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ODLIS

Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science

by Joan M. Reitz
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P2P
See: peer-to-peer.


PACA
See: Picture Archive Council of America.


packaged book
A book produced wholly or in part by a freelancer or agency in the business of assembling books for publication. The extent of the packager's role is determined by the agreement with the publisher, which may include writing, editing, designing, illustrating, printing, and even binding the final product. Portions of the production process may be subcontracted out to specialists. Compare with managed book.


package deal
An agreement or offer covering more than one item at the same time, or making acceptance of one item contingent on acceptance of another.


packet switching
Network technology that breaks a message in digital format into tiny parcels of no more than 128 characters, each with the same destination address, then routes them separately as transmission circuits become available. When the packets reach their destination, they are checked to ensure that no data was lost in transmission, then reassembled in original sequence. Packet switching enables the transmission capability of a computer network to be used with maximum speed and efficiency, reducing costs and enhancing productivity. The Internet uses packet switching.


packing list
See: shipping list.


padded binding
A book with one or more layers of compressible material, such as cotton batting, added to the surface of the boards before the outer covering is applied, to make the binding soft to the touch (see this example). The style was used in the late 19th and early 20th centuries on albums, diaries, volumes of poetry, etc.


padded envelope
A flexible lightweight wrapper with a self-adhesive flap, designed to protect items such as books during shipment. Usually made of heavy-duty kraft paper or strong plastic, lined with a thick layer of soft fiber or air bubbles trapped in plastic film, padded envelopes are used extensively in interlibrary loan. Available from library and office suppliers in various sizes, they are reusable if opened carefully. Synonymous with jiffy bag and padded mailer.


padding
Unnecessary verbiage added to a speech or written document to increase its length.


page
One side of a leaf in a manuscript, book, periodical, or other printed publication, numbered or unnumbered. The right-hand page in an opening is the recto, the left-hand page the verso. Abbreviated p. and pp. (plural). See also: folio and jump page. Also, a shortened form of the term Web page.

Also refers to a library staff member responsible for delivering materials from closed stacks and assigned the routine task of general stack maintenance (reshelving, shelf reading, etc.). Also, to call a person by name over a public address system in a large facility, a practice avoided in libraries to minimize distraction.


page break
The point in a text at which one page ends and the next page begins, indicated in most word processing software by a horizontal broken line across the screen. See also: orphan and widow.


page head
See: headline.


page number
A number assigned in sequence to a page in a manuscript, book, pamphlet, periodical, etc., to facilitate reference. Page numbers are written or printed in the head or tail margin, usually centered or in the outer corner. Front matter is usually paginated in lowercase roman numerals, text and back matter in consecutive arabic numerals. Blank pages are left unnumbered. Compare with foliation. See also: blind page.


page preview
A feature of most word processing software that allows the format of a page of text to be viewed on the screen exactly as it will appear when printed. See also: WYSIWYG.


page proof
In printing, an impression made from type that has been made up into pages after the galley proofs have been inspected and any errors corrected, ready for final checking before the publication goes to press, the author's last opportunity to make minor changes.


page pull test
In perfect binding, a test of the strength of the adhesive used to attach the leaves to the spine of the book block, in which the open book is lifted by the fore-edge of a single leaf.


pagination
The practice of marking the pages of a written or printed document with consecutive numbers to indicate their sequence. Front matter is usually numbered in lowercase roman numerals, text and back matter in arabic numerals. Rare in manuscripts and documents printed prior to A.D. 1500, pagination did not become common practice until about 1550 when it replaced foliation. The recto traditionally bears an odd page number and the verso an even number. Blank pages are left unnumbered. See also: blind page, continuous pagination, duplicate paging, journal pagination, magazine pagination, repaginated, separately paginated, and unpaginated.

In library cataloging, the portion of the physical description area (MARC field 300) of the bibliographic record that indicates the number of pages and/or leaves in a bibliographic item.


paging system
See: public address system.


painted binding
A style of binding in which a design or picture is painted directly on one or both covers of a book. Because of its light color and smooth surface, vellum was the best covering material for this type of decoration before paper came into widespread use. To see examples, try a search on the keywords "painted and vellum" in the British Library's Database of Bookbindings. Click here to see a 16th-century calf binding by Christopher Plantin on which some of the tooled elements are painted in white, gray, black, green, and red (Koninklijke Bibliotheek). See also this 14th-century example in tempera on wood and this 18th-century