OCLC symbols are used in bibliographic records to indicate cataloging source (MARC field 040) and in holdings displays in the OCLC WorldCat database to identify libraries that have used a record for cataloging purposes. Symbols of interlibrary loan suppliers are displayed in uppercase, those of nonsuppliers in lowercase. OCLC publishes two alphabetically arranged print directories under the title OCLC Participating Institutions, one arranged by OCLC symbol and the other by name of institution. The list is also available online in searchable format, updated weekly at: www.oclc.org/contacts/libraries. See also: OCLC holding library code.
Also used as a slang expression for a person uninformed about something of which his (or her) associates are aware. Synonymous in this sense with out of the loop.
In perfect binding, the hot-melt adhesive used to bind a book in a single application. Also, a slang term used by instruction librarians to refer to formal library instruction given in a single session, as opposed to instruction extended over two or more sessions.
Also refers to the degree to which ink obscures the color of the surface on which it is printed.
BioMed Central (BMC) is an example of an independent commercial publisher committed to providing immediate open access to peer-reviewed research. Its charter states that, "The author(s) or copyright owner(s) irrevocably grant(s) to any third party, in advance and in perpetuity, the right to use, reproduce or disseminate the research article in its entirety or in part, in any format or medium, provided that no substantive errors are introduced in the process, proper attribution of authorship and correct citation details are given, and that the bibliographic details are not changed." See the SPARC Open Access Newsletter (SOAN) for the latest developments on open access e-journals. A Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) is provided by the Lund University Libraries. See also: Open Archives Initiative.
Also refers to the proper preparation of a new book for reading, accomplished by holding the book block perpendicular to a flat surface with the boards open flat, then using both hands to gently press down on the leaves along the gutters, starting with the outer leaves and working toward the center.
Also, the process of slicing open the uncut bolts of a book in order to read it, done by hand with a dull blade held parallel with the plane of the paper. A folio edition has no folds and therefore needs no opening; a quarto has folds at the head only; an octavo has folds at the head and fore-edge. To avoid damage, the motion of cutting should be away from the book.
The OpenURL was conceived at the University of Ghent by Herbert Van de Sompel and Patrick Hochstenbach, and by Oren Beit-Arie of the Ex Libris library automation company, who built a resolution system called SFX, now licensed to Ex Libris. SFX is being used by NISO to draft a U.S. national standard for OpenURL that will be compatible with other standards such as MARC 21, Dublin Core, Online Information Exchange (ONIX), and the Open Archives Initiative (OAI).
A prescribed format exists for the publication of court opinions in reporters. At the top of each page, the name of the reporter appears, preceded by the volume number, and in the upper outside corner of the page is printed the page number. The volume number, reporter name, and page number constitute the citation used in reference to the opinion and as a means of locating it. The name of the reporter may be abbreviated in the citation, for example, 101 Cal. Rptr. 500 for an opinion appearing at page 500 in volume 101 of the California Reporter. The elements of an opinion are arranged as follows:
In computing, a choice available to the user in the form of a menu item, button, or icon appearing in the toolbar or window of a graphical user interface or as a link embedded in a Web page.
In Dewey Decimal Classification, an alternative to the standard notation provided in the schedules and tables that places special emphasis on an aspect in a library's collection not given preferred treatment in the standard notation and in some cases providing a shorter notation for the aspect (adapted from DDC).
In AACR2, a unit of data that may be added at the cataloger's discretion to the bibliographic description of an item but is not required, for example, the name of the releasing agent in the publication, distribution, etc., area of the bibliographic record representing a motion picture.
In indexing, a descriptor or subject heading that has no relation, hierarchic or associative, to any other term in the indexing language (example: Chank, the Library of Congress subject heading for a type of seashell used in Indian folklore and religion). Orphans are rare in indexing. See also: sibling.
The hot-melt adhesives used in perfect binding have a clamping effect that hampers openability. They also have low cold-crack resistance, which makes them unsuitable for use in countries that experience extreme winter temperatures. The impetus for the development of an enhanced adhesive binding came from the Finnish publisher Otava. Otabind International was founded in 1986 by the Dutch binder Gerard Hexspoor in cooperation with Muller Martini, a Swiss manufacturer of binding equipment. The method was introduced in the United States and Canada in 1988 and is especially suitable for volumes that must open flat (instruction manuals, music books, textbooks, travel guides, cookbooks, etc.). Its durability is several times that of conventional perfect binding.
Also refers to a line or thin edge drawn around a picture or image, as a form of decoration or to establish its visual limits. See also: outline letter and outline map.
An OP title can sometimes be located in a used bookstores. Search services, antiquarian booksellers, and book scouts specialize in tracking down out of print editions (examples: Abebooks and Alibris). An out of print book may eventually be reissued (the review publication Library Journal includes a "Classic Returns" section devoted to recent reprints). Books that have gone out of print since 1979 are indexed in Books Out-of-Print published by Bowker, which includes information on remainder dealers and on-demand publishers. Also spelled out-of-print. Also abbreviated o.p. Compare with out of print at present, out of stock, and temporarily out of print.
Also, the total amount of work produced by a person, team, organization, machine, etc., usually during a fixed period of time (hour, day, week, or month), for example, the number of items cataloged by the technical services department of a library in a given amount of time.
Outsourcing has generated the least amount of controversy in conservation and preservation (particularly binding and reformatting), purchasing catalog records in machine-readable form, acquisitions plans (approval plans, blanket order plans, subscription services, etc.), physical processing, retrospective conversion, and library automation systems. However, proposals to outsource cataloging and selection and to privatize federal and public libraries have met greater resistance.
In cartography, the printing of additional or revised information on a previously printed map, chart, or aerial photograph, often for a special use and in a distinctive color or colors, often red, purple, and/or blue (see this example). Synonymous with surprint. Compare with overwrite.
One of the world's largest books is Bhutan: A Visual Odyssey Across the Last Himalayan Kingdom (Friendly Planet: 2004) by Michael Hawley. Containing photographic images of the small Asian country's landscape and culture, it measures 5 feet by 7 feet when open and weighs 133 pounds. A copy is owned by the Smithsonian Institution Libraries.
Also, a pre-existing cartographic item, other than a remote-sensing image, to which substantial manuscript additions have been made, often in a distinctive color (or colors) and for a specific purpose. Compare with overprint.
In a more general sense, any mark, label, or other indication in or on a book of the identity of its past or present owner(s), including signatures, inscriptions, bookplates, etc. (click here and here and here to see examples). Ownership marks can be important in establishing provenance and value in the market for antiquarian books. Click here to see an ownership mark in the form of an unusual family emblem in a 15th-century copy of the Chroniques of Jean Froissart (Getty Museum). Ownership marks are sometimes forged or altered to make a book appear older or more valuable. See also: proof of ownership.
Need Help? Try our Search Tips
Current Events and Issues
Geography and World Cultures
Gay & Lesbian Studies
Health & Wellness
Race and Ethnicity
Politics, Law, and Government
Topics (Libraries Unlimited)
Librarianship: Philosophy, Values, and Issues
Management and Administration
Organization of Information and Knowledge Management
Acquisitions and Collection Management
Archives and Records Management
Information Systems and Technology
Adult Services and Programs
Reference and Information Services and Tools
Research Methods, Statistics, and Data
Librarian's Instructional Role
Educational Technology and Instructional Design
Children's and Young Adult Collection Management
Children's and Young Adult Services
Children's and Young Adult Programs
ABC-CLIO Solutions Academic Editions
ABC-CLIO Solutions School Editions
Across the Aisle
Biographies of Disease
Crossroads in World History
Cultures and Customs of the World
Cultures of the American Mosaic
Daily Life Encyclopedias
Daily Life through Artifacts
Documentary and Reference Guides
Empires of the World
Energy Resources, Technology, and Policy
Entertainment and Society around the World
Ethnic Groups of the World
Genreflecting Advisory Series
Greenwood Guides to Extreme Sports
Guides to Historic Events in America
Guides to Subcultures and Countercultures
Health and Medical Issues Today
Health and Wellness in Daily Life
Historical Explorations of Literature
Innovative Librarian's Guide
Inquiry into History
Intersections of Race, Ethnicity, and Culture
Just the Basics
Landmarks of the American Mosaic
Libraries Unlimited Professional Guides for Young Adult Librarians Series
Mapping the World through Primary Documents
Movements of the American Mosaic
Nations in Focus
Praeger Security International
Racism in American Institutions
Read On Series
Reader's Theater Downloadables
Tech Tools for Learning
The American Dance Floor
The Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations
The Ilan Stavans Library of Latino Civilization
The Praeger Singer-Songwriter Collection
The Psychology of Everyday Life
The Story of a Drug
Understanding Modern Nations
Voices of an Era
Women's Roles through History