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ODLIS

Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science

by Joan M. Reitz
Now available in print! Order a copy of the hardcover or paperback from Libraries Unlimited.

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hachure
One of a series of short lines drawn or printed on a land map to indicate gradient--short, thick, closely spaced lines for steep grade and longer, thin, widely spaced lines for moderate grade, with direction of slope indicated by direction of line. Click here to see an example, courtesy of the Library of Congress, and here to see hachures used on a topographic sketch of Mount Shasta, California, produced in 1883 (to enlarge click on lower right-hand corner of image). Hachuring is common on maps produced by the National Geographic Society and the U.S. Forest Service.

hack
From the English word hackney, meaning "a horse let out for hire." A writer engaged in churning out fiction or nonfiction for the market place, originally at a bookseller's request, with little regard for literary quality. The term is still used in journalism. Synonymous with hired pen. In a more general sense, a drudge in any occupation. See also: Grub Street.

hacker
A slang term for a person with extensive knowledge of computers and computing who uses his skills to access supposedly secure computer systems for the intellectual challenge such activities provide. The best hackers take pride in leaving no "tracks" to reveal their presence. Click here to connect to the Yahoo! list of Web sites on hacking. Compare with cracker. See also: encryption and security.

hagiography
A form of biography, popular during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, in which the life described is that of a saint. Also refers to a book containing such accounts, often a collective biography covering the lives of two or more saints. The lives of early saints were included in the Martyrology, which became one of the liturgical readings in the Divine Office. As new saints were canonized, accounts of their lives (vitae) were written in Latin by hagiographers and translated into the vernacular for the laity. Click here to page through Vita Beatae Hedwigis, a 14th-century narrative of the life and works of Saint Hedwig of Silesia (Getty Museum, MS Ludwig XI 7). Click here to learn more about hagiography, courtesy of The ORB: On-line Reference Book for Medieval Studies.

hair side
The side of a sheet of parchment or vellum to which the animal's hair was once attached. Generally darker in color and smoother in texture than the flesh side, the hair side can be distinguished by the presence of tiny flecks at the location of the hair follicles. In medieval manuscripts, the sheets were gathered with hair side facing hair side and flesh side facing flesh side, so that the right and left sides of an opening (recto and verso) were of the same color. Click here to see the difference in color and texture between the hair and flesh side in successive openings in a 13th-century English bestiary, courtesy of the Royal Library of Denmark.

halation
A glow or halo effect in the bright areas of a photographic image, caused by light reflected back from the film base into the emulsion (see this example). An opaque anti-halation coating is applied to the back of most film to prevent this effect.

half bands
Narrow ridges across the spine of a book added between the sewing supports as a form of decoration, popular in Italian bookbinding of the 17th century. Unlike false bands, half bands are not an imitation of the raised bands produced by unrecessed sewing supports.

half binding
A style of bookbinding in which the spine and corners are covered in a different material than the sides, usually selected for greater durability. Click here to see an example with spine and corners in leather and boards covered in marbled paper (University of Pittsburgh Libraries). To see other examples, try a keywords search on the term "half calf" in the British Library's Database of Bookbindings. Compare with full binding, quarter binding, and three-quarter binding. See also: fore-edge binding, half cloth, and half leather.

half cloth
A book bound in a cloth spine and paper-covered boards. Click here to see a half cloth and marbled paper binding, courtesy of the Princeton University Library. Synonymous with half linen. Compare with quarter cloth. See also: half leather.

half leather
A book with spine and corners covered in leather and the rest of the binding in paper or cloth. To see examples, try a keywords search on the term "half goatskin" in the British Library's Database of Bookbindings. Compare with half cloth. See also: quarter leather.

half-time
A part-time employee scheduled to work one-half of the hours worked by a full-time employee. If the normal work week is 40 hours long, a half-time employee works 20 hours per week. Benefits for half-time employees may be prorated. In some libraries, part-time employees who work less than half-time are not eligible for benefits.

half title
The title of a book as printed, in full or in brief, on the recto of a leaf preceding the title page, usually in a smaller size of the font in which the title proper is printed on the title page (click here to see an example, courtesy of the Glasgow University Library). In books published in series, the series title page often appears on the verso of the leaf bearing the half title.

The use of half titles dates from the 17th century and may have evolved from the practice of including a blank leaf to protect the title page from wear. In modern printing, the half title helps the printer identify the work to which the first sheet belongs. In some editions, the half title also appears on the recto of a leaf separating the front matter from the first page of the text. Also spelled half-title. Synonymous with bastard title and fly-title.

halftone
Art made ready for printing by photographing the image through the fine, diagonally crossed lines of a screen made of glass or film, converting it into a field of tiny graded dots that reproduce by optical illusion the tonal values of the original (click here to see halftone magnified). Halftone screens range from 50 to 200 rulings per inch. The finer the screen, the greater the range of tonal values. Printing papers with a smooth finish require a finer screen than coarse papers. Also refers to a print made by this process. Also spelled half-tone. Compare with line art.

half uncial
The stage in the development of Latin calligraphic letterforms at which cursive characteristics and ligatures were added to the uncial script and the beginnings of ascenders and descenders appeared. A transitional phase on the path to roman minuscules, half uncial began in the early 6th century as a script for writing less formal manuscripts. It may have been brought to Britain by St. Augustine and was subsequently introduced in Europe as a book hand by St. Boniface in the 8th century. Marc Drogin notes in Medieval Calligraphy: Its History and Technique (Allanheld & Schram, 1980) that aspects of half uncial are evident in many subsequent scripts. It was abandoned in the 9th century with the adoption of Carolingian minuscule throughout much of Europe. The Book of Kells is written in Irish half uncial (click here to view a text page). Synonymous with semi-uncial.

hand
The way a script is actually written on the page, as opposed to the model a particular scribe has in mind when engaged in writing. See also: book hand and court hand.

handbill
A small notice or advertisement printed on a single unfolded sheet intended for distribution by hand but also used as a poster. Click here to see a handbill advertising an exhibition of Napoleon Bonaparte's military carriage, printed in England in 1818 (British Library). See also: broadside.

hand-binding
The art and craft of binding books by hand without the aid of mechanization. Medieval manuscripts and early printed books were hand-bound in wooden boards covered in leather. Today, trade editions are case bound, and hand-binding is limited to fine books (click here to see the process illustrated). For a very extensive online exhibition, see Hand Bookbindings: Plain and Simple to Grand and Glorious (Princeton University Library). Synonymous with craft binding.

handbook
A single-volume reference book of compact size that provides concise factual information on a specific subject, organized systematically for quick and easy access. Statistical information is often published in handbook form (example: Statistical Handbook on the American Family). Some handbooks are published serially (CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics). Synonymous with vade mecum. See also: companion and manual.

hand-colored
A print, illustration, map, or photograph to which tint is added manually, rather than applied during printing or by some other mechanical process, a practice now limited to deluxe collector's editions. Click here to see hand-colored woodcuts in the 15th-century Nuremberg Chronicles (Royal Library of Denmark) and here to see them in another copy of the same work (Bryn Mawr College Library). Click here to see a 19th-century hand-tinted lithograph map of the Gold Regions of California and here to see hand-colored copper-etched plates in Curtis' Botanical Magazine which began publication in 1787(Glasgow University Library). Also spelled hand-coloured.

handling
The physical manipulation of library materials with the hands or by automated equipment, usually in technical processing, circulation, or transportation from one location to another (see this example). Because careless handling can cause damage, proper techniques are particularly important in the preservation of items that are rare and/or valuable and restrictions are often applied. The Northwestern University Library provides a online tutorial on Care and Handling of Library Books.

handmade paper
Paper made without the aid of mechanization, usually from pulp made from various vegetable fibers and/or cotton or linen rags. Handmade papers often bear a watermark identifying the papermaker. Click here to view a medieval illuminated manuscript written on handmade paper prior to the invention of printing (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, Hunterian Add f91). For contemporary examples, see Creative Papers Online. See also: deckle edge.

handout
A printed sheet or group of sheets, usually stapled together at one corner, intended for distribution during an oral presentation or instruction session to give the attendees a record of content covered (summary, outline, hard copy of PowerPoint slides, etc.) or to provide supplementary or complementary information (supporting data, examples, suggestions for further reading, contact information, etc.).

hands-on
A library instruction session or one-on-one reference transaction in which the student or patron has the opportunity to practice, usually at a computer workstation, research techniques demonstrated by the instructor or reference librarian, often more effective than lecture-style instruction.

hang
Having a computer freeze during a session so that it does not respond to user input, usually with no indication of the probable cause. Downloading a very large data file can create the appearance of a hang-up. Closing the application or rebooting will usually get the system unstuck, but unsaved data may be lost in the process.

hanging caption
A heading in a book, printed adjacent to the text to which it refers, as a vertical column in the margin rather than horizontally across the page. Click here to see an example, courtesy of the Lehigh University Library.

hanging indention
A form of indention in which the opening line is flush with the left-hand margin and subsequent lines are indented one or more spaces. Used in typed and printed catalog cards (see this example) and in some styles of bibliographic entry. Hanging indention is used for the terms and definitions in this online dictionary.

Hans Christian Andersen Awards
A pair of literary awards given biennially by the International Board on Books for Young People (IBBY) to a living author and illustrator whose complete works have made a lasting contribution to children's literature. Queen Margrethe II of Denmark is the patron of the Andersen Awards. Nominations are made by the national sections of IBBY and the recipients are selected by a distinguished international jury of children's literature specialists. Click here to learn more about the Hans Christian Andersen Awards.

hard copy
A human-readable copy on card or paper of a document or record in machine-readable format (digital, microform, etc.) or in a form not easily readable. Also used in a more general sense to refer to printed matter, as opposed to its nonprint equivalent. The opposite of soft copy. Compare with printout.

hardcover
A book bound in an inflexible board case or cover, usually covered in cloth, paper, plastic, leather, or some other durable material, as distinct from a book bound in a cover made of flexible material. In modern publishing, a new trade title is usually issued first in hardcover, then in a paperback edition after sales in hardcover decline. Synonymous with cloth bound, hardback, and hardbound. Compare with softcover.

hard disk
A magnetic medium capable of storing a large quantity of data, which resides permanently within a computer, as opposed to a portable disk (floppy, Zip, etc.) that can be inserted in a disk drive by the user whenever a data file needs to be opened or saved, then removed once the operation is completed. In microcomputers, the hard disk is usually the c:\ drive. In networked systems, users may also have access to a portion of the hard drive on a shared server. Click here to learn more about hard disks, courtesy of HowStuffWorks. See also: microdrive.

hard hyphen
A hyphen which is part of the normal spelling of a word, rather than an indication of word division (examples: high-level and light-sensitive). Synonymous with required hyphen.

hard point
A pointed implement made of metal or bone used during the Middle Ages for underdrawing and ruling blank pages in preparation for work on a manuscript. Hard point does not leave a graphic mark on the writing or drawing surface; instead, the application of pressure creates a visible furrow on one side of the sheet and a corresponding ridge on the other, a technique called scoring. The scribe may accidentally cut through the parchment or paper if the implement is too sharp or if excessive pressure is applied. Synonymous with dry point. Compare with metal point.

hardware
Mechanical, electrical, electronic, or other physical equipment and machinery associated with a computer system or necessary for the playback or projection of nonprint media. Basic microcomputer hardware includes a central processing unit (CPU), keyboard, and monitor. The distinction between hardware and software has been described as the difference between "storage and transmission" and "logic and language." See also: peripheral.

hardwired
A term that originally referred to a computer device containing unalterable circuitry designed to perform a specific task, as opposed to circuits that are programmable or controlled by a switch. However, the meaning has broadened to include constants built into computer software. Synonymous in this sense with hard-coded. In a more general sense, hardware or software that cannot be modified.

harmony
An arrangement of biblical passages on the same topic in parallel columns to facilitate comparison. Also, an interweaving of such passages into a continuous text (AACR2).

harvesting
The process of gathering data from Web pages and other Internet sources and sending it back to a central site for indexing. An Internet crawler harvests Web pages for indexing in Internet search engines (Google, HotBot, Yahoo!, AltaVista, etc.). Spammers use harvesting to pull e-mail addresses off Web pages for use in mass mailings. In the Open Archives Initiative (OAI), metadata is harvested from distributed repositories such as e-print servers and from library catalogs.

hash
See: hashmark.

hashmark
The symbol # used to represent the word "number" in lists and street addresses, in touch-tone telephone systems that allow the caller to key input, in Web addresses (URLs) to create a link to another location in the same document (example: lib.university.edu/glossary.html#copyright), etc. Abbreviated hash.

HathiTrust Digital Library
A partnership of major research institutions and libraries in the United States, which seeks to preserve and provide open access to the digitized cultural record. HathiTrust began in 2008 as a collaboration of the thirteen universities of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC), plus the University of California system and the University of Virginia, for the purpose of establishing an archival repository of their digitized collections. The collaboration quickly expanded to include more than 60 academic and research libraries (see this list of HathiTrust partners). According to Jeremy York, project librarian for HathiTrust at the University of Michigan (Library Issues: January 2012), nearly 10 million volumes have been stored so far in the HathiTrust Digital Library, with volumes digitized by Google comprising the largest portion of the content. Because the print collections of HathiTrust partners overlap to a considerable extent, the repository is expected to play a significant role in decisions about retaining print collections. By 2014, HathiTrust plans to support publication of digitally created open access journals. Click here to search publicly accessible HathiTrust collections.

HDTV
An abbreviation of high definition television. The finest quality of all the digital television (DTV) standards, HDTV has an aspect ratio of 16:9, more like a movie screen than the 4:3 ratio of analog TV, with much higher resolution image display than standard-definition TV (ten times more pixels). HDTV also displays more frames per second. The American Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) HDTV system had its public launch on October 29, 1998 and since then sales of HDTV receivers have been brisk. Click here to learn more about how HDTV works, courtesy of HowStuffWorks. See also: Blu-ray.

head
The top edge of a book. Also refers to the margin at the top of a page, as opposed to the margin at the tail or foot of the page. Also, a word or phrase used as a brief headline in a book or periodical.

In motion picture film and videotape, the beginning of a roll wound on a reel or core, as opposed to its end (the tail). Film intended for projection is wound head out.

headband
In bookbinding, a band of woven cotton or silk, sometimes colored or multicolored, glued or sewn to the back of a book at the head, to protect the end of the bound sections and take the strain off the covering material at the top of the spine when the volume is pulled from the shelf (see this example). The corresponding band at the lower end of the spine is called the tailband. Collectively, the headband and tailband are known as endbands.

Originally, the headband and tailband were a part of the sewing of a book, holding the sections together securely, but because they prevented the edges of the sections from being trimmed after sewing, their primary function was transferred to the kettle stitch, and endbands began to be glued on with the lining. On early bindings, the headbands were laced into the boards, and in fine binding they may still be embroidered for decorative effect. Compare with headcap.

Also refers to a decorative band printed at the top of a page or at the beginning of a chapter in older books. Synonymous in this sense with headpiece and head ornament.

headcap
The thickened edge at the upper end of the spine of a leather-bound book, created by inserting a piece of cord inside the turned-in end of the covering material after the text block has been attached to the cover (click here and here to see examples). The same edge at the lower end of the spine is called the tailcap. Compare with headband. See also: Greek style.

header
The lines at the beginning of an e-mail message that display the e-mail address and (in some mail systems) the name of the sender (To:) and recipient (From:), any delivery options (CC:), and the subject of communication (Subj:), as opposed to the footer at the end of the message and the body containing the text.

heading
The name of a person, corporate body, or geographic location; the title proper of a work; or an authorized content descriptor (subject heading), placed at the head of a catalog entry or listed in an index, to provide an access point. In library cataloging, genre/form terms are also used. In AACR2, form of entry is subject to authority control. See also: main heading and subheading.

In Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), a word or phrase used as a description of a class, given in the schedules in conjunction with the class number, for example, "Library and information sciences" for which the class notation is 020.

Also, a line of type printed on a separate line at the beginning of a section of text in a chapter or other division of a work, to indicate the following content in a few descriptive words, usually distinguished from the text typographically (larger type size, boldface, italic, etc.).

headline
A few words printed in large display type across the top of the front page of a newspaper to give prominence to the most important news story of the day, or above the text of one of the other articles in the newspaper to give the reader a sense of its content. Headlines are worded to capture the reader's interest (see this example). See also: banner and screamer.

Also refers to a uniform line of type printed at the top of the page in a book, giving the page number and running title, usually on the verso, or the chapter title or subject of the chapter or page, usually on the recto. Synonymous in this sense with page head and running head.

headnote
A brief explanatory note printed at the beginning of a chapter, short story, poem, or other work to serve as a preface.

headphones
A pair of small speakers connected by a headstrap, designed to be worn over the ears when listening to audiorecordings, so that the sound can be heard only by the listener (see this example).

headpiece
A decoration printed in the blank space at the beginning of a chapter or other division of a book, usually a printer's ornament or a small illustration done by a professional illustrator. Michelle Brown notes in Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts (Getty Museum/British Library, 1994) that decorative panels began appearing at the beginning of texts in late Antiquity, a practice that continued in medieval manuscript and Renaissance book production (click here to see an example in a Byzantine illuminated manuscript). Zoomorphic and anthropomorphic motifs can be seen in this headpiece in a 15th-century Greek manuscript (British Library, Burney 75). Click here to see a headpiece in the first edition of the New Testament in Greek, translated into Latin by Erasmus and published in Basel in 1516 (Georgetown University Library). Also spelled head-piece. Synonymous with headband and head ornament. Compare with tailpiece. See also: sinkage.

headword
A word or phrase used as a main entry in a dictionary or encyclopedia, usually printed in boldface or some other distinctive type at the beginning of a definition or other entry. In most dictionaries, headwords are arranged in a single alphabetic sequence. In classified reference works, headwords may be listed alphabetically within each section, usually with a subject or keyword index to the entire work at the end of the last volume.

hearings
Publications of the U.S. federal government containing the transcripts of testimony given before congressional committees and subcommittees, usually available in the government documents section of a library. Congressional hearings are also available online via FDsys. Not all hearings are published by the U.S. Government Printing Office. In a more general sense, the printed transcript of testimony given before any government committee or executive body authorized to hold investigative or fact-finding proceedings. See also: freedom of information.

height
The dimension of a book or other bound item from head to tail, usually greater than its width, the exception being volumes square or oblong in shape. In library cataloging, the height of a book is given in centimeters in the physical description area of the bibliographic description. In many libraries, books over a certain height are labeled oversize and shelved in a separate section. Also refers to the vertical dimension of a unit of single- or double-faced shelving. Most commercially made library shelving is sold in units 42, 60, 72, or 84 inches high. See also: depth and shelf height.

hell box
In the printing trade, a receptacle for holding used metal type to be sorted and returned to the job case by a printer's assistant known as a printer's devil. After continuous casting or hot-metal typesetting machines came into use, the hell box was used for storing broken or discarded type prior to melting it down for recasting. Also spelled hellbox.

help line
A telephone number that a person may call to receive assistance of a certain kind, for example, instructions or advice on how to use a specific type of computer hardware or software. Some help lines are more helpful than others. See also: help screen.

help screen
The screen or sequence of screens in an online catalog, bibliographic database, or other application program providing instructions to users who need assistance in learning how to use the system. In well-designed software, the help screens are context-sensitive. In Windows, the help menu can be accessed by pressing the F1 key or Alt+H. Compare with wizard. See also: tutorial.

herbal
A systematically arranged text containing practical information about herbs and other plants, especially their properties and medicinal uses, usually providing both common and scientific names and a physical description, with illustrations drawn or painted from actual specimens to aid identification. Botanical texts survive from Antiquity and were produced throughout the Middle Ages, often containing picture cycles based on classical models. Click here to view a colorfully illustrated 11th-century herbal (Bodleian Library, MS Ashmole 1431). Compare De Historia Stirpium by Leonhart Fuchs (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, Hunterian L.1.13) with this 16th-century printed example. See also Herbals & Early Gardening Books from the Doris and Marc Patten Collection (Arizona State University Libraries). Modern herbals are illustrated with drawings, watercolors, or photographs. Synonymous with herbarium.

hermeneutics
The study of the art and science of interpretation and understanding, as opposed to the practice of exposition. The term originally applied to biblical exegesis but was subsequently extended to secular texts. In the 19th century, literary theorists recognized the paradox that understanding a work as a whole requires knowledge of its parts, but understanding the parts presupposes at least some knowledge of the whole. In the 20th century, as objectivity gave way to subjectivity in literary theory, interpretation was found to be rooted in culture and history, turning the meaning of a text into the history of its interpretations.

hermetic sealing
A preservation method in which the item is stored in a tightly closed pouch from which oxygen has been removed, using technology similar to the vacuum-packing of dried food. According to C&RL News (March 2003), Cornell University Library's Department of Preservation and Collection Maintenance received a Ford Foundation grant to determine the feasibility of using the process to preserve and protect master copies of library microfilms in developing countries for long periods of time without cold storage. Microfilm deteriorates rapidly under conditions of high temperature and humidity, a problem in the tropics for nations lacking the means to install HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) systems.

herringbone
In bookbinding, a design resembling the skeleton of a fish, consisting of a vertical line up the center with horizontal elements arranged like ribs. Built up of small tools, herringbone was used on the spine in Byzantine binding and on the covers of late-17th- and 18th-century Scottish bindings. Click here to see a 17th-century gold-tooled binding in this style (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, Dx-b.2). To see more examples, try a search on the keyword "herringbone" in the British Library's Database of Bookbindings.

heuristic
From the Greek word heuriskein, meaning "to discover." A course of action or method of problem solving in which progress toward the best possible outcome or solution is continuously evaluated through trial and error. Both positive and negative results are incorporated as feedback into the discovery process, allowing procedure to be adjusted as the best next step is determined. Library research is ideally a heuristic process.

Hexateuch
The first six books of the Old Testament of the Bible (the Pentateuch plus the book of Joshua), sometimes produced as a separate manuscript by medieval scribes. Click here to view a page from an 11th-century English Hexateuch, courtesy of the British Library. See also: Octateuch.

hickey
Printer's slang for an unintended spot or defect on a printed page, usually caused by a speck of dust, lint, or dried ink on the printing plate or negative. A void hickey appears as a white spot on print. Also spelled hickie.

hidden image work
A work in which text or image remains hidden from view until revealed by purposeful action of the viewer, such as holding the item to a light source, exposing it to heat, or rubbing away a surface covering. The category does not include picture puzzles in which some of the objects or figures depicted are not easily perceived, for example, because they appear at first glance to be part of the background.

hierarchical classification
A classification system in which the classes are subdivided on the principle of logical subordination, from the most general subjects to the most specific. Hierarchical classification can be broad or close. Click here to explore hierarchy in Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC). Synonymous with analytic classification. See also: enumerative classification, synthetic classification, and tree structure.

hierarchical force
In classification systems based on logical subordination (including Dewey Decimal Classification), the principle that the attributes of a class identified in the heading assigned to represent it (example: Political ideologies), and in certain explanatory notes, apply to all its subdivisions (Liberalism, Conservatism, Nationalism, etc.) and to all other classes to which reference is made in the notes.

hierarchic relation
A semantic relation between two terms in which the concept represented by one is a subclass of the concept represented by the other (example: Library books / Books).

hierarchy
The arrangement of classes in a classification system, from the most general to the most specific. In a classification schedule, hierarchy is usually indicated by length of notation and depth of indention, as in the following example from Dewey Decimal Classification published by OCLC:

700 The Arts
720 Architecture
725 Public structures
725.8 Recreation buildings
725.82 Buildings for shows and spectacles
725.822 Theaters and opera houses

In an indexing language, logical hierarchy is indicated in the list of subject headings or thesaurus of descriptors by the codes BT (broader term) or NT (narrower term). In a more general sense, the arrangement of a set of terms or items by degree of specificity according to a given characteristic, for example, the sequence United States - New England - Massachusetts - Boston - Beacon Street, according to geographic location. See also: tree structure.

hieroglyphics
From the Greek hieros ("sacred" or "powerful") and glyphikos ("carving"). A writing system in which pictures or symbols, rather than letters of a phonetic alphabet, are used to represent words, syllables, and sounds. The ancient Egyptians wrote in hieroglyphs that were not deciphered until after the discovery in 1799 of the Rosetta Stone, which bears the same inscription in three different scripts: hieratic Egyptian (formal), demotic Egyptian (cursive), and ancient Greek. Click here to learn more about Egyptian hieroglyphs. See also Wikipedia and Hieroglyphs.net. Compare with cuneiform.

In a more general sense, any form of written expression that is difficult to read or understand.

hieronym
A surname based on a sacred name (example: Perse Saint John).

high-definition
In electronics, an audio/visual display device capable of reproducing sound and/or image with a high degree of resolution (detail) or fidelity to the original. In digital television (DTV), high-definition receivers (HDTV) have higher resolution (more pixels) than standard-definition TV (SDTV).

high-density shelving
A type of library shelving and shelving arrangement pioneered by Harvard University in the mid-1980s, capable of accommodating a greater volume of material at considerably lower cost per item than can be housed on conventional library shelving, or even on movable compact shelving. The method is used mainly by large research libraries for low-use items that must be requested by the patron and retrieved by library staff. Because access to high-density storage is normally restricted, browsing capability is lost. Click here to see an example at the Indiana University and here to learn more about high density shelving, courtesy of Catherine Murray-Rust and the Orbis Cascade Alliance.

Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS)
Part of the comprehensive nationwide system of collecting data on higher education in the United States, HEGIS was widely used by administrators, planners, researchers, and guidance counselors from its inception in 1966 until its replacement by IPEDS in 1986. Composed of a number of surveys conducted by the U.S. Office of Education and other federal agencies, HEGIS covered fall enrollment, completions, revenues and expenditures, institutional characteristics, staffing, and faculty compensation. It also included a component on library resources, facilities, and personnel. The fund accounting systems used today in some academic libraries evolved from the six-digit codes for classifying academic fields developed for HEGIS. Click here to learn more about HEGIS.

high fidelity (hi-fi)
Any method of sound recording that minimizes distortion by reproducing such a wide range of audible frequencies that the result is very faithful to the original. Compare with lo-fi.

highlight
To use a broad-tipped pen to mark in light-colored ink a section of text in a book or document, usually for future reference. College textbooks donated to libraries are often heavily highlighted. In a similar fashion, the "edit" option in some computer applications allows the user to mark in shaded or contrasting background portions of electronic text to be cut or copied. In a more general sense, to give prominence to the part of a whole that is the most outstanding, interesting, pertinent, useful, etc.

highlighting
Words, phrases, or passages of text marked in a book with a broad-tipped, brightly colored pen for future study. The presence of highlighting diminishes the value of a book for resale, particularly for collectors. As a general rule, donated materials containing highlighting are added to a library collection only in exceptional cases. Highlighting can also be a form of defacement (see this example). Compare with underlining.

Highlighting is also used in some computer applications to edit text by positioning the cursor at the beginning of a word, phrase, or entire passage, holding down the mouse button, and dragging the cursor to the end of the desired portion of text.

high-resolution
A device capable of displaying or detecting images that contain a large number of dots or pixels per unit of area and are therefore very sharp and finely detailed. Abbreviated hi-res.

high-risk collection
An archival or library collection for which the likelihood of vandalism or theft is higher than normal due to its exceptional value (rare books) or unusual content (special collections). Tighter security precautions are taken, especially when such items are placed on exhibit.

Highsmith
A commercial company in the business of providing equipment, supplies, and furnishings to libraries and schools, marketed through its trade catalog. Click here to connect to the Highsmith homepage. See also: Brodart, DEMCO, and Gaylord.

high-speed
In computing, equipment that functions at a higher-than-normal speed, usually purchased at a premium. Also refers to a fast Internet connection (compare T3 with T1).

hill shading
A method of creating the impression of three-dimensional relief on a map by depicting, in light to dark tones, shadows cast by high ground as if illuminated obliquely from a constant direction, usually northwest (see this example). Often combined with contours and/or hypsometric tint on relief maps (see this example), hill shading can be done by hand or by computer. Click here to learn more about hill shading. See also: shaded relief.

h-index
A bibliometric indicator suggested by physicist Jorge E. Hirsch as a measure of the quality and sustainability of published scientific output. A researcher's h-index is equal to the number (h) of published papers written by him (or her), each of which has been cited by other researchers at least h times. Intended as an improvement upon simpler measures such as total number of citations or publications, the h-index has its own weaknesses, some of which are listed under criticisms in Wikipedia. Synonymous with Hirsch index and Hirsch number.

hinge
A narrow strip of muslin or paper attached with adhesive along the line dividing the two halves of an endpaper to reinforce the flexible joint along which the body of a book is attached to the cover. In volumes lacking this reinforcement, the hinge is formed by adhering the covering material (leather, cloth, paper, etc.) directly to the fold in the endpaper. A loose hinge is one that allows the book block to shift inside the binding, usually because the hinge material has pulled away from the boards (see this example). See also: broken hinge.

Also refers to a narrow cloth or paper stub inserted along the binding edge between the pages of a book to allow a map or added leaf to flex easily when the volume is opened. Synonymous in this sense with guard.

hiring freeze
The temporary cessation of activities aimed at employing personnel to fill vacancies and new positions on the staff and/or faculty of a library or library system, usually in response to a major budget cut. An "across-the-board" freeze has the potential disadvantage of distributing the impact of cuts unequally across the administrative units within the library, sometimes necessitating the temporary reorganization of duties. When funds are restored, hiring resumes, usually according to priorities based on need.

hiss
A high-frequency noise inherent in analog tape recordings, which can be reduced, without discernible side effects on the content being recorded, by the use of a Dolby noise reduction system.

histogram
A graph representing quantitative data in a series of vertical or horizontal bars or lines drawn from a base line. The position of each bar (or line) along the base indicates the class or value of one variable, with the length of the bar (or line) indicating the corresponding value of a second variable. A third variable can be added if the bars are displayed in groups and distinguished graphically, by color, shading, etc. To see examples, try a keyword search on the term in Google Images. Synonymous with bar graph.

historiated border
An ornamental band around a miniature and/or portion of text on the page of an illuminated manuscript or early printed book, decorated with figures of animals and/or humans in a scene that illustrates the accompanying text or tells an unrelated story. Click here to see an illuminated example in a 16th-century German psalter (Leaves of Gold) and here to view a hand-illuminated border in a breviary printed in Venice in 1478 (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, Hunterian Bf.1.18). Click here to see a printed border in an early edition (University of Pittsburgh Libraries). See also: historiated initial.

historiated initial
An initial letter in an illuminated manuscript or early printed book containing an identifiable figure or group of figures (human, animal, and/or imaginary) in a narrative scene that may or may not be related to the text. See this example in a 14th-century copy of Boethius' On the Consolation of Philosophy (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, MS Hunter 374) and this example from a 15th-century Italian antiphonal (Metropolitan Museum of Art). Click here to see an example in a 13th-century Dutch psalter and here to see an example in a 15th-century English bible (British Library). An historiated initial may contain more than one scene, as in this example from a 12th-century martyrology (British Library) and this large initial "I" in the 13th-century Marquette Bible (Getty Museum, MS Ludwig I 8). In this example from an edition of Petrus Comestor's Historia Scholastica printed in 1473, the scene inside the initial "S" is carried over into the adjacent border (Koninklijke Bibliotheek). To see other beautiful examples, try a keywords search on the term in Goggle Images. Compare with figure initial and inhabited initial. See also: historiated border.

historical atlas
A book of maps showing the progressive changes that have occurred over a given period of time in a geographic area or in the development of a spatial phenomenon or event (examples: Historical Atlas of New York City and Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts, 1789-1983). Historical atlases typically contain more text than a standard atlas, with maps often placed adjacent to the passages they are intended to elucidate. A historical atlas may also include a chronology or timeline and biographical notes on persons whose names appear in the text. Click here to see online examples (courtesy of Euratlas) or try the Historical Atlas of Canada Online Learning Project.

historical bibliography
The branch of bibliography devoted to the study of the history and methods of book production, including hand-copying, illustration, publishing, printing, papermaking, binding, and preservation. Historical bibliography has merged with the field of book history.

historical drama
A fictional work or production for theatre, film, television, or radio in which specific historical events are dramatized primarily for their literary or entertainment value (examples: the play Becket [1959] by Jean Anouilh and the motion picture Anne of a Thousand Days [1969] directed by Charles Jarrott). Accuracy of historical detail varies considerably. Synonymous with costume drama. Compare with historical reenactment.

historical fiction
A narrative in the form of a novel set in a specific place and period in history, or based on an event or sequence of events that actually happened. The characters may be completely fictional, but if they are known to have existed, their feelings, words, and actions are reconstructed and to some degree imagined by the author. The presence of dialogue in a historical work is usually a clue that the account is fictionalized. Sir Walter Scott established the genre in 1814 with the publication of Waverly, a novel of life in the Scottish borderlands, followed by several more historical romances, including Guy Mannering (1815) and Ivanhoe (1819). For more information, connect to the Historical Novel Society. Compare with nonfiction. See also: alternative history and Scott O'Dell Award.

historical map
A map representing features, phenomena, or conditions that existed, or are assumed or inferred to have existed, during some period of time in the past, for example, a map showing the distribution of native American cultures prior to the arrival of Europeans in North America. Examples can be seen in the Perry-Castañeda Library collection of Historical Maps of the United States, or try the Yahoo! list of historical map sites. Click here to see an animated historical map of changes in the boundaries of the contiguous United States from 1650 to the present. Compare with old map. See also: rare map.

historical reenactment
An image, motion picture, or occasion in which one or more actors, often amateurs, act out specific events that occurred in the past (battles, pageants, etc.), usually with as much authenticity as possible (see these examples). Some reenactments are regular events (example). Compare with historical drama.

historical society
A nonprofit organization devoted to preserving the historical record of a state or municipality (example: Oregon), place (Martha's Vineyard), institution (U.S. Supreme Court), art form (theatre), people (Huguenots), activity (seafaring), achievement (Titanic), event (Anglo Zulu War), or artifact (the organ). Well-established historical societies often support a public museum, maintain an archive or library for the use of members, and may publish books and other materials related to their sphere of interest. Click here to connect to a directory of the affiliates of the American Historical Association (AHA).

Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record (HABS/HAER)
A collection of prints and photographs owned by the Library of Congress, documenting achievements in architecture, engineering, and design in the United States and its territories, including a comprehensive range of building types and engineering technologies. Since 2000, documents from the Historic American Landscapes Survey (HALS) have been added to the collection. Click here to browse the HABS/HAER collection.

history note
A brief note in an entry in a thesaurus of indexing terms giving the date the descriptor was added to the list of preferred terms and indicating any changes that have occurred in its meaning, scope, relationships to other terms, etc.

History Section (HS)
The section of the Reference and User Services Association (RUSA) within the American Library Association (ALA) representing the subject interests of reference librarians, archivists, bibliographers, genealogists, historians, and others engaged in historical reference or research. The first section established within RUSA (and the only group in the ALA devoted specifically to the discipline of history), HS brings together representatives of history collections in all formats in all types of libraries, archives, and historical societies. Through its programs, projects, and committees, HS seeks to improve the materials and methods of historical research and reference services. Click here to connect to the History Section homepage.

hit
In information retrieval, a record retrieved from a database that matches the information need expressed in the query. The term is sometimes used loosely to refer to a record that satisfies the syntactic requirements of the query without necessarily meeting its semantic requirements (a false drop), but this is an imprecise use of the term. Hit rate is the percentage of all the records retrieved in a search that are relevant to the query. See also: precision and recall.

Also, a popular song, recording, motion picture, play, musical, or book that achieves widespread popularity and sales, often for an extended period of time. See also: turntable hit.

hits
In information retrieval, the number of records retrieved from a database that are relevant to the query. In some databases, the number of hits is indicated before records are displayed, to enable the user to modify the search statement before viewing search results. When zero hits are retrieved, the reason may be the misspelling of one or more search terms, a query that contains syntactical or semantic errors, or indexing of sources under a synonym or related term. Compare with false drop. See also: precision and recall.

On the Internet, the number of times a given site is visited during a designated period of time, which can be recorded by an automatic counter supported by the software running the site.

hold
When a book or other item is currently on loan, most libraries permit another borrower to place a "hold" on it by contacting the circulation desk. The patron who has the item checked out will not be permitted to renew it, and the person placing the "hold" will be entitled to check it out after it has been returned. Some online catalogs include a feature that allows the user to place an item on hold without staff assistance.

holding area
In archives, a location specifically designated for the temporary storage of semicurrent records and materials, usually less accessible than the space allocated for current records.

holdings
The total stock of materials, print and nonprint, owned by a library or library system, usually listed in its catalog. Synonymous in this sense with library collection.

In a narrower sense, all the copies, volumes, issues, or parts of an item owned by a library, especially a serial publication, indicated in a holdings statement in the record representing the item in the catalog. Holdings can be recorded in the MARC 21 Format for Holdings Information. See also: closed entry and open entry.

holdings display
In a union catalog, a list of all the libraries and other participating institutions that own a specific item, for example, in the OCLC WorldCat database, the list of OCLC symbols attached to the bibliographic record for an item, representing institutions that own at least one copy, used in interlibrary loan to generate lender strings.

holdings rate
The percentage of items requested by the users of a library that are in its collections. In most libraries, items not held locally may be borrowed on interlibrary loan (ILL) or obtained via document delivery service (DDS).

holdings record
In cataloging, a separate record attached to the bibliographic record for a serial title or multivolume item to track issues, parts, volumes, etc., as they are acquired by the library. A format for holdings is defined in MARC 21. In most libraries, the holdings record is separate from the check-in record used for current receipts of serials. As successive issues or parts are received and volumes are completed, the record of receipt is moved from the check-in record to the holdings record. Compare with item record.

holdings statement
A note added to the catalog record for an item in a library collection indicating, in an open or closed entry, all the copies, volumes, issues, or parts held by the library or library system, usually with information concerning the location of the item. For serials, separate notes may be provided for print and microform holdings. ANSI/NISO standard Z39.71-1999 Holdings Statements for Bibliographic Items specifies rules for the construction and display of holdings statements for all non-unitary publications. Compare with numeric and/or alphabetic, chronological, or other designation. See also: completeness.

hold-to-light work
A graphic work, usually printed on a card or sheet of paper, with portions cut out and backed with tissue paper or some other transparent material which, when held to a strong light source, appears brightly illuminated, sometimes revealing a hidden picture (see these examples, courtesy of the Chicago Postcard Museum).

hollow
The open space between the cover and the back of a book in which the sections are not glued directly to the cover. A hollow back allows a book to open flat and stay open without damaging the spine. See also: tight back.

hollow back
A type of binding in which the cover is not adhered to the back of a book, leaving an open space that allows the binding to flex easily when the volume is opened, without cracking the spine (see this example). A paper tube may be added between the back of the sections and the covering material, running the length of the spine, to allow the cover to move easily away from the spine upon opening. Most hardcover trade editions are bound with a hollow back. Click here to compare with tight back binding. Synonymous with loose-back and open back. See also: Oxford hollow.

hologram
From the Greek holos ("whole") and gramma ("message"). A photograph in which the subject is presented as a three-dimensional image that changes as the angle of viewing shifts. Produced with laser technology developed in the 1960s, holography does not require special equipment for viewing. To see examples, try a keyword search on the term in Google Images. Synonymous with laser photograph.

holograph
A document written entirely in the handwriting of the person (or persons) to whom it is attributed. A holographic reprint is a reproduction of such a document, made by mechanical means. Click here to see a holograph notebook from the papers of the poet Walt Whitman and here to see a holograph of the poem "The Gift Outright" by Robert Frost, courtesy of the Library of Congress.

Also refers to a three-dimensional image of an object recorded on photosensitive film by the pattern of interference made by a split laser beam in a process called holography. Click here to learn more about holography.

holograph manuscript
The text of an original work written entirely in the hand of the author. Click here to view holograph manuscripts of Sigmund Freud in the collections of the Library of Congress.

homebound
A person unable to leave home to come to the library, usually for reasons of disability or ill health. To reach homebound patrons, public libraries have developed extension services such as books-by-mail, bookmobiles, and direct delivery. Synonymous with shut-in.

homeless patron
A library user who lives in a homeless shelter or on the street, with no permanent address. Homeless patrons may cause problems for libraries by bringing personal possessions into the library, occupying seating for long periods of time, and offending other users with strong body odor. Some libraries restrict the borrowing privileges of patrons who lack a permanent address. According to American Libraries (August 2006), the Massachusetts Legal Assistance Corporation and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) have filed a class action lawsuit in U.S. District Court, charging that the Worcester Public Library is unfairly restricting the borrowing privileges of residents who live in homeless shelters by its policy of limiting loans to two items at a time for patrons with no permanent address.

home library
A room or alcove in a private residence, equipped with shelves housing a collection of books, periodicals, and other materials for reading, viewing, and reference, often with a desk for study and a comfortable chair or sofa with reading lamp (see this example).

homepage
The first or main page of a site on the World Wide Web, displayed whenever a user logs on to a Web browser and opens the site address (URL). The filename at the end of a homepage address is often home.html, index.html, main.html, or something similar. A well-designed homepage gives the title of the site, name of author, host, date of last update, notice of copyright, table of contents, and links to subpages providing more detailed information about the site, usually the best starting point when navigating the site for the first time. Also spelled home page.

homework help
Services provided by a public library or library system that are specifically designed to assist public, private, and home-schooled students, usually in grades 4-12, with their take-home assignments. Click here to see an example of an online homework center provided by the King County Library System in Washington State. Some libraries have opted to use Tutor.com as a live homework help (LHH) service. See also: homework help center (HHC).

homework help center (HHC)
Space set aside for study in a public library, usually with established hours and assigned staff trained to provide clearly defined services to students in need of assistance with their homework assignments (see this example at the Grinnell Library). Volunteer tutors are used in some HHCs. See also: homework help.

homilary
A book containing a collection of homilies (sermons or discourses on religious themes or biblical passages) to be read on Sundays and feast days, arranged according to the ecclesiastical year. Click here to view two pages from an Italian homilary of the late 14th or early 15th century (Dartmouth College Library, MS Codex 001961). Synonymous with sermologus.

homily
A sermon explaining or discussing a point in the Christian Bible, usually accompanied by instructions for the congregation hearing it. In a more general sense, any tendentious, moralizing speech or lecture. Click here to see a 12th-century copy of the homilies of Origen on Genesis and Exodus (Schøyen Collection, MS 021). See also: homilary.

homograph
A word spelled the same as one or more other words but different in meaning and sometimes in origin, for example, current (ocean) and current (up-to-date) but not currant (the fruit). Every effort is made to avoid homographs in indexing, but when necessary, a parenthetical qualifier is added to the heading, as in the Library of Congress subject heading Mice (Computers). Compare with homonym and homophone.

homonym
A word pronounced the same as one or more other words but different in meaning and origin (and usually in spelling), for example, plate (illustration) and plait (braid or pleat). The word "plate" is also a homograph: plate (dish for eating). Synonymous with homophone. Compare with synonym.

homophone
A word pronounced the same as one or more others but which has a different spelling, meaning, and derivation (toad, toed, and towed). Synonymous with homonym.

honorarium
A voluntary payment made for a professional service, such as a speech, customarily provided without charge. Plural: honoraria.

honorific title
A formal title conferred on a person by a recognized authority as a mark of honor, rank, nobility, or royalty (example: Cardinal Richelieu). In AACR2, an honorific title is included in a personal name heading only when commonly used in referring to the person. In such cases, the title follows the personal name and precedes the birth and death dates (Newton, Isaac, Sir, 1642-1727).

horn book
A type of child's primer used in England and America from the 15th to the 18th century, consisting of a sheet of parchment or paper bearing the letters of the alphabet, usually the first 10 numerals, basic spelling rules, the Lord's Prayer, and sometimes a hand-colored illustration, protected by a thin, transparent sheet of cattle horn, mounted on an oblong bat of wood or leather with a projecting handle by which it could be fastened to a child's girdle (see this example). Its paddle shape suggests that it may have been used in playing the game shuttlecock. The term is used in the title of Horn Book Magazine, a review publication devoted to children's literature. Click here to see a leather-covered horn book (University of Kansas Libraries) and here to see an example made of ivory (Library of Congress). Also spelled hornbook. See also: abecedary and battledore.

Horn Book Magazine, The
Published since 1924, Horn Book Magazine provides articles, author interviews, editorials, columns, and lengthy reviews of children's books in each bimonthly issue. The title is derived from the name of an educational toy, called a horn book, used by young children from about the 15th to the 18th century. ISSN: 0018-5078. Click here to connect to the online version of The Horn Book.

horror
A subgenre of gothic fiction in which supernatural events, occult forces, macabre effects, and obsessive introspection are combined with chilling suspense to produce visceral sensations of fear and revulsion in the reader. Ghosts, hallucinations, monsters, mummies, nightmares, witches, werewolves, vampires, demons, and black magic are common themes. Rooted in the gothic novel of the 18th and 19th centuries, early literary examples include Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein (1818), Edgar Allan Poe's short story "The Fall of the House of Usher" (1839), and Dracula (1897) by Bram Stoker. In motion pictures, the earliest examples are The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1919) directed by Robert Wiene and Nosferatu (1922) by F.W. Murnau, classics of German expressionism. More recent examples include Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho (1960) and Rod Serling's television series The Twilight Zone. The contemporary master of horror fiction is Stephen King. Extreme graphic horror has been dubbed splatterpunk. Synonymous with weird fantasy. Compare with thriller. See also: Horror Writers Association and slasher.

horror vacui
A style of medieval manuscript decoration in which the artist fills all the available space on the page with illuminations, decorated initial letters, line fillers, elaborate borders, and bas-de-page scenes, often creating a dense carpet of ornamentation that may appear overcrowded or visually distracting (see this 15th-century example, courtesy of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek).

Horror Writers Association (HWA)
Established in 1984 as the Horror/Occult Writers League (HOWL), HWA changed its name at its first formal meeting in 1985. Its first president, author Dean Koontz, suggested that the organization publish an annual anthology of horror stories. Under his leadership, an annual literary award for "superior achievement" was also established. See also: Bram Stoker Awards. Click here connect to the HWA homepage.

hors commerce
A French term used in the book trade to indicate a portion of an edition that is not offered for sale in the market place, as distinct from the copies that are offered for sale.

hors texte
A French phrase meaning "outside the text," referring to illustrations not printed with the text, such as plates. They are usually numbered in roman numerals to distinguish them from illustrations printed with the text, which are numbered in arabic numerals or referenced by page number. The phrase hors texte, versos blank is used in the book trade to refer to plates without printing on the reverse side, sometimes tipped in to paper of different stock than that used for the text.

hospitality
In classification, the property that allows new classes to be added to a system of notation as needed, without requiring the alteration of previously established schedules. In an inhospitable classification system, additions generally require changes in existing schedules.

hospital library
A medical library maintained within the walls of a hospital, containing a collection of print and online resources on medicine and allied health to serve the information and research needs of doctors, nurses, patients, and staff, usually managed by a medical librarian. Hospital librarians are organized in the Hospital Libraries Section of the Medical Library Association.

host
A computer that serves as a source of data for other terminals or computers, for example, a central computer providing files to terminals connected directly to it, or a network server accessed by client machines. Also refers to the organization or institution that provides the server on which a Web site is installed, usually indicated in its Internet address.

hostile work environment
Conditions in the workplace found to be detrimental to the safety and well-being of employees, due to discrimination on the basis of age, gender, race, or national origin. In 2003, a group of 12 library staff members (including 6 librarians) won $435,000 in damages from the Minneapolis Public Library over failure to control persistent public use of the library's computers by patrons for the purpose of accessing sexually explicit images (pornography). Unable to convince their library administration of the seriousness of the problem, the employees complained of sexual harassment and intimidation to the local office of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 1997, and the EEOC found probable cause that the women faced a hostile work environment. When the U.S. Department of Justice failed to take action, the staffers filed suit in federal court and won their case.

host organization
The organization in which a special library functions as an administrative unit, for example, a museum that maintains a library on its premises for the use of curators, researchers, and members or a corporation that maintains a library for the use of employees in their work.

hotline
A direct telephone line that provides quick access, used to disseminate information, provide assistance, handle complaints, or between heads of government in emergencies.

hot-melt
A tough, flexible chemical adhesive used in commercial bookbinding. Solid at room temperatures, hot-melt adhesive liquifies under high heat. In perfect binding, it is applied to the binding edge of a book in a single shot at temperatures of 135 to 175 degrees Centigrade. Unlike the adhesives used in sewn bindings, which take time to dry, hot-melt adhesive sets up in seconds as it cools, significantly reducing production costs. Unfortunately, it has a clamping effect that reduces openability and is not resistant to cold-crack, which makes it unsuitable for bindings marketed in countries where winter temperatures are very cold. Also spelled hotmelt. See also: Otabind.

hot spot
An icon of any size, or a portion of a larger image displayed on a computer screen, that functions as a live link to another file or document available on the same or a different server. When it is clicked with a pointing device such as a mouse, a coded instruction is executed to retrieve and display the linked material. Also refers to the precise pixels within a clickable icon or image that are sensitive to selection by the user.

Also, a site such as a home, office, or public facility from which it is possible to connect to an Internet service provider via an access point (router) in a wireless local area network (WLAN) by means of a computer, smartphone, or peripheral device equipped with a wireless network interface card. An interconnected area of hot spots is known as a hot zone.

housekeeping
Routine chores that must be performed methodically in a library to maintain manual or automated systems in good order, usually delegated to a trained assistant, for example, the task of checking in serial parts in a timely manner to make them available to users and to identify missing issues that need to to be claimed.

housekeeping records
In archives, the records of an organization that are related to its budgetary, fiscal, personnel, supply, maintenance, and other administrative operations, as distinct from the program records related to the agency's primary functions. Synonymous with facilitative records.

house organ
A periodical issued by a commercial or industrial organization for distribution internally to its employees and/or externally to its customers, not intended for wider publication (see this example). Synonymous with house journal. Compare with trade journal.

house style
The uniform standards of a publisher, printer, company, or organization with reference to writing style (grammar, syntax, usage, punctuation, etc.) and presentation (spelling, abbreviation, uppercase/lowercase, citation format, etc.) to be followed, in the absence of contrary instructions, in publications issued in its name, usually explained in a style sheet.

how-to publication
A book, pamphlet, or videocassette that provides practical information and advice about how to accomplish a task, acquire a skill, or achieve a desired result (example: How to Win Friends and Influence People by Dale Carnegie), a type of publication often written in the form of step-by-step instructions accompanied by diagrams and/or illustrations, for example, manuals on home improvement and auto repair. How-to titles are available in public libraries, shelved by call number in the nonfiction section. Compare with self-help publication.

HTML editor
Computer software designed to facilitate the creation of Web pages by relieving the designer of the necessity of typing the required HTML code from scratch (examples: Dreamweaver, FrontPage, and Netscape Composer).

hue
One of the twelve pure colors visible to the human eye. The three primary colors are red, blue, and yellow. The three secondary colors are violet, green, and orange. The six tertiary colors are combinations of the primary and secondary colors. Click here to see examples. Compare with shade and tint.

Hufnagel
A form of musical notation used mainly in German choir books of the late Middle Ages, named for its resemblance to the horseshoe-nail. David Hiley notes in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (Macmillan, 2001) that it was written in right-angle strokes without curves and used as late as the 18th century. Click here to see examples from two antiphonals (Schøyen Collection, MS 1573 & 1589) or here to page through examples in an early 16th-century German manuscript (Morgan Library, MS M.905). Compare with neume.

Hugo Awards
A series of literary awards sponsored annually by the World Science Fiction Society (WSFS) in recognition of the best science fiction writing in the preceding year. Named for Hugo Gernsback, who is considered by many fans to be the "father" of magazine science fiction, the Hugos are given in various categories, including best novel, best novella, best novelette, best short story, best dramatic presentation, best fanzine, etc. Click here to learn more about the Hugo Awards. See also: Nebula Awards.

humanistic script
In the late 14th and the 15th centuries, the renaissance of interest in classical art and literature in Italy had a profound effect on calligraphy, producing a script that abandoned many characteristics of gothic letterforms, returning instead to the simplicity and clarity of Carolingian minuscule of the 8th and 9th centuries, though in a more compressed form. Appearing concurrently with the invention of movable type, scrittura umanistica was quickly adapted by type founders, particularly the lowercase letters, which are very close to the forms used in modern printing. Warren Chappell notes in A Short History of the Printed Word (Knopf, 1970) that chancery script, from which italic developed, was a direct descendant of scrittura umanistica. Click here for an example of humanistic book hand in a 16th-century psalter (Leaves of Gold) or see this page from a 15th-century manuscript embellished with a full border in white-vine interlace (Schøyen Collection, MS 038). See also this page from the Hours of Dionora of Urbino (British Library, Yates Thompson 7).

human-readable
A document or code that can be read by a human being, with or without the aid of magnification, as opposed to one in a format that can be read only by a computer (see machine-readable), for example, a printout of a text document, as opposed to its digital equivalent stored on a floppy or hard disk. Not synonymous with eye-readable, a term that excludes microforms readable by the human eye only with magnification and documents in formats specifically designed to be "read" by the visually impaired, such as Braille.

human resources
A collective term for all the people employed by a company, agency, organization, or institution. Also, the administrative department responsible for matters pertaining to employment (hiring, evaluation, promotion, termination, etc.). Large independent libraries and library systems usually have their own human resources office. Libraries that function as a unit within a larger organization may rely on the parent organization for such services. Synonymous with personnel. See also: Human Resources Section and Office for Human Resources Development and Recruitment.

Human Resources Section (HRS)
The section of the Library Leadership and Management Association (LLAMA) within the American Library Association (ALA) responsible for addressing issues concerning human resources in all types of libraries. Current areas of interest include recruitment and promotion to positions at all levels of library service, certification of librarians, fair employment practices, equal employment opportunities, classification and pay plans, in-service training of professional and nonprofessional employees (including supervisors), principles of tenure and intellectual freedom, personnel administration, staff management, ethics, personnel measurement and guidance, and staff welfare programs, including benefits. Click here to connect to the HRS homepage.

humidity
The amount of water vapor held in air. Absolute humidity is the weight (mass) of water vapor in a given volume of air, usually expressed as grams of water per cubic meter of air. Relative humidity (RH) is the ratio of the amount of water vapor present in a given volume of air to the amount required to reach saturation (condensation into droplets) at the same temperature, expressed as a percentage. Relative humidity varies with temperature and air pressure--warm air can hold more water vapor than cooler air. It is the most important factor in providing a suitable environment for books and other items made of paper, with 40 to 45 percent RH considered ideal for permanent storage of library and archival materials. Mold can become a serious problem when RH exceeds 70 percent.

To humidify is to put moisture into the atmosphere, usually done with a device called a humidifier to prevent paper documents from becoming brittle. Dehumidification takes moisture out of the atmosphere. It is done with desiccants or a dehumidifier to prevent mildew, warping, etc. Measured by an instrument called a hygrometer, humidity is carefully controlled in areas where archival and special collections are stored and used.

humor
A literary genre in which the author presents a story, poem, joke, etc., for the amusement of the reader. Works of literary wit are often published in anthologies (example: Honey, Hush!: An Anthology of African American Women's Humor [1998] by Daryl Cumber Dance). See also: library humor.

humorous fiction
Works of imaginative fiction in which the author treats the subject in a light, amusing, often satirical manner. Examples include the novels of P.G. Wodehouse and the short stories of James Thurber. Synonymous with comic novel.

Huntington Library
Located in San Marino, California, the Huntington Library is one of the world's leading libraries of Americana and English literature, surpassed only by the British Library and the Bodleian. Its collections include over 5 million manuscripts, rare books, reference works, and other materials on Anglo-American history, literature and the arts, the history of science, and maritime history. The library includes a conservation center, exhibition hall, art collection, and botanical gardens. Click here to connect to the homepage of the Huntington Library.

hurt book
In the book trade, a copy of a new book that has been damaged or soiled, usually sold at a greatly reduced price.

H.W. Wilson
A commercial company that began publishing reference serials for libraries and researchers (especially periodical indexes) long before library finding tools were automated. Most of its publications are now available online and on CD-ROM. Some of its bibliographic databases include full-text. On May 31, 2011, H.W. Wilson Company merged with EBSCO Publishing. Click here to connect to the H.W. Wilson homepage.

hybrid collection
A library collection consisting of materials in more than one format, often print and electronic books or serials. Hybrid collections limited to a specific field or subject area may include media and multimedia, as well as items in print and other formats.

hybrid journal
A periodical that functions as both a magazine and a journal by including features typical of both. A prime example is Analytical Chemistry published by the American Chemical Society, which includes a magazine section in the front of each issue, followed by a longer section of research articles with its own table of contents and separate pagination.

hydrologic map
A map showing the drainage of surface waters (streams, rivers, etc.) and other features related to hydrology for a geographic area (lakes, reservoirs, glaciers, ground water, springs, wetlands, water quality, etc.).

hygrometer
Any one of several meteorological instruments designed to measure atmospheric humidity, giving an on-the-spot reading. Hygrometers are used to monitor conditions in facilities such as libraries and museums that house materials easily damaged by water vapor (rare books, manuscripts, specimens, film, etc.). A hygrometer that displays output data in the form of a graph is called a hygrograph. A thermohygrometer measures temperature and relative humidity. A thermohygrometer that displays output in the form of a graph is called a thermohygrograph. To see examples, try a keywords search on the term in Google Images.

hygroscopic
A material that readily absorbs and retains moisture from the air, often changing in form or consistency, for example, vellum used as a writing surface in manuscript books and in early bookbinding, which cockles with changes in relative humidity.

hymnal
A separate collection of the metrical hymns sung in the Divine Office (canonical hours) of the Catholic Church, arranged according to the liturgical calendar. Incorporated into Church liturgy in the 5th century, hymns were also contained in antiphonals and psalters. The contents of the hymnal were eventually incorporated into the breviary. Click here to see a vellum leaf from an early 14th-century French hymnal (Cary Collection, Rochester Institute) and here to see an opening in an 18th-century German example (Library of Congress). In Protestant churches, a book of hymns sung during worship services. Latin: hymnarium. Synonymous with hymnary and hymnbook.

hype
An abbreviation of hyperbole. Publisher's slang for advertising copy written in an exaggerated style to attract attention to a new publication, not intended to be taken literally by prospective customers. Objective reviews are the best antidote. Compare with puff.

hypermodern
A term used in the book trade for collected first editions published within the last decade, or so recently that the author or title does not have a well-established reputation.

hypertext
A method of presenting digital information that allows related files and elements of data to be interlinked, rather than viewed in linear sequence. Text links and icons embedded in a document written in HTML script allow information to be browsed in nonlinear, associative fashion similar to the way the human mind functions, by selecting with a pointing device or using a computer keyboard. Hypertext is the basic organizing principle of the World Wide Web. This dictionary, with its web of interconnected hyperlinks, is an example of such a document. See also: hypermedia and Web browser.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
Used to create the hypertext documents accessible via the World Wide Web and intranets, HTML script is a cross-platform presentation markup language that allows the author to incorporate into a Web page text, frames, graphics, audio, video, and links to other documents and applications. Formatting is controlled by "tags" embedded in the text. To see the HTML code in which a Web page is written, click on "View" or its equivalent in the toolbar of the Web browser, then select "Document source" or "Page source." See also: HTML editor and Standard Generalized Markup Language. Click here to learn more about HTML, courtesy of W3C.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
The communications protocol used in Web browser software to establish the connection between a client computer and a remote Web server, making it possible for data files in HTML format to be transmitted over the Internet from the server to the client machine on which the browser is installed. Most Web browsers are designed to default to http:// whenever a user enters a Web address (URL) without the protocol.

hyphen
In printing, the shortest rule used as punctuation. Also used to join the parts of a compound name (Jean-Pierre) or compound word (dog-eared) and to divide a long word at the end of a line of written or printed text. Compare with dash. See also: hard hyphen.

hyphenation
Use of the hyphen to divide a word (co-opt), to compound two or more words (son-in-law), to give the impression of stuttering or faltering speech (n-n-no), or to indicate that a word is to be spelled out (h-y-p-h-e-n-a-t-e). In computerized typesetting, word division is done automatically by a system that applies a set of rules, with an exception dictionary of words that do not follow the rules.

hyponym
A word or phrase that can be replaced without exception by another, without changing the meaning of a sentence, but not vice versa, for example, azure by blue or sparrow by bird. See also: narrower term.

hypsometric tint
From the Greek hypso ("height") and metron ("measurement"). In cartography, the representation of relief by the systematic application of a sequence of colors, with or without shading, each representing a class of elevation above or depth below a datum. On some maps and models, the colors are applied to areas between adjacent contours (see this example); on others, the contours are omitted (see this example on a map of the Isle of Man). The tints are not standardized, but shades of blue are typically used for bathymetric layers, shades of green for lower elevations, shades of yellow or tan for medium elevations, and reds and/or browns for higher elevations (click here to see an example with shading). The sequence of colors used is sometimes displayed in the legend in a scale of depth and elevation (see this example). A map tinted in this manner is a hypsometric map and the colored layers are called hypsometric layers. Synonymous with gradient tint and layer tint.


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