Topic: Military History / 18th Century

Henry Lloyd and the Military Enlightenment of Eighteenth- Century Europe
Patrick J. Speelman

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Patrick J. Speelman

Henry Lloyd and the Military Enlightenment of Eighteenth- Century Europe

Patrick J. Speelman Patrick J. Speelman

September 2002


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Intellectual historians generally view the Enlightenment as a pacifist or anti-war movement. Military historians typically consider 18th century military thinkers as backward-looking and inept. Speelman challenges the views of both groups through a consideration of the writings of Henry Lloyd, a soldier and Welsh philosophe who combined enlightened thought and military experience to distill a distinct theory of war. Based on previously unused or underutilized primary materials, this is the first biography of this key enlightenment thinker who advanced the general understanding of war as it existed in his day.

Lloyd wrote a multivolume history of the Seven Years' War from which he derived the Principles of War; a treatise on economics that prefigured the liberal theories of Adam Smith; a rhapsody on the invasion and defense of Great Britain; and finally an anonymous critique of the English constitution that he used to demand political and electoral reform. Overall, he argued for the reform of military institutions and practices through breaking from custom and traditional norms. In his works, Lloyd examined warfare within the larger context of secular philosophy and human society; and, thus, he personified the link between the military society and the Enlightenment that historians often ignore or discount.
Foreword by Dennis Showalter
Introduction: An 18th Century Odyssey
Genesis of Genius
The School of War
Toward a Theory of Principles
Henry Lloyd's Enlightenment
Servant of Mars
Philosopher of War
Conclusion: The Death of General Lloyd
Appendix A: Lloyd's Principles of War
Appendix B: Publishing History of Lloyd's Works
Select Bibliography
Patrick Speelman has rescued from anonymity the eighteenth-century soldier of fortune and military intellectual Henry Lloyd (c.1729-83)....Speelman provides a clear and insightful reading of all of Lloyd's work and places it in context....Specialists will profit from this biography of Lloyd and will agree that it has restored him to his proper place as the father of military sociology and possibly the most important military intellectual of his ear (p.2).—The Journal of Military History