDSCHAPTER 1 KURDISTAN (INTRO & BACKGROUND ON REGION & PEOPLE)CHAPTER 2 THE ANFAL CAMPAIGNSCHAPTER 3 THE GASSING OF HALABJAPART TWO: THE TWO GULF WARSCHAPTER 4 THE 1991 PERSIAN GULF WARCHAPTER 5 DIVIDED LOYALTIES (INTERNAL DISSENT W/N KURDISH FACTIONS)CHAPTER 6 THE 2003 IRAQ WARPART THREE: SADDAM ON TRIALCHAPTER 7 CREATION OF THE IRAQI HIGH TRIBUNALCHAPTER 8 THE DUJAIL TRIALCHAPTER 9 THE ANFAL TRIAL & SADDAMS EXECUTIONCHAPTER 10 INTERNATIONAL LAW THE ROAD NOT TAKENCONCLUSIONNOTESBIBLIOGRAPHYAPPENDICES

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