Also refers to a piece of material (leather, parchment, or paper) not integral to the cover of a book that is printed, stamped, or engraved, usually with the title and name of author, and affixed to the spine or front cover. Click here to see a 15th-century Latin reader bearing on its front cover a small shelf mark label above a larger one that gives a partial table of contents (Royal Library of Denmark) and here to see an 18th-century gold-tooled example (Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, MS Dn-f.3). See also: lettering piece.
The term lay was also used by English poets of the 18th and 19th centuries in reference to a song or relatively short narrative poem with romance or adventure as its central theme (example: Lay of the Last Minstrel by Sir Walter Scott).
Also used in a note in a catalog entry to indicate a leaflet or pamphlet included in a record album or musical publication, usually containing information about the contents.
In art and photography, a general or broad view of an expanse of natural inland scenery, usually made from an elevated or distant point of view, which may include figures or man-made objects of secondary importance to the overall composition. Also, the branch of art dealing with such subjects. Compare with cityscape and seascape. See also: landscape binding.
In library cataloging, the language in which a work is written or spoken is indicated by a three-letter code in the 041 (Language code) field of the MARC record. A note is made in the bibliographic record only when the language of the text is not apparent from the rest of the bibliographic description, as in the case of a film subtitled in a language different from that of the dialogue or narration. In some online catalogs and bibliographic databases, it is possible to limit search results by language. Click here to connect to the MARC Code List for Languages. Abbreviated lang. See also: artificial language, indexing language, natural language, original language, programming language, and sign language.
A foreign language dictionary lists the words of a language in alphabetic order, with each entry including a translation of the headword into a second language. Some are divided into two parts, giving translation into a second language, and vice versa. Foreign language dictionaries are often published in pocket-size editions for the convenience of travelers. Visual foreign language dictionaries are available for some languages. YourDictionary.com provides links to dictionaries of over 280 languages. See also the Yahoo! list of language dictionaries. Compare with thesaurus. See also: polyglot dictionary.
Also, the manner in which components of an interface or online document, such as a Web page, are arranged by the designer for viewing on the user's computer screen.
Also refers to the strip of unprocessed black and white film stock or perforated plastic or vinyl added at the beginning of a filmstrip, motion picture, or roll of unexposed film to protect against damage in threading. Leader is also used to separate short films or shots that are combined on a single roll. According to The Film Preservation Guide (National Film Preservation Foundation, 2004), leaders are available in various colors, customized for different uses. Preservationists often use white leader at the head of a roll to provide a suitable background for labeling and a different color at the tail. Labeling on leader should include (1) a short title or accession number, (2) a location code, (3) reel number for a multi-reel work, and (4) whether the leader is attached to the head or tail of the roll. When film leader is replaced, any information on the older leader should be recorded and the notes stored with the roll inside the film can. Compare with trailer. Click here to learn more about film leaders, courtesy of the National Film and Sound Archive of Australia.
Also refers to very thin sheets of silver or gold used to highlight lettering or ornamentation stamped on a book cover or applied to one or more of the edges of a bound volume to give the appearance of luxury. See also: burnish.
Also, a traditional story of a well-known event, sometimes concerning the life of a national folk hero, which may contain fictional or supernatural elements, but is considered to have some basis in historical fact (examples: Paul Bunyan and Robin Hood). Compare with folktale and myth.
Also refers to a handwritten, typewritten, or printed personal or business message of one or more persons, usually enclosed in an envelope and delivered to the addressee by post or courier. Click here to see the historic letter written in 1804 by Captain Matthew Flinders from Ile de France (Mauritius) to his patron, Sir Joseph Banks, reporting on the circumnavigation and exploration of "Terra Australis" (National Library of Australia). Click here to read the last letter of Mary, Queen of Scots (National Library of Scotland). Compare with correspondence. See also: autograph letter signed, circular letter, cover letter, epistle, letter signed, letter to the editor, missive, and typed letter signed.
Also refers to learning or knowledge in a general sense (as in the phrase "arts and letters") and to the profession of the writer, with reference to literary works.
In the United States, the title is reserved for persons who have been awarded the M.L.S. or M.L.I.S. degree, or certified as professionals by a state agency. Also refers to the person responsible for the overall administration of a library or library system, synonymous in this sense with library director. Classified by functional specialization (acquisitions librarian, cataloger, instruction librarian, reference librarian, serials librarian, systems librarian, etc.), librarians in the United States are organized in the American Library Association (ALA) and its affiliates and the Special Libraries Association (SLA). Compare with support staff. See also: Librarian of Congress, renaissance librarian, scholar-librarian, and solo librarian.
Also, a collective noun used by publishers, particularly during the Victorian period, for certain books published in series (example: Everyman's Library).
Also refers to a collection of computer programs or data files, or a set of ready-made reusable routines, sometimes called modules, that can be linked to a program at the time it is compiled, relieving the programmer of the necessity to repeat the code each time the routine is used in a program.
Recent trends in library automation include the growing importance of "add-ons" mostly related to the delivery of digital content (link resolvers, portal and metasearch interfaces, and e-resource management modules often provided by third-party vendors), better integration with the Web environment (rewriting fat PC clients as browser applications, using XML and style sheets for display, and developing XML import and export capabilities) and for academic libraries, closer integration of library systems with learning management systems.
In Free Expression and Censorship in America: An Encyclopedia (Greenwood, 1997), Herbert Foerstel writes that the FBI conducted a 16-month investigation of librarians who openly opposed the Library Awareness Program, even accusing them of being dupes of the Soviet Union. The program was also opposed by the American Association of University Professors (AAUP), the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), and other organizations. In response to public indignation, many state legislatures passed statutes making it illegal for any librarian to reveal library records or patron requests without a court order. For more information, see Surveillance in the Stacks: The FBI's Library Awareness Program by Herbert Foerstel (Greenwood Press, 1991). See also: USA Patriot Act.
The ANSI standard for library binding, established by the American Library Association (ALA) and the Library Binding Institute (LBI), requires that a book have a spine glued with polyvinyl acetate adhesive, strong endpapers, reinforced hinges, and boards covered in buckram coated or impregnated with nonmigratory resin. Click here to read the full-text of ANSI/NISO Z39.78-2000 Library Binding, courtesy of Conservation OnLine (CoOL). Compare with library edition. See also: Library Binding Institute and oversewing.
The American Library Association sponsors a national conference during the summer and a midwinter meeting in different cities each year. The state chapters of the ALA, and some of its major divisions, sponsor their own conferences, as does the Special Libraries Association (SLA) and ASIST. The permanent round tables of the ALA convene concurrently with the national conferences. Library conferences are listed online in Douglas Hasty's Library Conference Planner (LCP).
In the plural (facilities), the term is often used for the physical conveniences of a library building that are designed to facilitate the use of services and resources, such as a reading room, listening and/or viewing room, instruction lab, children's room, meeting room, conference room, cybercafe, gift shop, etc.
In the example given above (assigned to the book Juba to Jive: A Dictionary of African-American Slang edited by Clarence Major), P represents the main class "Language and literature," PE the class "English language," 3727 the subclass "English slang," and N4 African Americans as a special group. M34 is the Cutter number for the editor's surname and 1994 is the year of publication.
In the United States, most research libraries and academic libraries use LCC, while most school libraries and public libraries use Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC). Click here to see an outline of LC Classification and here for the LC Classification Weekly Lists.
The term is becoming archaic as more and more institutions use "library and information studies" or simply "information studies" to describe the expansion of their LIS schools to include allied fields (informatics, information management, etc.). Accredited library and information studies programs in the United States and Canada are listed in American Library Directory and Library and Book Trade Almanac. Click here to connect to T.D. Wilson's online World List of Departments and Schools of Information Science, Information Management and Related Disciplines.
In 1996, following a proposal by a task force consisting of the Chief Officers of the State Libraries (COSLA), the American Library Association (ALA), and the Urban Libraries Council (ULC), Congress passed the Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA) as part of the Museum and Library Services Act, replacing the eight titles of the LSCA with two new titles and consolidating the administration of federal library programs under the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS).
Also refers to an instrument used to query libraries about the current state of services and resources, for example, the federal surveys of academic, public, school, and state libraries administered periodically by the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) as part of its Library Statistics Program.
A study commissioned in 2006 by the American Library Association (ALA) of a random sample of 1,003 people revealed that two-thirds of adult Americans (about 135 million) visited their public libraries in the previous year. Nearly two-thirds of Americans have library cards. According to the survey, use of library services by Americans has grown in every category since the previous survey in 2002--from borrowing books and consulting librarians to checking out CDs, videos, and computer software and attending cultural programs. The most frequent library users are women, younger adults (age 25-44), college-educated adults, and parents of younger children.
In 1978, the Club was purchased by Wall Street investment banker Sidney Shiff, who focused on works by contemporary writers. Commissioning leading graphic artists to oversee the design of each book, Shiff began to produce beautiful livres d'artiste, advancing the book arts in the United States. He also raised the annual subscription fee to $5,000, reduced the number of books produced to 1 to 4 per year, and limited press runs to 300 copies. Distinguished in appearance and sharing a recognizable style, LEC editions are published in large octavo or quarto formats in dust jackets and slipcases. More affordable reprints were produced by The Heritage Press. Many libraries in the United States own copies of LEC editions. Click here to view illustrations from three examples in the special collections of Carleton College, and here to view two additional examples, courtesy of the Smith College Libraries.
The most prestigious literary awards are the Nobel Prize for Literature and in the United States, the Pulitzer Prize. Click here to see an online list of literary prizes and awards maintained by the Christchurch City Libraries in New Zealand, and here to see a list of book and media awards given by the American Library Association (ALA) and its divisions. The annual reference serials Literary Market Place and Writer's Market also list literary awards and contests. In library cataloging, awards received by a work are entered in the 586 field of the MARC record. In the bibliographic display, they appear in an Awards: note. Synonymous with literary prize. See also: PEN Literary Awards.
In scholarly journals, particularly those publishing original research in the physical and social sciences, the first section of each article, devoted to a review of the previously published literature on the subject, with references in the text to footnotes or a list of works cited at the end.
An understanding of the liturgical books of the Catholic Church is essential to the study of medieval manuscripts because book production in Europe occurred mainly in monastic scriptoria from the early Christian period until about 1200. The online exhibition Celebrating the Liturgy's Books, provided by the major libraries of New York City, is helpful. The Getty Museum also provides an online exhibition of Religious Service Books. See also: antiphonal, benedictional, Book of Hours, breviary, epistolary, evangelary, gradual, lectionary, martyrology, missal, ordinal, pontifical, processional, psalter, and sacramentary.
A sequential locator is a pair of locators separated by a hyphen, indicating the first and last pages, paragraphs, or sections of the book or other document in which the indexed topic is mentioned. To avoid ambiguity, it is standard practice to give the second part of a sequential locator in full (example: 396-409 instead of 396-09).
Also refers to one or more leaves, or all the sections of a book, that have become partially or completely detached from the binding through use (see this example). The term is also used to describe the binding on a well-used book that opens easily and lies flat at any page. The opposite of tight.
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