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ODLIS

Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science

by Joan M. Reitz
Now available in print! Order a copy of the hardcover or paperback from Libraries Unlimited.

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jacket cover
A removable covering made of thin, transparent, flexible plastic designed to fit over the dust jacket of a book published in hardcover, to extend the life of the binding and enhance the visual appeal of the jacket design, available from library suppliers in a range of sizes. Used more extensively in public and school libraries than in academic and special libraries, it allows the outside surface of a book to be easily cleaned with a rag or paper towel dampened with disinfectant cleaning solution. The ends should be securely fastened to the cover with adhesive tape of a type that can be removed without damage.

jade book
A book consisting of text inscribed on thin jade tablets bound along one edge or strung together on one or more cords, a luxury format reserved in traditional Chinese society for the most highly esteemed texts. Click here to see a Confucian text in Chinese and Manchu, inscribed on jade in the 17th century for the Emperor K'ang-hsi (Cornell University Library), and here to see an 18th-century Chinese example (Bibliothèque Nationale de France, MS 12096).

jansenist binding
A bookbinding with an austere exterior, lacking ornamentation, except perhaps a small amount of gold tooling above and below the bands on the spine, but in some cases luxuriously decorated on the interior (turn-ins and doublures). Click here to see a contemporary example, courtesy of Princeton University.

Japanese tissue
A thin, strong, soft, absorbent, slightly transparent paper made from the fibers of various plants common to Japan, especially the paper-mulberry. When torn, the long fibers pull apart, instead of breaking (click here and here to see samples). Available in a variety of thicknesses and colors, Japanese tissue is widely used in conservation for patching torn leaves (see this example), lining paper to reinforce it (see this example), reinforcing the folds of sections, and mending hinges.

Japanese vellum
A smooth, thick, durable paper made in Japan from native plant fibers, sometimes used in printing and bookbinding as a substitute for vellum made from animal membrane (see this linocut printed on Japanese vellum (National Gallery of Australia). According to the Conservation OnLine Glossary, japon is an imitation made by treating ordinary paper with sulfuric acid.

japonisme
A term coined in the 1870s by French journalist and art critic Philippe Burty to describe the influence of Japanese artistic style on European fine and decorative art (and public taste in general). Japanese art objects were introduced to the public at the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1867. Japanese woodcut prints (ukiyo-e) had a profound influence on Impressionist and Post-Impressionist painters, such as Toulouse-Lautrec and Van Gogh. To see examples of bookbindings in this style, try a keyword search on the term in Publishers' Bindings Online, 1815-1930, courtesy of the University of Alabama. To learn more about japonisme, see the Timeline of Art History (Metropolitan Museum of Art).

jargon
The specialized vocabulary and idioms of a group of people engaged in the same activity or line of work, for example, the MARCese used by library catalogers in reference to the bibliographic record and its component fields. In a more general sense, speech that is unintelligible or incoherent. Compare with slang.

Java
A high-level programming language widely used for writing application software for the World Wide Web. Introduced in 1995 by Sun Microsystems, Java allows programs to run on a Java-enabled Web browser regardless of platform (Windows, Macintosh, or UNIX), eliminating the need to write platform-specific versions of the same program. Netscape developed the JavaScript language to make programming in Java easier, especially in the design of interactive Web pages, but it is less powerful and limits the designer to the HTML interface. Click here to connect to the Java page at Sun Microsystems or try JavaWorld. See also: applet.

jeremiad
A fierce denunciation of a particular evil, or the evils of society in general, in which current misfortunes are considered a just penalty for past misdeeds and repentance extolled as the only road to a happier, more secure future. The term is derived from the Lamentations of Jeremiah in the Old Testament. The sermons of Puritan preachers in colonial New England provide abundant examples of this literary form.

jestbook
A collection of jokes, witty anecdotes, epigrams, exempla, and ribald tales, usually with didactic endings. Introduced into Europe from the Muslim world during the 8th century, jestbooks enjoyed greatest popularity during the 16th and 17th centuries. Because of their ephemeral nature, few early examples survive. Also spelled jest book. Synonymous with facetiae.

jewel case
A hinged hard plastic container of standard size (5 X 5.5 inches) with transparent front and back, designed to hold one or more compact discs (CDs) and a small printed booklet or paper inserts front and back describing the product (see this example, courtesy of Wikipedia). The disc(s) snap into interior tray(s) made of clear or opaque plastic.

jeweled binding
A binding in which the boards are covered in designs done in gold or silver inset with ivory and/or precious or semiprecious stones, usually with a similarly decorated clasp to keep the leaves pressed firmly together. During the Middle Ages, this style was used for liturgical and devotional books commissioned by the Catholic Church and by members of the nobility from the 6th century on. The lavish use of costly materials was considered an act of religious piety rather than ostentation, and the colors of the gems often had symbolic significance. Extremely valuable, the rare survivals are sold by the world's most prestigious auction houses. Click here to view the jeweled binding on the Lindisfarne Gospels and here to see the repoussé gold and jeweled front cover of the Lindau Gospels. Click here to see an 11th-century Iberian example (Metropolitan Museum of Art). Jeweled binding underwent a revival in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Click here to see a 19th-century example (Ransom Center, University of Texas at Austin) and here to see a 20th-century example on a copy of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam (Princeton University Library). Compare with treasure binding.

jigsaw puzzle
A type of puzzle introduced in 1739, originally called a "dissected puzzle" because its flat image-bearing surface is cut into pieces of various shapes that can be disassembled. Once the loose pieces have been mixed up, the challenge lies in reassembling them into the complete image. Jigsaw puzzles were originally made of wood, usually for children and in a limited number of pieces, but in 1934, when manufacturers began making them from die-cut cardboard, the number of pieces increased and the price dropped significantly, making them a common household pastime for children and adults. Click here to see a 19th-century example in hand-colored lithographed paper on wood (State Library of South Australia) and here to see an example in cardboard (Cornell University Library). Some public libraries circulate jigsaw puzzles, but maintenance can be a problem because small pieces are easily lost. Jigsaw puzzles are also available online (see this example from The New Yorker).

jobber
In the United States, a wholesaler that stocks large quantities of new books and nonprint materials (audiobooks, videotapes, music CDs, etc.) issued by various publishers and supplies them to retail bookstores and libraries on order, usually at a substantial discount (10-40 percent). Titles out of print from the publisher may still be available in limited quantity from a book jobber. Large jobbers also offer customized services such as continuation orders, approval plans, cataloging, technical processing, etc. Using a book jobber allows a library to operate more efficiently by consolidating orders. Directory information on book wholesalers is available in the reference serial Literary Market Place. Click here to see the Yahoo! list of book jobbers. Synonymous in the UK with library supplier. Compare with dealer. See also: Baker & Taylor and Ingram.

job description
A detailed description of the duties and responsibilities associated with a specific position in an organization, used in training, performance evaluation, and the allocation of workload. Compare with position description.

job lot
Copies of a book or other publication offered by the publisher at lower than list price to a wholesale bookseller known as a jobber, usually to reduce or close out stock of the title. Compare with remainders.

job performance
The skill and competence with which an employee executes the duties and responsibilities associated with the position filled, usually assessed periodically in a formal evaluation process. In academic libraries, peer evaluation is commonly used to assess the performance of librarians.

job posting
An announcement of a position to be filled, placed by the employer in a newspaper, magazine, journal, or electronic forum to attract qualified applicants. A good job posting includes position title and rank, name and brief description of employer, location of position, description of responsibilities/duties, list of qualifications (required and preferred), salary and benefits, required application materials, closing date, and contact information. Some employers also indicate compliance with diversity requirements and inform prospective applicants if a background check will be conducted. The following print publications include job postings for librarians and information professionals:

American Libraries
C&RL News
The Chronicle of Higher Education
School Library Journal

Job postings are also available electronically via the following Web sites:

ALA JobLIST (American Library Association)
LISJobs.com
Jobs in Library and Information Technology (LITA)

The American Library Association (ALA) Website includes a section on Education & Careers. See also: reposted.

job rotation
The systematic movement of employees from one job to another within an organization or between organizations, usually to a new position for a fixed period of time and then back to the former position. Uncommon in libraries, the practice has been tried with veteran librarians in both public and academic libraries. Participants report that the voluntary experience can provide a broader perspective on the profession, clarify job content and process, lead to improvements in procedures and collections, enhance capacity to cope with change, provide networking opportunities, and renew commitment. Rotation can be particularly rewarding for employees at risk of stagnation because their careers have reached a plateau. Disadvantages include temporary loss of productivity and increased stress for co-workers. Planning can mitigate negative effects. Compare with job sharing.

job satisfaction
An employee's subjective feeling of happiness or contentment in his or her work situation, usually dependent on working conditions, compensation, and opportunities for accomplishment and advancement.

job security
An employee's expectation of remaining in a specific job for as long as he or she wishes, provided job performance remains satisfactory. Job security is contingent on many variables, some of which are beyond the control of the employee and of the employer.

job sharing
An alternative work arrangement in which two qualified people are hired to fill a single full-time, often permanent, position, sharing duties and responsibilities usually according to a prearranged schedule. The voluntary practice began in the 1970s as a means of accommodating talented women who wished to pursue careers while rearing a family. Unlike most part-time employment, job sharing includes benefits (salary and benefits are usually prorated). The arrangement often increases job satisfaction and enhances productivity, reducing absenteeism and turnover and providing coverage for vacations, illnesses, conference attendance, etc. Communication needs are often met by scheduling a few hours of overlap between participants. Compare with job rotation.

John Cotton Dana Award
Inaugurated in 1946 at the annual conference of the American Library Association, the John Cotton Dana Award is given annually to several libraries for their achievements in public education and public relations. Each winner receives a cash development grant of $3,000 from the award's sponsor, the H.W. Wilson Foundation. The award is named after John Cotton Dana (1856-1929), a librarian who began his career in Denver in 1889 and closed it in 1929 in Newark, N.J., having become a key figure in innovative librarianship during the progressive era. Selections are made by the Library Leadership and Management Association (LLAMA), a division of the ALA. Click here to see a list of past award winners.

joint
In bookbinding, the exterior junction of the covers and spine of a book, formed by the narrow portion of covering material affixed directly to the endpaper in case binding, along the groove separating the board from the inlay over the spine. On the inside, the hinge is formed by the fold in the endpaper, reinforced in some editions with a paper or cloth strip. Together, hinge and joint allow the cover to open and close like a door. A bound volume has a front joint connecting the front board to the spine and a back joint connecting the back board to the spine. Click here to see an illustration. See also: rejoint.

joint author
In AACR2, a person who collaborates with one or more others to produce a work in which all who contribute perform the same function. The contributions of the individual collaborators may not be indicated and are usually not separable. In cataloging, main entry is made under the name of the author listed first on the chief source of information (the primary author), with added entries for the other authors, unless primary responsibility clearly rests with one author. Bibliographic style manuals differ in the maximum number of joint authors included in a citation. Synonymous with coauthor. Compare with composite work. See also: et al. and shared responsibility.

Joint Committee on Printing (JCP)
The congressional committee responsible under Title 44 U.S.C. for overseeing the functions of the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO) and general printing procedures of the federal government. The Committee includes members of the Senate and House of Representatives from both political parties. Click here to connect to the JCP homepage.

joint imprint
The imprint of two or more publishers appearing on the title page of the same edition of a work. In most instances, the co-publishers market and distribute the work in different countries or regions of the world. For a recent example, see The Great Libraries: From Antiquity to the Renaissance, published in 2000 by Oak Knoll Press and the British Library and assigned separate ISBNs for the United States and the United Kingdom.

joint publication
Publication (by prior agreement) of the same work by two different publishers in separate editions, often in hardcover by a university press and in paperback by a trade publisher. Compare with co-edition. See also: simultaneous publication.

Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA (JSC)
The committee responsible for developing and maintaining Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules for the construction of catalogs and other lists in general libraries of all sizes, covering the description of, and provision of access points for, all library materials commonly collected. Its members are the American Library Association (ALA), the Australian Committee on Cataloguing (ACOC), the British Library, the Canadian Committee on Cataloguing (CCC), the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP), and the Library of Congress. In 2004, the JSC began working on a new code, RDA: Resource Description and Access, to replace the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (2nd Edition Revised) first published in 1978. A full draft of RDA was issued in November 2008. JSC discussed the responses to the full draft at its meeting in April 2009, and the revised text was delivered to the publishers in June 2009. RDA was published in the RDA Toolkit in June 2010. Click here to connect to the homepage of the JSC.

joint use
A cooperative arrangement between a library and another institution, such as a school, community college, or university, in which both institutions share the same facility and/or collections for example, the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library in San Jose, California, a partnership between the City of San Jose and San Jose State University in which the San Jose Public Library and the University library share the same building and collections.

journal
A periodical devoted to disseminating original research and commentary on current developments in a specific discipline, subdiscipline, or field of study (example: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology), usually published in quarterly, bimonthly, or monthly issues sold by subscription (click here to see an example). Journal articles are usually written by the person (or persons) who conducted the research. Longer than most magazine articles, they almost always include a bibliography or list of works cited at the end. In journals in the sciences and social sciences, an abstract usually precedes the text of the article, summarizing its content. Most scholarly journals are peer-reviewed. Scholars often use a current contents service to keep abreast of the journal literature in their fields of interest and specialization. See also: impact factor.

A library usually binds the all the issues for a given publication year in one or more annual volumes or converts its print issues to microform. Articles from some journals are available in digital format in full-text bibliographic databases, usually by licensing agreement. Some journal publishers also provide an electronic version accessible via the World Wide Web. Abbreviated jour. Compare with magazine and journal of commentary. See also: archival journal, commercial journal, core journal, early journal, electronic journal, hybrid journal, interdisciplinary journal, letters journal, LIS journal, methods journal, multidisciplinary journal, synoptic journal, technical journal, and trade journal.

Also refers to a record of events, experiences, thoughts, and observations kept on a regular basis by an individual for personal use. Writers often keep a daily journal to record ideas and material that may subsequently be incorporated into their works. Click here to connect to an online exhibition of The Endeavor Journal of James Cook, courtesy of the National Library of Australia. The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition are another historic example. Synonymous in this sense with diary. See also: overland journal.

journal boycott
On January 31, 2012, The Chronicle of Higher Education reported a protest against high journal subscription prices by more than 2,400 scholars who signed an online Cost of Knowledge pledge not to publish in or contribute editorial services to journals published by Elsevier, a leading publisher of scientific journals worldwide. The protest began with a blog post on January 21, 2012 in which award-winning mathematician Timothy Gowers of the University of Cambridge suggested boycotting Elsevier for restricting access to scholarly information by charging exorbitant subscription prices. Libraries have long complained about prohibitively high journal prices. This is the first sign of rebellion among researchers who produce the information. Click here to read the entire text of the article.

journal club
A formal or informal group that meets professionally to discuss recently published scholarly journal articles on topics in an academic discipline or profession. Often moderated, journal clubs are common in the sciences and medicine, serving as vehicle for continuing education. For an application of the concept to academic librarianship, see "A Librarians Journal Club: A Forum for Sharing Ideas and Experiences" by Theodore Hickman and Lisa Allen in the October 2005 issue of C&RL News.

journalese
The trite style of writing used by newspaper and broadcast journalists who rely on clichés, hackneyed expressions, and other over-used devices to pitch a story to the widest possible audience (sample headline: "Rattlesnake Roundup Rattles Rights Groups"), avoided in serious journalism.

journalism
The art of gathering news, writing and editing copy, or directing the publication of a newspaper, magazine, or journal. A person who turns news into copy is a journalist (also refers to the person who keeps a journal or diary). A photographer who specializes in capturing news on camera is a photojournalist. In the United States, Pulitzer Prizes are awarded annually for distinguished public service in journalism and for reporting in a variety of categories (feature writing, commentary, criticism, editorial writing, cartooning, and photography). See also: investigative journalism and photojournalism.

journal of commentary
A periodical that specializes in the publication of news analysis and discussion of political, social, and cultural issues, usually from an editorial position somewhere on the political spectrum, for example, the National Review on the Right and The Progressive on the Left. Journals of commentary are usually issued monthly and sold at newsstands, in bookstores, and by subscription. Compare with journal and magazine.

journal pagination
In journal publishing, page numbers often begin with the first page of the first issue in a volume and continue in a single numeric sequence through the last page of the last issue in the volume. This means that the pagination in each issue (except the first) begins where the previous issue ended. Since most journals are published quarterly and bound into annual volumes, continuous pagination makes it easier for the user to find a specific article by page number in the appropriate volume. Compare with magazine pagination.

journals consortium
An organization that handles the production and distribution of a number of journals but does not necessarily exercise editorial control over them if they are owned by other organizations. In the United States, one of the best-known examples is the journals publishing division of the Johns Hopkins University Press (JHUP), which provides online access through Project MUSE to the full-text of its own journals, plus many titles from other scholarly journal publishers.

joystick
A hand-held control lever designed to pivot at its base, attached to a computer as an input device. Originally used in aircraft cockpits, joysticks have been adapted to video game consoles and mobile phones (see this diagram).

JPEG
An acronym for Joint Photographic Experts Group, a standard for compressing still images in digital format at ratios of 100:1 and higher. Data compression is accomplished by dividing the image into small blocks of pixels, halved again and again until the desired ratio is reached. Data is lost each time the compression ratio increases. Pronounced "jay-peg." Compare with MPEG. See also: GIF and TIFF.

JSTOR
A nonprofit organization that began as a digital text initiative of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation aimed at easing the space problems faced by libraries that own long runs of journal back files, JSTOR provides searchable bibliographic databases containing the complete full-text of core scholarly journals in a wide range of disciplines, current to within 2-5 years. In 2009, JSTOR merged with ITHAKA. Click here to learn more about JSTOR homepage. See also: Project MUSE.

jukebox
Originally, a phonograph record player with an automatic record changer and speaker, designed to allow the user to select and play music from a self-contained collection of recordings. First introduced in 1928 by Justus P. Seeburg, coin-operated jukeboxes played 78 rpm shellac discs until the 1950s when the Seeburg Corporation introduced a model that played only 45 rpm vinyl singles. Jukebox design became more elaborate as their popularity increased (see this Wurlitzer), reaching its peak in the 1960s. Compact discs replaced phonograph records in jukeboxes in the 1980s, and by the end of the 20th century, several companies introduced digital jukeboxes that play recorded music stored on a dedicated proprietary server.

Also used as a synonym for CD-ROM changer.

jumbo file
A collection of prints, pictures, and/or documents of unusually large size, organized for ease of access in a folder, portfolio, or other container of a size sufficient to accommodate them.

jump page
The page of a newspaper, magazine, or journal on which a story or article that begins on the first page (or near the front of the issue) is continued, usually indicated by the references "Continued on page..." and "Continued from page..." at the break in the text.

junk mail
Unwanted postal mail and e-mail messages, usually advertising not solicited by the recipient. See also: spam.

justification
In typesetting, the equal and exact spacing of words and letters in a line of type to make the text block appear vertically even at the right- and/or left-hand margins. Type aligned with the left margin is said to be left-justified. Aligned with the right-hand margin, it is said to be right-justified. Type can also be centered on a page, as in headings. Compare with alignment. See also: ragged.

juvenile collection
A library collection of books and other materials intended specifically for children under 12-13 years of age, shelved separately from the adult and young adult collections, sometimes in a children's room with separate sections for juvenile fiction and nonfiction, beginning readers and easy books, picture books, and books for very young children (alphabet books, counting books, board books, cloth books, etc.). Juvenile collections are usually managed by a librarian with specialized training in children's services. See also: Association for Library Service to Children.

juveniles
A term used by publishers and serious collectors to refer to children's books as a type of publication. Compare with juvenilia.

juvenilia
Works produced during the childhood or youth of an artist or writer, which may reveal literary or artistic immaturity but often compensate with an abundance of youthful enthusiasm and a style or approach that is highly innovative (example: Evelyn by Jane Austen).

kabuki
Classical Japanese dance-drama, traditionally in five acts, performed to live musical accompaniment by actors and actresses in elaborate costume on a stage that may include a walkway (hanamichi) extending into the audience for entrances and exits (see this 18th-century example). Kabuki theatre began in the early 17th century (Edo period), with women playing both male and female roles, but women were later prohibited from performing (early portrait of founder Izumo no Okuni).

Kallitype
An iron-silver process for making photographic prints, patented in 1889 by W.W.J. Nicol. The process produced a richer tonal range than the cyanotype but was considered a poor man's substitute for the platinum print (see this example). Also spelled callitype. Synonymous with brownprint.

kanji
A subset of approximately 5,000 Chinese ideograms borrowed or adapted by the Japanese for use in their own written language. In 1946, the Japanese government selected a smaller subset of 1,850 for use in official publications and in newspaper/magazine publishing. Also refers to any one of these loan characters.

keep down
In typesetting, an instruction to the typesetter to use capital letters sparingly in the titles of works mentioned in the text. The opposite of keep up.

keepsake
An item given or kept as a memento, especially something printed for distribution by a club or organization on a special occasion (commemorative dinner, dance, concert, etc.). Click here to see examples, courtesy of the University of Delaware Library. Also used synonymously with giftbook.

keep up
In typesetting, an instruction to the typesetter to use capital letters at the beginning of each word of the title of any work mentioned in the text. Prepositions, conjunctions, and initial articles are usually kept down, making "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" an all up setting. In modern British practice, only the first word and proper names are capitalized ("The adventures of Huckleberry Finn"). In French, only the first word following the initial article and proper names are capitalized. In Italian, only the initial article is capitalized. In German, all nouns are capitalized.

Kelmscott Press
A private press founded in 1891 by the architect, designer, writer, calligrapher, and typographer William Morris (1834-1896), who sought to revive, in modern book production, the aesthetic of the medieval period and early printing. Although the Press survived only until 1894, the 53 books it issued set a very high standard of beauty and craftsmanship. For more information about the Kelmscott Press, see the entry in A Dictionary of Book History (Oxford University Press, 1986) by John Feather. Click here to see examples of works produced by Kelmscott Press (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library) or see the exhibition catalog William Morris and the Art of the Book published in 1976 by the Morgan Library. Click here to see details of the Kelmscott edition of The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, courtesy of Cornell University Library.

kerfs
Shallow grooves cut into the binding edge of the sections of a book, perpendicular to the spine, to allow the kettle stitching and bands to be recessed (see this diagram). Also spelled cerfs.

kern
The portion of the face of a unit of type that extends beyond the edge of its body to overlap an adjacent character, for example, the lowercase italic f in many typefaces. Kerning also refers to the practice in typesetting of backspacing to tuck one character into another to avoid the appearance of irregular spacing in a line. Pairs of letters close-fitted in this way include AT, AV, Ta, Wa, etc. The term is also used in typesetting for the practice of reducing the space between characters to make copy fit a given line length.

kettle stitch
In hand-binding, a special end stitch taken near the head and foot of each section to lock the sewing thread after it passes down the fold, linking adjacent sections through their folds and producing two rows of kettle stitches perpendicular to the binding edge, one near the top and the other at the bottom of the spine. In some editions, a shallow groove called a kerf is cut into the binding edge at each end of the spine to recess the kettle stitching. Also spelled kettlestitch. Synonymous with catch stitch.

key
Text or a diagram identifying specific items, features, or people shown in a print, photograph, or picture, or on a map, either located on the same sheet or on a separate sheet (see this example). See also this taxonomic example.

keyboard
A thin, flat peripheral device that allows a computer user to enter input by manually depressing keys marked with letters, numerals, and special characters. The keys can be arranged in a single set of parallel rows or split into two sets of rows (fixed or adjustable) to make them more ergonomic. A computer keyboard can be built in, as in a laptop, or a separate piece of equipment, as in most desktop personal computers. Click here to learn more about computer keyboards, courtesy of HowStuffWorks.

key control
The process of establishing and maintaining the list of persons authorized to access keys to the door locks and lockable equipment in a library, as a means of securing the facility's locking system. A full survey of all locks and lock locations must first be conducted and an inventory made of all existing keys. Then key distribution is carefully recorded, including keys retrieved from employees who leave library employment. Access to master keys is limited to essential personnel, using a two-key system in areas where security is especially important (rare books, special collections, computer equipment rooms, etc.). When not in use, keys are stored in a secure cabinet, with a log for recording name of borrower, date of issue, and date of return.

key map
A map showing the coverage of a set or series of more detailed maps, usually distinguished on the larger map by number, letter, or some other system of symbols. The keyed maps may or may not be overlapping (see this clickable keymap of Christchurch, New Zealand). Also refers to a small diagram located in the margin of a sheet map or chart showing the outlines of the sheet and all adjacent sheets in the series. Also used synonymously with index map.

keynote address
A formal speech delivered at the beginning or on the first day of a library conference, often by a prominent person in or from outside the profession, usually on a topic related to the overall theme of the conference. The keynote address is intended to stimulate thought and set the tone for subsequent discussion.

keypad
A small handheld infrared device used in large-screen demonstrations of online systems to enable the instructor to control electronic equipment installed on the demonstration console. Also, the part of a full-size computer keyboard consisting of a set of programmable numeric keys, usually arranged in four rows on the far right-hand side.

Also refers to a security device consisting of a small set of numeric keys, usually mounted on a wall near a door, to allow the automatic alarm system to be deactivated and reactivated by a person typing a valid authorization code.

key title
The unique name assigned to a serial publication by the centers of the ISSN Network under the International Serials Data System (ISDS), usually (but not always) the same as the title proper. In library cataloging, the key title is entered immediately following the ISSN in the bibliographic record. If there is no ISSN, the key title is not added. Also spelled key-title.

keyword(s)
A significant word or phrase in the title, subject headings (descriptors), contents note, abstract, or text of a record in an online catalog or bibliographic database that can be used as a search term in a free-text search to retrieve all the records containing it. See also: stopword.

Most online catalogs and bibliographic databases include an option that allows the user to type words that describe the research topic (in any order) and retrieve records containing the search terms in the data fields the system is designed to search whenever the keywords option is selected. One disadvantage of a keywords search is that it does not take into account the meaning of the words used as input, so if a term has more than one meaning, irrelevant records (false drops) may be retrieved. Keywords are also used as access points in KWAC, KWIC, and KWOC indexing. See also: Boolean, search statement, and truncation.

keyword index
A type of subject index in which significant words, usually from the titles of the works indexed, are used as headings. When a string of keywords is rotated, such an index is said to be permuted. See also: KWAC, KWIC, and KWOC.

kickstool
A step stool designed to move on casters when gently pushed, often available in the stacks of libraries that have shelving too high to be reached by persons of average height (see this model). Many libraries in the United States favor a circular metal design with casters that retract under the downward pressure of a person's weight, a rubber bumper around the bottom that grabs the floor for steadier footing, and a nonskid plastic top tread for safety. Some models also have a rubber belly band to protect adjacent furniture from scratches and dents. Metal kickstools are available from library suppliers in a variety of colors to match interior decor.

Kilgour, Frederick G. (1914- )
A chemistry major at Harvard University, Frederick Kilgour worked at the Harvard University Library from 1935 to 1942, then as chief of the Interdepartmental Committee of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), where he applied his knowledge and experience to the problem of importing strategic enemy publications for military use during World War II. He served in the intelligence branch of the U.S. State Department after the war, then worked as librarian at the Yale Medical Library from 1948 to 1965 and was Associate Librarian for Research and Development at the Yale University Library in 1967 when offered the position of executive officer of the fledgling Ohio College Library Center (OCLC), an initiative of the Ohio College Association to make the books and journals of academic libraries in Ohio available to students and faculty at all the state's colleges and universities.

To achieve this goal, an online union catalog of the holdings of 37 Ohio academic libraries was created in 1971, dramatically decreasing the cost of cataloging in Ohio and later throughout the United States when the system was expanded. In 1978, an Interlibrary Loan Subsystem was added to the union catalog. OCLC evolved into the Online Computer Library Center and has grown into the largest bibliographic utility in the world. Kilgour ended his career as distinguished research professor at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Click here to learn more about Frederick Kilgour, courtesy of OCLC. See also: Frederick G. Kilgour Award for Research in Library and Information Technology.

killed
A news story or article deleted from a newspaper or magazine after it has been worked on but before publication, usually at the decision of the editor. Compare with spiked.

kilobyte
See: byte.

kinescope
A motion picture made by filming the images displayed on a television monitor.

Kinetoscope
From the Greek kineto ("movable") and skopos ("watcher"). The first motion picture viewer, invented by Thomas Edison and his assistant W.K.L. Dickson, demonstrated in 1893 at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, consisting of a large upright wooden cabinet housing a 50-foot loop of 35mm perforated film that revolved on a series of spools at a constant speed by means of an electrically driven sprocket wheel (see this example). The viewer, looking through a peephole in the cabinet, perceived a moving image. The camera in which the film was exposed was called a Kinetograph. Click here to see a photograph of a kinetoscope parlour, circa 1895, and here to learn more about the Kinetoscope, courtesy of the Library of Congress. See also: Mutoscope.

kiosk
A small circular pavilion, usually located near the entrance to a library, used for displaying announcements, dust jackets removed from new books, reading lists, comments and suggestions from library users (sometimes with responses from library administration), and other information concerning library operations and programs. See also: bulletin board.

Also refers to a free-standing furnishing equipped with a multimedia computer to allow users to retrieve information "on the run" via a touchscreen, used in airports and other public locations to provide directions, scheduling information, etc.

kipskin
A leather, sometimes used in hand bookbinding, made from the skin of young or small cattle, intermediate in grade between calfskin and cowhide.

Kirkus Reviews
Published since 1933 under various titles, Kirkus Reviews is a semimonthly review publication covering books for adults, young adults, and children. ISSN: 0042-6598. Click here to connect to the Kirkus Reviews homepage.

kit
A set of related materials in more than one medium designed to be used as a unit with no single medium predominating, often stored in a container to keep the parts together. The category includes laboratory kits and packages of curriculum materials. Examples can be seen in the online exhibition Pastimes and Paradigms: Games We Play (Cornell University Library). In AACR2, the term also applies to a single-medium package of textual material, for example, a press kit or set of printed test materials. In academic libraries, instructional kits are usually housed in the curriculum room. Synonymous with multimedia item. Compare with game.

KLIATT
Published from 1967 to November 2008, KLIATT reviewed paperback books, hardcover fiction, audiobooks, and educational CD-ROMs and software recommended for libraries and classrooms serving young adults. Each bimonthly issue also included a feature article. ISSN: 1065-8602.

knowledge
Information that has been comprehended and evaluated in the light of experience and incorporated into the knower's intellectual understanding of the subject. See also: epistemology.

knowledge base (KB)
A centralized repository of data required for solving problems in a specific subject area. Knowledge bases can be human-readable or machine-readable for use in expert systems.

known-item search
A search in a library for a specific work, as opposed to a search for any work by a known author or for works on a particular subject. If the title of the work is known, the easiest way to locate a copy is to search a library catalog or bibliographic database by title. When the user is uncertain of the precise wording of the title, the best strategy may be to search by author's name. If at least two or three significant words in the title are known with certainty, a keywords search may retrieve an entry for the work.

kollêsis
The joint of overlap along which two sheets (kollêmata) in a roll of papyrus are glued together. Plural: kollêses.

Koran
See: Qur'an.

kraft paper
A heavy, unbleached grade of coarse paper, usually mocha brown in color, used for paper bags and wrapping paper because of its strength and fold endurance and also for the outer wrapper on magazines to protect the glossy cover from damage in mailing. In binding, a narrow strip of kraft paper may be used as a liner to reinforce the layer of thin fabric (known as crash or super) applied with adhesive to the binding edge of the sewn sections to hold them firmly together. To see examples, try a keywords search on the term in Google Images.

Kunstlerroman
From the German word Kunstler ("artist") and the French word roman ("novel"), a novel that traces the growth of a writer's creative genius from childhood to maturity, with particular attention to major trials and obstacles and their influence on the development of the artist's character and work (example: A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man by James Joyce). Compare with Bildungsroman.

Kurzweil
The trademark of an optical character recognition system designed to recognize any normal type font and read printed text into a computer. Developer Raymond Kurzweil took his OCR scanner one step further, combining it with a text-to-speech synthesizer to produce the Kurzweil Reading Machine for visually impaired people (see this hand-held model).

KWAC
An acronym for Keyword and Context (also known as Keyword alongside Context), an algorithmically generated index in which keywords from the title (and sometimes the text) of a document are printed as headings along the left-hand margin of the page, with the portion of the title or text following each keyword indented under the heading, followed by the portion of the title or text preceding the word. Unlike KWOC indexing, this method preserves multiword terms and phrases in the alphanumeric sequence of headings. Compare with KWIC.

Example:
academic
support systems for distance learning. Libraries and
distance
learning. Libraries and academic support systems for
learning
Libraries and academic support systems for distance
libraries
and academic support systems for distance learning

KWIC
An acronym for Keyword in Context, a type of permuted index in which the title of a document (and sometimes the text) is used to illustrate the meaning of a keyword used as an entry. Tagged by hand or extracted from the document algorithmically, keywords are printed in alphabetical order at a fixed position in a line of fixed length (usually at the center), so that they appear in a column, with as much of the context as can be accommodated preceding and following each word. The keywords in the column may be distinguished typographically to make them easier to read. Keyword and context are usually coded to identify the document indexed. Compare with KWAC and KWOC.

Example:

Libraries and ACADEMIC support systems for distance learning.
ort systems for DISTANCE learning. Libraries and academic supp
ems for distance LEARNING. Libraries and academic support syst
stance learning. LIBRARIES and academic support systems for di

KWOC
An acronym for Keyword out of Context, a variation on the KWIC (Keyword in Context) index, in which keywords extracted algorithmically from the title of a document (and sometimes the text) are printed as headings along the left-hand margin of the page, with the titles or portions of text containing each keyword indented under the corresponding heading. A symbol may be substituted for the keyword in the string of text. Unlike KWAC indexing, this method does not preserve multiword terms and phrases in the alphanumeric sequence of headings.

Example:

libraries
academic support systems for distance learning. Libraries and
distance learning. Libraries and academic support systems for
learning. Libraries and academic support systems for distance
support systems for distance learning. Libraries and academic
systems for distance learning. Libraries and academic support


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