This book shows how, during the 20th century, evils such as totalitarianism, tyranny, war, and genocide became indelibly linked to the fascist cause, and examines the enduring and popular appeal of an ideology that has counted princes, poets, and war heroes among its most fervent adherents.
From Benito Mussolini's use of poison gas against Abyssinian tribesmen in 1935 and Adolf Hitler's unparalleled use of mass murder on an industrial scale during the Holocaust to present-day right-wing fascist movements in Europe, this meticulously researched encyclopedia shows how fascism’s history is filled with horror and bloodshed.
From the followers of Hajj Amin Al-Husseini, the Arab leader who met with Adolf Hitler in November 1942 to the murderous death squads of the Croatian Ustasha to certain members of the British Establishment, fascism's heady brew of extreme nationalism and revolutionary violence has attracted followers from across all religions, races, and classes. Now widely reviled, fascism became an immensely powerful political force in Western Europe throughout the 1930s and into the 1940s. How did civilized nations like Italy, Germany, Austria, and others succumb to an ideology now regarded by the political mainstream as barbarous and beyond the pale?
World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia covers all the key personalities and movements throughout the history of fascism and brings to light some of the ideology's lesser-known aspects, from Hindu extremists in India to the influential role of certain women in fascist movements. How did an ideology which was openly boastful of its belief in violence come to seduce the elites of some of the most civilized nations on earth? What can explain fascism’s enduring appeal?
• 500 A–Z entries on fascist leaders and the movements, doctrines, and key events associated with fascism
• An extensive index that enables readers to locate topics quickly and easily
• Information about fascism as a worldwide movement from a wide range of sources
• Contributions from over 100 scholars from more than 20 nations
• Summarizes the key debates and controversies in the history of fascism (e.g., were General Francisco Franco's falangists truly fascist? Was German Nazism fundamentally different from Italian Fascism?)
• Explores the distinction between fascism and such phenomena as militarism, authoritarianism, and traditional conservatism, and analyzes the significance of factors such as fear of communism and the economic hardships of the 1930s
• Discusses the factors behind the growth of contemporary neo-Nazi and other far-right movements across the world
• Explores the relationship between fascism and racism, homophobia, militarism, and misogyny