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ODLIS

Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science

by Joan M. Reitz
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EAN-13 barcode
A thirteen-digit barcode standard, similar to the Universal Product Code (UPC) system developed in the United States since 1976. EAN stands for European Article Number, renamed International Article Number without changing the abbreviation. EAN-13 is used worldwide to identify products sold retail. For books and some media items, the EAN-13 barcode is the same as the original ten-digit International Standard Book Number (ISBN) plus the three-digit prefix 978-. In publishing, the recommended location for printing the EAN-13 barcode is in the lower right-hand corner of the back cover (see this example).

ear
A small decorative design printed on either side of the title in the flag at the head of the front page of a newspaper. Also refers to a small projection found on the upper-right-hand edge of the lowercase "g" in some typefaces.

earliest entry
A method of cataloging serials that have undergone title changes, in which the bibliographic description is based on the earliest issue and all subsequent titles are recorded as notes in the single bibliographic record. This convention was followed in the United States in the early part of the 20th century but eventually replaced, first by latest entry cataloging in the ALA Rules and then by successive entry cataloging in AACR.

early adopter
A person, organization, or institution that begins using a new technology at or near the time of its introduction in the market place, rather than waiting to see if it will be successful.

early book
Books produced during the earliest periods in which human activities were recorded--on clay tablets in Mesopotamia, on papyrus scrolls in ancient Egypt, on tree bark or palm leaves in Asia, etc.--usually to record sacred prayers and rituals, traditional sagas and epics, lists of dynastic succession, laws and legal decisions, property ownership and taxation, magical incantations, astronomical observations and astrological predictions, important medical knowledge, etc. Because of the amount of labor required, early books were usually produced in single copies.

early journal
A journal that began publication during the 17th, 18th, or 19th century (example: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London issued for the first time in 1665). In a library, copies of early periodicals may be stored in special collections, or accessible in digital format or on microform, to protect the originals from damage. The Bodleian Library at the University of Oxford provides online access to the Internet Library of Early Journals (ILEJ).

easel
A metal, wood, or plastic rack or stand on a tripod base designed to allow an open book or periodical to be displayed face-out as part of an exhibit or presentation. Large models are used to display flip charts in presentations.

easel binding
A type of comb or spiral binding designed with rigid extended covers that can be folded back to form the base of a triangle, allowing the book or notebook to stand upright when opened, with the spine across the top. The text is printed parallel with the spine, and the pages are turned up and over, instead of from side to side. To see examples, try a keywords search on the term in Google Images.

easy book
A heavily illustrated book with limited text written to appeal to the interests and reading ability of children from preschool to third grade, usually shelved in a separate section of a school library or children's room in a public library. Synonymous with easy reader.

e-book reader
A lightweight, portable battery-operated electronic device, similar in form to a tablet computer, designed primarily for reading books and periodicals downloaded in digital format (example: Kindle from Amazon.com). Although tablet computer screens are generally faster, e-book readers have superior text readability, achieved by the use of electronic paper display technology. Some e-book readers come with an internal dictionary, built-in Wi-Fi, text-to-speech capability, and a Web browser. Price depends on storage capacity and special features. Library compatible e-book readers, which can be used to borrow e-books from public libraries, typically support EPUB and/or PDF formats with digital rights management (DRM) protection. Abbreviated e-reader. Also spelled ebook reader.

EBSCO
A commercial company that provides subscription management services, electronic journal access, online bibliographic and full-text databases, and an online book ordering service to libraries and related institutions. EBSCO is currently one of the three leading aggregators of journals available in electronic full-text. Click here to connect to the EBSCO homepage. See also: ProQuest.

eclogue
A short pastoral poem, or part of a longer one, traditionally in the form of a dialogue between a pair of shepherds, for example, Spenser's The Shepheard's Calendar (1579). The term lost its pastoral connotation in the 18th century and now refers to a poem in which a serious theme is developed through a monologue or dialogue, as in Rosalind and Helen (1819) by Percy Bysshe Shelley.

economies of scale
The decrease in cost of production that occurs as the extent of an operation is enlarged, for example, reduction in the cost of preparing new items for circulation, achieved by processing them in large batches rather than a few at a time, an argument used to justify centralized ordering and processing in library systems. If marginal cost (cost of producing an additional unit) is less than average cost, an economic incentive exists to produce additional output. Diseconomies of scale occur when average cost increases as output increases. In large libraries, efficiency can be enhanced by taking advantage of economies of scale. Synonymous with scale economies.

economy binding
Any one of a variety of methods for binding library materials that are less expensive than standard binding, generally used for volumes expected to receive limited circulation. The material is bound as received, with no mending or collation, and the width of inner margins may not be checked by the binder. The preferred method of leaf attachment in economy binding is double-fan adhesive or side sewing, rather than sewing through the fold, and the volume is given little or no rounding and backing, producing a flat back. A lower grade of covering material is used and the color may be selected by the binder, or from a limited number of choices.

écrasé leather
Leather used in bookbinding that has been mechanically crushed or flattened to give its surface a particular grain and then highly polished (see this example).

Edgar Allan Poe Awards
A series of literary awards given annually by Mystery Writers of America (MWA) in the mystery fiction genre. Separate awards are given for best novel, best first novel by an American author, best paperback original, best critical/biographical work, best fact crime story, best short story, best work for young adults, best work for juveniles, best television episode teleplay, and best motion picture screenplay. Click here to learn more about the Edgar Awards.

edge
The outermost limit of the cover or sections of a book, or of one of its leaves, or of an unbound sheet. The fore-edge is opposite the binding edge of the text block (the spine of a bound volume). The other two edges are the head and tail. See also: black edges, deckle edges, edge decoration, edge-worn, gauffered edges, and gilt edges.

edge code
One or more symbols printed by the manufacturer along the edge of motion picture film stock to indicate production data, such as date and location of manufacture. Kodak used a series of 1-3 standardized symbols to indicate year of manufacture for both 16mm and 35mm film, repeating the codes every 20 years until the system was revised in 1982. Film copies may be marked with two or more edge codes, one for the original stock and one for each of the generations printed from it (the film is likely to have been shot sometime between the first two codes). Kodak edge codes for 8mm and 16mm film are provided online by Filmforever.org

edge decoration
Ornamentation applied to one or more of the trimmed edges of the sections of a book, a general term term that includes gilding, gauffering, edge painting, marbling, sprinkling, staining, daubing, etc. Click here to see an elaborate 16th-century example (Saxon State Library) and here to see a 17th-century example with gilt edges to which color has been added (Royal Library of Denmark). Examples of the various types of edge decoration are provided by the Princeton University Library.

edge painting
A picture drawn or painted on the edges of the sections of a book with its leaves closed, a common form of decoration in the Middle Ages. On some books, painting was done on all three edges but on most only on the fore-edge. Click here to see an example from the Ransom Collection at the University of Texas at Austin. In England during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the technique was refined to make the picture visible only when the leaves were slightly fanned. In double fore-edge painting, two different images are displayed by fanning the leaves first in one direction, then in the other. Edge painting may also be concealed beneath gilt or combined with gauffering for an especially elegant effect (see this example, courtesy of the Princeton University Library).

edge title
A title written in ink on one or more edges of the sections of a book, not by the binder but by the owner. This method of marking the outside of a volume was used until the 16th century when books began to be shelved upright with the spine out, instead of flat with one of the edges facing out.

edge-worn
A condition in which the covering material along one or more edges of a bound volume appears roughened or has been completely worn away by abrasion, exposing the edges of the boards, more common on the tail edge than the fore-edge, and rare on the top edge. Click here to see an example of an edge-worn binding.

edible book
An object made of ingredients that can be consumed and digested as food, which has the appearance of a book or makes reference to a book title, format, or structure, for example, a "rare book" made of thin slices of roast beef bound together by a scallion. Click here to see examples from an edible book festival sponsored by Yale University. To see other examples, try a keywords search on the term in Google Images. The concept adds a new dimension to the phrase "eat your words."

edited
A single work, or two or more shorter works by the same or different authors, prepared for publication by a person other than the author, whose name usually appears as editor on the title page. In the bibliographic description, the editor's name is given in the title and statement of responsibility area (field 245 of the MARC record) following the phrase "edited by." For works with more than one editor, the names are listed in order of appearance on the chief source of information, followed by the word "editors."

editing
In publishing, the process of revising, correcting, and preparing for publication material submitted by an author in manuscript or typescript form, usually performed by one or more editors. Also refers to the work of gathering together and preparing for publication in a single volume or uniform set of volumes the previously published works of one or more authors, usually done by someone else. For information about the process of documentary editing, see The Papers of George Washington project at the University of Virginia. See also: documentary editing.

In data processing, the revision of a document, such as a machine-readable bibliographic record, usually by selecting from an edit menu an option to cut, copy, paste, or delete portions of text or by reformatting the text in some manner.

Film editing is the process of selecting from the total footage shot those portions that are to be included in a motion picture, then splicing them together in a sequence of scenes that tells a story (feature film) or conveys factual information about the subject (documentary). A similar process occurs in the production of audio- and videorecordings. See also: final cut and outtake.

edition
All copies of a book, pamphlet, fascicle, single sheet, etc., printed from the same typographic image and issued by the same entity in the same format at one time or at intervals without alteration. An edition may consist of several impressions in which the text and other matter are not substantially changed. In older publications, the terms impression and edition are virtually synonymous since type was broken up for reuse after the first printing. For some books, especially reference books and textbooks, the content of the original edition may be revised and the text republished under the same or an altered title. Unless the publisher states that a work is a revised edition or expanded edition, the first revision is known as the second edition. Subsequent revisions are numbered in the order in which they are published. The latest edition is the most current, but older editions may contain useful information deleted from later ones.

In the case of electronic resources, all copies of a work embodying essentially the same content, issued by the same entity, for example, a version of a Web page updated on a specific date. For unpublished items, all copies made from essentially the same master production, for example, the original and one or more carbon copies of a typescript (AACR2). For other materials, including nonprint items, all copies produced from essentially the same master copy and issued by the same entity, whether distributed by that entity or not. In a more general sense, the format (particularly the size and shape) in which a work is published.

Also applies to one of the formats in which a literary work or collection of works is published, usually for a specific purpose or market, for example, a book club edition, colonial edition, deluxe edition, export edition, library edition, limited edition, paperback edition, shorthand edition, special edition, or trade edition. It is not uncommon for a new book to be published in multiple editions, for example, Seabiscuit: An American Legend (2001) by Laura Hillenbrand, published in hardcover, trade paperback, special illustrated collector's edition, hardcover large print, audiocassette, audio CD, e-book, and audio download. In library cataloging, the edition is indicated by ordinal number and/or description in the edition area of the bibliographic description. Abbreviated ed. See also: bibliophile edition, co-edition, facsimile, reprint, and signed edition.

In newspaper publishing, one of two or more printings issued on the same day, for example, the "Early Edition" or the "Late Edition." In radio and television, a program broadcast at a particular time of day ("Morning Edition").

edition area
In library cataloging, the area of bibliographic description in which information pertaining to the edition is entered, usually by ordinal number (15th ed.) and/or description (Rev. ed.), including the edition statement and statements of responsibility relating to the edition. In the MARC record, these data elements are given in field 250.

edition statement
In library cataloging, the portion of the edition area of the bibliographic description in which the edition of the work is indicated by ordinal number (7th ed.) and/or description (Rev. ed.) as found on the item, using standard abbreviations found in Appendix B of AACR2. If an item lacks an edition statement but is known to include important changes from previous editions, a brief statement in the language and script of the title proper is provided by the cataloger in square brackets. In the MARC record, the edition statement is given in subfield a of field 250.

editio princeps
Latin for "original edition." Usually reserved for the first printed edition of a work previously available only in manuscript form. For other works, the term first edition is preferred in analytical bibliography and the antiquarian book trade.

editor
A person who prepares for publication the work(s) of one or more other authors. An editor may be responsible for selecting material included in a collection or for preparing manuscript copy for the printer, including annotation of the text, verification of the accuracy of facts and bibliographic citations, polishing grammar and style, organizing front and back matter, etc. Periodicals and large reference works often have a general editor or editor-in-chief who supervises the work of an editorial staff. Compare with compiler. See also: author's editor.

In large publishing houses, the editing process may be divided into separate functions, each performed by a different person:

Acquisition editor - scouts and evaluates new works for recommendation to the publisher
Manuscript editor - assists the author in developing and organizing the work
Copy editor - perfects details of grammar and style, checks the accuracy of facts, quotations, citations, etc.
Managing editor - coordinates resources required for publication and develops the publication schedule
Production editor - oversees the transition from editorial process to production (printing, binding, distribution)

Also refers to the individual in charge of the content of a newspaper, magazine, or journal, and in some cases its publication, whose name is given in the masthead. See also: editorial, editorial board, and letter to the editor.

editorial
A brief essay expressing clearly and unequivocally, and sometimes with artful persuasiveness, the opinion or position of the chief editor(s) of a newspaper or magazine with respect to a current political, social, cultural, or professional issue. Editorials appear on the editorial page of a newspaper, usually printed at the end of the news section. The editorial page may also include letters to the editor. Syndicated columns and political cartoons usually appear on the op-ed page (opposite the editorial page). In newsmagazines, editorials and columns usually precede the feature articles or appear on the last page(s). Compare with advertorial. See also: journal of commentary.

editorial board
A group of people responsible for controlling the editorial content and overseeing the publication of a newspaper or periodical whose names are usually given in the masthead. In magazine publishing, the editorial board establishes the overall editorial policy and tone to be followed by staff writers, selects columnists, and decides which letters to the editor will be published. In journal publishing, the board usually controls the evaluation and selection of articles submitted by independent scholars for publication.

editorial content
The portions of a newspaper or periodical containing content controlled by the editor(s) or editorial board (articles, columns, editorials, letters to the editor, illustrations, political cartoons, etc.), as opposed to the space devoted to advertisements, notices and announcements, etc.

editorial control
The assurance of quality provided in publishing by the process of manuscript selection and editing. In scholarly publishing, control of editorial content is usually maintained through peer review. Editorial control is largely absent on the Internet where self-publishing is the norm.

editorialize
To put forth an opinion or position on a subject, usually with intent to persuade the listener or reader to adopt or at least consider the point of view of the speaker or writer. Also, to inject personal opinions or comments into an otherwise objective discussion or account, a technique used in essays, editorials, columns, letters to the editor, and other forms of persuasive writing but considered inappropriate in scholarly publication and in works of fiction.

editor's cut
The first of several stages in the editing of a film, usually commenced while shooting is still underway, based on discussions between editor and director at the screening of "dailies" (raw footage shot each day), and generally longer than the final cut. See also: director's cut.

educational film
A nontheatrical motion picture of any length, intended for teaching and related informational purposes, especially one made to be viewed in the classroom (for examples, see Films Media Group). Compare with instructional film and training film.

educational publisher
A publishing company or subsidiary that specializes in books and other materials for use in schools, colleges, and universities (example: Heinemann). Educational publishers are organized in the Association of Educational Publishers (AEP). See also: textbook pricing.

educational videotape
A videotape designed and marketed to schools and libraries as a teaching tool, sometimes for use in conjunction with a specific curriculum unit. Educational videos tend to be priced higher than feature films and mass-market nonfiction videos.

Education and Behavioral Sciences Section (EBSS)
The section of the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) within the American Library Association (ALA) devoted to serving the interests of education and behavioral sciences librarians. Formed in 1968, EBSS currently has about 1,000 members concerned with issues related to bibliographic instruction, collection development, the applications of technology, library administration, and communication of research findings in education and behavioral sciences librarianship. Click here to connect to the EBSS homepage.

edutainment
A neologism for learning via a medium, such as television, video, computer software, or the Internet, which is intended to both educate and entertain the user. Examples include children's television programs, such as Sesame Street and Mr. Rogers. Also refers to media that are both educational and enjoyable.

effective date
The date on which a rule, policy, or agreement begins to be applied. In the case of contracts, it may be different from the date on which the agreement was signed.

e.g.
An abbreviation of the Latin phrase exempli gratia, meaning "for the sake of example."

eggshell
A smooth, slightly pitted finish given to uncoated paper or board that produces a soft, nonglossy surface resembling the shell of a bird's egg. Most antique papers have this type of finish.

election ticket
A slip of paper, usually long and narrow, on which are printed the names of all the candidates officially endorsed as representing a particular political party in a specific election, along with the titles of the offices sought (click here and here to see examples). As documentary evidence, election tickets are of considerable interest to historians. The term is also used collectively in reference to the candidates themselves.

electoral roll
A list of the names of people who are eligible to vote in an election, often with their street addresses. Synonymous with electoral register.

electronic book
A digital version of a traditional print book designed to be read on a personal computer or e-book reader. Although the first hypertext novel was published in 1987 (Afternoon, A Story by Michael Joyce), electronic books did not capture public attention until the online publication of Stephen King's novella Riding the Bullet in March 2000. Within 24 hours, the text had been downloaded by 400,000 computer users. Some libraries offer access to electronic books through the online catalog. A universally accepted format and simple delivery system are needed. Click here to browse the Yahoo! list of electronic book sites or try Digital Book Index. Synonymous with digital book, e-book, ebook, and online book. See also: self-destructing e-book.

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
The computer-to-computer exchange of business messages (purchase orders, schedules, invoices, claims, job specifications, etc.) in standard format transactions without human intervention. In the book industry, a Standard Address Number (SAN) is needed to send or receive EDI transactions. For companies that operate from multiple sites, each location is assigned its own SAN to increase efficiency and reduce the number of misdirected shipments.

electronic document delivery
The transfer of information traditionally recorded in a physical medium (print, videotape, sound recording, etc.) to the user electronically, usually via e-mail or the World Wide Web. Libraries employ digital technology to deliver the information contained in documents and files placed on reserve and requested via interlibrary loan.

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF)
A group of people (lawyers, technologists, volunteers, and visionaries) who share a passionate commitment to defending digital information, innovation, and technology from attempts by government and business to restrict freedom of expression. Current key issues include censorship, copyright law, digital rights management, DMCA, e-voting, file sharing, privacy, RFID, spam, and the USA Patriot Act. Click here to connect to the EFF homepage.

electronic journal
A digital version of a print journal, or a journal-like electronic publication with no print counterpart (example: EJournal), made available via the Web, e-mail, or other means of Internet access. Some Web-based electronic journals are graphically modeled on the print version. The rising cost of print journal subscriptions has led many academic libraries to explore electronic alternatives. Directories of electronic journals are available online (example: Ejournal SiteGuide: a MetaSource maintained by the University of British Columbia Library). Synonymous with e-journal. Compare with electronic magazine.

electronic magazine
A digital version of a print magazine, or a magazine-like electronic publication with no print counterpart (example: Slate), made available via the Web, e-mail, or other means of Internet access. Some Web-based electronic magazines are graphically modeled on the print version (example: The New Yorker). MagazineBoard is an example of an online e-magazine directory. Synonymous with e-zine and Webzine. Compare with electronic journal.

electronic newsletter
A newsletter published online, usually via the Internet, with or without a print counterpart, for example, ALSConnect, the newsletter of the Association for Library Service to Children, and Children's Bookshelf from Publishers Weekly.

electronic publication
A work in digital form capable of being read or otherwise perceived, distributed to the general public electronically. The category includes electronic journals and e-prints, electronic magazines and newspapers, electronic books, Web sites, Weblogs, etc. Some electronic publications are online versions of print publications; others are born digital. Synonymous with e-publication.

electronic publishing
The publication of books, periodicals (e-journals, e-zines, etc.), bibliographic databases, and other information resources in digital format, usually on CD-ROM or online via the Internet, for in-house users, subscribers, and/or retail customers, with or without a print counterpart (example: Journal of Electronic Publishing (JEP)). Synonymous in this sense with e-publishing. Also used synonymously with desktop publishing.

electronic records
Bibliographic or archival records stored on a medium, such as magnetic tape/disk or optical disk, that requires computer equipment for retrieval and processing. Compare with machine-readable records.

electronic reserves
Items placed on reserve that an academic library makes available online to be read on a computer screen, downloaded to diskette, or printed as needed. Permission may be required to use works not in the public domain. Software for electronic reserves systems is available from commercial vendors (example: ERes from Docutek Information Systems). The American Library Association provides a Web site on Fair Use and Electronic Reserves. Synonymous with e-reserves.

electronic resource
Material consisting of data and/or computer program(s) encoded for reading and manipulation by a computer, by the use of a peripheral device directly connected to the computer, such as a CD-ROM drive, or remotely via a network, such as the Internet (AACR2). The category includes software applications, electronic texts, bibliographic databases, institutional repositories, Web sites, e-books, collections of e-journals, etc. Electronic resources not publicly available free of charge usually require licensing and authentication. Abbreviated e-resource. See also: electronic resources management.

electronic resources management (ERM)
Systems developed to assist librarians in the control of licensed third-party resources published electronically (databases, e-books, e-journals, etc.), including license management, renewal, legal use, access management, and collection development. In 2001, a small group of academic librarians began to create metadata specifications for managing electronic subscriptions and their associated titles. The group was later asked by the Digital Library Federation (DLF) to deliver formal specifications for vendors, as a replacement for various homegrown systems. Innovative Interfaces Inc. was the first library automation vendor to market an ERM software module based on the DLF specifications, and other vendors have followed suit. Compare with digital asset management.

electronic rights
The right to publish and sell copyright-protected material in electronically accessible form, for example, on CD-ROM or online via the Internet. Electronic rights are negotiated with the publisher and should be clearly stated in the author's contract. Click here to read what the Authors Guild has to say about electronic rights. Abbreviated e-rights.

electronic selection
The use of Web-based tools to develop library collections, as opposed to reliance on printed selection slips or cards supplied by approval services and review sources. Electronic selection tools have the advantage of providing: (1) additional information to selectors, such as tables of contents, dust jacket descriptions, and full reviews; (2) e-mail alerts that can be keyed to a selector's profile; and (3) ease of processing. To learn more about the use of e-selection in an academic library, see the article "Stop Sending Those Cards" by Jordana Shane and Steven Bell in the October 2003 issue of C&RL News. Abbreviated e-selection.

electronic style
Accepted format for citing (in footnotes, endnotes, and bibliographies) information available in digital formats, such as computer software, abstracts and full-text articles retrieved from bibliographic databases, messages posted to newsgroups and mailing lists, and documents available on the World Wide Web. Click here to connect to the Yahoo! list of electronic style guides.

The most recent print editions of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association and the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers also include sections on citing electronic resources.

electronic surveillance
The gathering of information from a distance, usually unobtrusively, by means of electronic devices such as cameras, hidden microphones, tape recorders, and wire taps, used primarily in crime prevention and detection and in espionage.

electronic text
The words used by an author to express thoughts and feelings presented in digital, as opposed to printed or handwritten, form. To be displayed with formatting on a computer, text must first be encoded in a markup language. Electronic text can be "born digital" or converted from another format. The first initiative aimed at making texts in the public domain available electronically was Project Gutenberg. Abbreviated e-text.

electronic theses and dissertations (ETD)
Master's theses and Ph.D. dissertations submitted in digital form rather than in print on paper, as opposed to those submitted in hard copy and subsequently converted to machine-readable format, usually by scanning. Forty universities in the United States and over 100 institutions worldwide currently participate in the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD), an initiative to require that all theses and dissertations be submitted in electronic format.

elegy
In classical literature, a lyric poem composed in couplets of alternating hexameter and pentameter lines, a form known as elegiac meter. In English literature through the 17th century, a song or poem of melancholy or solemn contemplation. In contemporary usage, a formal poem lamenting the death of a person (example: In Memory of W.B. Yeats by W.H. Auden) or the phenomenon of mortality in general (Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard by Thomas Gray). Compare with eulogy.

element
In library cataloging, a discrete unit of data (word, phrase, or group of characters) constituting part of an area of description within the bibliographic record created to represent an item, for example, the publication date in the edition statement or the number of pages or plates in the physical description. Similarly, a unit of information within a field of a record in a bibliographic database, for example, the journal title or volume number in the source field of an entry representing a periodical article. Also, a discrete component of metadata.

elephant folio
In nonspecialty publishing, a large folio, usually about 23 x 14 inches (58 x 35 centimeters) in size. The term double elephant folio refers to the very large paper size (about 50 inches high) used in printing works such as Birds of America by John James Audubon (click here to see sample pages, courtesy of the State Library of Victoria, Australia). Compare with atlas folio.

elevation
In cartography, the vertical distance of a point or object on the surface of the earth, or another celestial body, from a datum or reference surface (usually mean sea level), not to be confused with altitude, which refers to points or objects above the surface. On relief maps, differences in elevation are indicated by contours, shading, hypsometric tint, hachures, etc. The National Elevation Dataset (NED) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey is designed to provide elevation data for the United States in a seamless form with a consistent datum, elevation unit, and projection. See also: digital elevation model and vertical exaggeration.

elhi book
A term used in the educational book trade in the United States to refer to a textbook published specifically for elementary and high school students, usually revised and updated regularly by publishers anxious to retain market share. In a more general sense, any book published for elementary and/or high school age readers. Also spelled el-hi. See also: El-Hi Textbooks & Serials in Print.

El-Hi Textbooks & Serials in Print
A reference serial published by Bowker since 1985, indexing elementary and high school textbooks currently in print, by author, title, and a classified list of subjects. Textbooks published in series are indexed separately. Elhi serials are indexed by subject and title. ISSN: 0000-0825. Former titles: Textbooks in Print (1956-1968) and El-Hi Textbooks in Print (1969-1984). See also: Children's Books in Print.

elision
From the Latin elisio, meaning "a striking out." The omission of a vowel or silent consonant at the beginning or in the middle of a word (example: you've for you have or ne'er for never), or the omission of a vowel, consonant, or syllable in the pronunciation of a word or phrase. In orthography, the omission is indicated by an apostrophe. Compare with contraction. See also: ellipsis.

ellipsis
The use of square brackets ([ ]) or three full points (...) or a series of asterisks (****) in handwritten or printed text to indicate the omission or suppression of a word or words (four points if the omission ends a sentence). Often used to reduce the length of a quotation without altering its meaning or significance. Compare with elision.

e-mail
An abbreviation of electronic mail, an Internet protocol that allows computer users to exchange messages and data files in real time with other users, locally and across networks. E-mail requires a messaging system to allow users to store and forward messages and a mail program with an interface for sending and receiving. Users can send messages to a single recipient at a specific e-mail address or multicast to a distribution list or mailing list without creating a paper copy until hard copy is desired. Faster and more reliable than the postal service, e-mail can also be more convenient than telephone communication, but it has raised issues of security and privacy. Commonly used e-mail programs: Lotus Notes, Eudora, Sendmail, Critical Path. Most Internet service providers offer an e-mail option to their subscribers. Click here to learn more about e-mail, courtesy of HowStuffWorks. Also spelled email. See also: attachment, body, encryption, footer, header, netiquette, and SMTP.

e-mail address
A string of characters used to route messages from one computer to another over a network governed by the Internet protocol for electronic mail (SMTP).

E-mail addresses follow a standard format containing no spaces:

United States: username@domainname.domaincode
Other countries: username@domainname.countrycode

Examples:
smithj@myuniversity.edu
duboisf@universite.fr

Click here to view the Yahoo! list of e-mail directories.

embargo
The period during which the articles published in a periodical are not available in online full-text from a journal aggregator, usually the most recent one to three years. Journal publishers have established such periods to prevent libraries from canceling print subscriptions. In most periodical databases, this restriction applies only to a small proportion of the titles indexed, but in JSTOR nearly all the journals are embargoed. Not to be confused with an exclusive agreement between a journal publisher and an aggregator.

embedded database
An informational database accessible from within another software application, such as Microsoft Office 2003, which includes a feature enabling users to highlight words or phrases in their document or select a "look up" option to open a research window and enter keyword(s) in a data entry box, then select the source or service they wish to search. Microsoft has contracted with third-party content providers to incorporate some sources (Encarta Encyclopedia, dictionaries, and a thesaurus) directly into its applications. Other providers, such as Factiva, LexisNexis, and Gale, provide some free information normally retrievable only by logging on to their proprietary sites, with additional information available for a fee. In most cases, users must pay for full-text with a credit card if they do not have access to an institutional subscription. The main advantage of embedded databases is convenience to the user.

emblem
A moral fable, allegory, or abstract quality expressed pictorially, sometimes with an accompanying motto or verse. Also, a figure of an object (or objects) representing symbolically a person, family, people, or nation, as on a heraldic device (coat of arms) or image of a saint or hero. Click here to view a hand-drawn emblem of virtue from the 17th-century album amicorum of Michael van Meer (University of Edinburgh Library, La.III.283), and here to view an emblem printed in the Book of Emblems by Andrea Alciato, published in Augsburg in 1531 (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, SM 18).

emblematic decoration
Pictorial motifs used in the manner of a badge in bookbinding and manuscripts to indicate the name or identity of the author, the owner of the volume, its country of origin or ownership, or its subject content (see this example, courtesy of the British Library's Database of Bookbindings). See also: armorial binding.

emblem book
A type of illustrated book, popular from the early 16th century to about 1700, containing a collection of symbolic engravings or woodcuts called emblems, each expressing a moral adage or principle, accompanied by an epigram, motto, proverb, or brief explanatory text in prose or verse. Included in this category are books with the text arranged in symbolic designs, for example, crosses. The form was revived by the poet William Blake in Gates of Paradise. Emblem books are studied as cultural artifacts providing information about popular culture, the use of allegory, the relationship of word to image, reading practices, and printing history. Click here to browse emblems from a 17th-century copy of Andrea Alciato's Emblematum liber (Book of Emblems) first published in 1531 (Memorial University of Newfoundland), and here to see a copy published in Paris in 1602 (Royal Library of Denmark). See also Reading with the Mind's Eye: A Virtual Emblem Book Exhibit (Nana Diederichs, University of Iowa) and this selection of Spanish emblem books (Glasgow University Library).

embossed
A decorative design or lettering raised in bas-relief above the surface of a sheet or page, or the cover of a book, an effect produced by the use of printing or stamping dies. Employed throughout the history of binding and printing, embossing is a mechanical technique now used mainly in the production of art books, elegant greeting cards, and other decorative items. Click here to see samples of embossed paper. Click here to see a deeply embossed 19th-century leather binding (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, BD6-f.12) and here to see examples of embossed cloth publisher's bindings (Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Columbia University). To see other examples, try a keyword search on the term "embossed" in the British Library's Database of Bookbindings. Compare with debossed. See also: brocade paper, cuir ciselé, and embossed print.

embossed print
A raised graphic image made by forcing paper into low relief by pressing it into the hollows in a printing plate or block, often with the use of little or no ink (see this example). Compare with cast paper print.

embroidered binding
A book with boards covered in cloth decorated with raised stitching in designs executed by a professional embroiderer, usually from a pattern book, in thread of colored silk and/or metal (gold or silver), sometimes with pearls and sequins sewn on, a style commonly used during the late Middle Ages and Renaissance on devotional books. Canvas was used as the fabric base from the 14th to the mid-17th centuries, but velvet was preferred during the Tudor period in England and satin in the Stuart.

Click here to view a 17th-century English Bible embroidered in metallic thread on cream satin (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, Dk-i.17). Some embroidered bindings were also jeweled as in this 17th-century Dutch example (Koninklijke Bibliotheek). Click here to see more examples (Princeton University Library) or try a search on the keyword "embroidered" in the British Library's Database of Bookbindings.

emendation
Correction or improvement, especially of a literary or artistic work or written document, by alteration of the text, whether done by the author or another person, such as an editor. Also, a specific instance of such an alteration. Click here to see holograph emendations in a typescript of Philip Roth's Patrimony, courtesy of the Library of Congress. In textual criticism, the correction (usually by judicious inference or informed conjecture) of a text found to have been corrupted in transmission, restoring it to a state presumed to be closer to the original.

emergency plan
A set of guidelines or steps prepared in advance to help the staff of a library deal with unusual occurrences that may temporarily disrupt normal operations (assaults, bomb threats, security violations, etc.) but are not usually disastrous. Compare with contingency plan and disaster plan.

e-metrics
The systematic definition, collection, and analysis of statistical data about networked environments and the use of electronic resources, particularly useful in e-commerce. The Association of Research Libraries (ARL) has undertaken an E-Metrics Project for academic libraries. Click here to see a list of NISO Z39.7-2004 e-metrics elements for libraries and information providers. Also spelled emetrics. Synonymous with Webmetrics.

Emmy Award
One of several awards given annually in the United States by the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences for outstanding programming in news and documentaries, sports, and daytime television. Click here to see a list of the most recent Emmy Award winners.

emoticon
An abbreviation of the term emotional icon. See: smiley.

employee handbook
A manual, often printed in loose-leaf form, describing the rights, responsibilities, privileges, rules, expectations, etc., associated with employment in a company, organization, agency, or institution, usually distributed to employees at the time they are hired. At academic institutions that grant faculty status to librarians, the faculty handbook usually serves this function and may also cover governance. Compare with procedure manual.

emulation
The process by which a computer program or device designed to allow one system to imitate another accomplishes that task. Terminal emulation software allows a PC user to log on to a mainframe as if the PC were the type of terminal normally used for that purpose.

In digital archiving, a preservation technique that employs special software, called an emulator, to translate instructions from an original archived software program to enable it to run on a newer platform, obviating the need to preserve obsolete hardware and system software.

emulsion
A stable colloidal suspension of one immiscible liquid in another. In photography, the light-sensitive coating on a plate, sheet of paper, or plastic film base that carries the image. On black and white film, the emulsion consists of very fine silver halide crystals dispersed in a gelatin medium that are converted to metallic silver particles in processing. The emulsion side of black and white film appears duller and more textured than the smooth, shiny base side. On color film, the emulsion contains three layers of photosensitive dyes: yellow, cyan, and magenta. The emulsion and base sides of color film can be difficult to distinguish, but the image appears slightly raised on the emulsion side. Considered a scientific art, the making of photographic emulsions often involves trade secrets jealously guarded by commercial film manufacturers.

encapsulation
The process of enclosing a flat document in a thin, transparent polyester envelope, the edges of which are sealed to protect it from damage, used in conservation and preservation to provide support for large, fragile sheets such as maps, charts, posters, etc., while allowing them to remain visible on both sides (click here to see encapsulation used in the preservation of newspapers). The procedure does not alter the condition of the document by adhering it to the film, as does lamination (the sheet can easily be removed by slitting one or more sides of the envelope). When this method is used to preserve a bound item, the leaves must be cut apart and each one encapsulated separately. The envelopes can then be bound together again. Although encapsulation provides protection from impurities in the atmosphere, it does not retard processes of deterioration inherent in the object. Click here to learn more about the process of encapsulation, courtesy of the Florida Bureau of Archives and Records Management.

encaustum
From the Latin encausticus, meaning "burnt in." A purplish-black, highly durable ink made from a mixture of iron salts and gallic (tannic) acid, preferred by Irish and Anglo-Saxon scribes during the early Middle Ages because it bonded well with the surface of parchment or vellum and was not grainy, compared to ink made from lampblack. Also spelled incaustum.

enchiridion
From the Greek word for "handbook," a volume of a size that can be easily carried in a person's hand. In the Christian religious tradition, a manual of devotions (example: Saint Augustine's Enchiridion on Faith, Hope, and Love).

enclosure
Any foreign material placed between the leaves of a book or other bound item, or between the cover and free endpaper, by someone other than the publisher or binder. Some enclosures are incidental, for example, scraps of paper or other material used as bookmarks. These are discarded by the library in processing. Others are clearly intentional and may be worth preserving, for example, newspaper and magazine clippings (usually reviews of the book or stories about the author), portions of the dust jacket (the biographical note and/or portrait of the author), letters and notes, photographs, etc. Acid migration from enclosures made of acid paper may mark the pages of a book or other publication (see this example). Paper clips, pins, rubber bands, pressed leaves and/or flowers, etc., may also leave marks that are difficult to remove. The term does not include bookplates, date due slips, and labels affixed within the item. Compare with insert.

Encoded Archival Description (EAD)
The EAD Document Type Definition (DTD) is a nonproprietary standard for encoding in Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) or Extensible Markup Language (XML) the finding aids (registers, inventories, indexes, etc.) used in archives, libraries, museums, and other repositories of manuscripts and primary sources to facilitate use of their materials. EAD was developed in 1993 on the initiative of the UC Berkeley Library and is maintained by the Library of Congress, in partnership with the Society of American Archivists. Click here to learn more about EAD.

encoding
In information retrieval, the process of converting a message or data into electronic signals that can be processed by a computer or transmitted over a communications channel. The opposite of decoding. Compare with encryption.

encoding level
One of several modes of library cataloging recognized by the Library of Congress as appropriate, depending on a library's resources and needs and the amount of descriptive detail available to the cataloger. The levels are: full level, core level, minimal level, collection level, and copy cataloging.

encryption
The process of converting data contained in a message into a secret code prior to transmission via public telecommunication channels to make the content incomprehensible to all but authorized recipient(s). In computing, the modification is often done by means of a transformation algorithm. Encryption is a security measure taken to protect confidential information, such as credit card numbers used in online business transactions and to ensure that only those who have paid for a fee-based service can obtain it. Click here to learn more about encryption, courtesy of HowStuffWorks. The opposite of decryption. See also: cryptanalysis.

encumbrance
In library acquisitions, an amount charged against a budgetary fund to cover a prior commitment to purchase materials, equipment, services, or supplies, removed once full payment is made or the order is canceled. Encumbrances are tracked by the library to prevent over-expenditure.

encyclopedia
A book or numbered set of books containing authoritative summary information about a variety of topics in the form of short essays, usually arranged alphabetically by headword or classified in some manner. An entry may be signed or unsigned, with or without illustration or a list of references for further reading. Headwords and text are usually revised periodically for publication in a new edition. In a multivolume encyclopedia, any indexes are usually located at the end of the last volume. Encyclopedias may be general (example: Encyclopedia Americana) or specialized, usually by subject (Encyclopedia of Bad Taste) or discipline (Encyclopedia of Social Work). In electronic publishing, encyclopedias were one of the first formats to include multimedia and interactive elements (example: Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia Online). The modern encyclopedia began with the 21-volume Encyclopédie edited by Denis Diderot and Jean d'Alembert, an expression of the rationalism of the 18th-century Enlightenment (Cornell University Library). Also spelled encyclopaedia. Synonymous with cyclopedia. Compare with dictionary.

Encyclopedia of Associations
An annual reference serial published by Gale providing detailed directory information on over 22,000 nonprofit American membership organizations of national scope. Each entry typically includes the organization's official name, address, and phone/fax numbers; the primary official's name and title; founding date, purpose, and activities; size of membership and dues; national and international conferences; and publications. Each edition includes an alphabetically arranged name index and keyword index and a separate volume containing geographic and executive indexes. Companion volumes are available from the same publisher for international organizations and regional, state, and local organizations.

encyclopedic
Covering or including such a wide range of subjects as to be comprehensive in scope.

endangered
In libraries and archives, a category of item, or group of items, whose continued existence is threatened, usually by deterioration or the obsolescence of equipment required to read the format. Preservation may require conversion to a format of greater permanence. Synonymous with at risk.

endbands
A collective term for the protective headband and tailband attached to the top and bottom of the spine of a book with a sewn binding. Originally hand-worked, they consisted of a core of leather, parchment, cord, rolled paper, or cane covered in decorative linen or silk embroidery and sewn to the quires, with the ends laced into the boards. In modern binding, they are machine-made and simply glued on. Click here to see endbands on 15th- to 18th-century bindings (Princeton University Library) and here to see how hand-sewn endbands are made.

endnote
A statement printed at the end of a chapter or book to explain a point in the text, indicate the basis of an assertion, or cite the source of a concept, idea, quotation, or piece of factual information. Like footnotes, endnotes are numbered, usually in superscript, and listed in the sequence in which they appear in the text. Compare with in-text citation.

endowment
A permanent fund accumulated by an institution over an extended period consisting of gifts and bequests invested to provide an ongoing return, all or a portion of which is expended, sometimes for purposes specified by the donor(s), leaving the principal intact to generate further income. A library may be separately endowed or share in the endowment of its parent institution. Click here to see an example of an endowment program at an academic library. See also: fund-raising.

end panel
A single- or double-faced flat piece of wood, steel, or other rigid material securely attached to the end of a range of library shelving, usually extending from the floor to the top of the unit to cover the shelf ends facing an aisle or open area. End panels also help provide structural rigidity to shelving, of particular importance in regions prone to earthquake. The panels may be painted or covered with material that aesthetically enhances the library's interior decor. End panels in wood may be custom-made to match library furnishings.

endpaper
In bookbinding, a sheet of thick, strong paper folded down the center, one-half of which is pasted to the inside of the front or back board, the other half forming the first or last leaf (the flyleaf or free endpaper), to protect the text from the boards and counteract the pull of the cover on the boards. The fold in each endpaper functions as a hinge, joining the text block to the cover and allowing the attached board to swing open and closed (see this diagram). For extra strength, some books have double endpapers.

In early printed books, binding waste was sometimes used for endpapers, as in this example (Princeton University Library). From the 17th century on, decorated endpapers were used in hand-binding. Click here and here to see marbled endpapers in early editions. Click here to see decorated endpapers in a 17th-century volume dedicated to Frederik III of Denmark (Royal Library of Denmark). In modern book production, the color of the endpapers often complements the material covering the boards. Maps, genealogies, tables, or illustrations are sometimes printed on the endpapers, especially in biographies and historical works (see this example). Also spelled end-paper. Synonymous with endleaf and endsheet. Compare with doublure. See also: own ends.

end-user
In information retrieval, the person or persons for whom a mediated literature search is conducted and to whom the results are delivered. In a more general sense, the person for whom any search requiring the use of library resources or other information services is performed.

end-user search
In information retrieval, a literature search conducted by the person who actually intends to use the results, as opposed to a mediated search conducted by a trained specialist on behalf of the user.

English Short Title Catalogue (ESTC)
A project begun in 1976 by the British Library and the American Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies (ASECS) to create, under the title Eighteenth Century Short Title Catalogue, a comprehensive machine-readable union catalog of books, pamphlets, and other ephemeral material printed in English-speaking countries and colonies from 1701 to 1800. In 1987, when the decision was made to include monographs printed prior to 1701, the title changed to English Short Title Catalogue. In 1992, the ESTC was further extended to include serial publications. Click here to connect to ESTC (1473-1800) at the British Library. See also: Short-Title Catalogue.

engraved edition
An edition of a book or other publication printed from engraved plates, rather than by the setting of movable type, a process generally reserved for limited editions due to the additional expense. From the late 16th to the early 20th century, engraving was also one of the methods used to print music scores. Engraving services are still available to composers and songwriters (see Tunesmith Music).

engraving
An illustration or print made from a design incised with a sharp, pointed tool called a burin or graver on the surface of a metal plate or hardwood block. The lines are inked and an impression made by pressing a sheet of paper or some other printing surface against the plate, in a process known as intaglio.

Views in Glasgow is a set of twenty metal engravings published in 1843 by Allan & Ferguson (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, Bh12-y.14). Click here to see the wood engraving Dream (Mantis religiosa) done in 1935 by M. C. Escher (Georgetown University Libraries). For other examples, see the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Timeline of Art History. Click here to learn more about wood engraving during the Victorian period, courtesy of the British Library. Compare with etching. See also: copperplate, drypoint, engraved edition, stipple engraving, wax engraving, and wood engraving.

Enhanced CD (E-CD)
A certification mark of the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) for various technologies that combine audiorecording with other digital information (video clips, stills, wallpaper, etc.) for use in compact disc and CD-ROM players. Also known as CD Extra and CD Plus.

enlargement
A reproduction or copy produced on a larger scale than the original. Some photocopiers have the capacity to enlarge an original. The opposite of reduction. Synonymous, in photography, with blowup.

ensemble work
A musical work composed for more than one voice and/or instrument singing or playing together, for example, soprano and piano, or a string quartet.

entity
As defined in FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records), one of the key objects of interest to users of information within a given domain of "things" described by bibliographic data. In FRBR, entities are divided into three groups: (1) the products of intellectual or artistic endeavor (work, expression, manifestation, and item); (2) the individual(s) or corporate bodies responsible for creating intellectual or artistic content, for producing or disseminating the content in physical form, or for maintaining custody of the products; and (3) the subjects of intellectual or artistic expression (concept, object, event, place). Each type of entity has a defining set of attributes, for example, the attributes of a "work" include the title, form, date of work, intended audience, etc. The nature of the link between entities is their relationship; for example, an expression may be an "adaptation of" a pre-existing work.

entry
A single record in the library catalog representing an item contained in one of its collections. See also: added entry and main entry. Also, a record in a bibliographic database representing a work indexed and/or abstracted.

Also refers to a reference in a bibliography or printed index and to the information given under a headword in a dictionary or under a heading in a reference work such as an encyclopedia or handbook.

In a more general sense, any point of access to a file of bibliographic records or other data (name of author, title of work, series title, assigned subject heading or descriptor) under which a record representing a specific item may be searched and identified, manually or electronically.

entry level
Employment at the lowest grade in a system of classified positions, suitable for candidates who are beginning their careers and lack experience. Promotion usually depends on a vacancy occurring at a higher grade or classification, rather than on the development of the initial position into one requiring greater skill or responsibility. Synonymous with entrance level.

entry word
The word under which a record in a catalog, index, or bibliography is filed and searched, usually the first word of the heading, initial articles excluded. In retrieving information from an online catalog or bibliographic database, the order of terms typed as input may determine the success or failure of a search by author, title, subject heading, or descriptor, but in a keywords search, word order should not affect results if Boolean logic is correctly used. Synonymous with filing word.

enumeration
A naming or counting of items, one by one, as in a list, in any amount of detail but without systematic arrangement. Also, the volume numbering of a serial issue. See also: enumerative classification.

enumerative classification
A classification system in which each subject is developed to the point of indivisibility and a notation assigned for every subdivision (example: Library of Congress Classification). Compare with synthetic classification. See also: hierarchical classification.

environmental control
In the preservation of library and archival collections, creating and maintaining hospitable storage conditions is the most effective strategy for promoting the longevity of materials. Deterioration of paper, leather, cloth, plastic, etc., can be dramatically reduced by controlling temperature, relative humidity, light, and air quality in storage. Monitoring devices should be installed to ensure that materials remain cool and dry. Low illumination, ventilation that removes atmospheric pollutants, and effective pest management are also essential. Click here to read Oxford University Library Services' advice on environmental monitoring and control.

ephemera
From the Greek ephemeron, meaning "something short-lived." The printed materials of everyday life, generally regarded as having little or no permanent value because they are produced in large quantities or in disposable formats for a specific limited use. The category includes ballots, baseball cards, bookmarks, broadsides, bumper stickers, comic books, coupons, decals, fliers, greeting cards, invitations, lapel buttons, leaflets, menus, pamphlets, paper toys, performance programs, playbills, postage stamps, postcards, tickets, visiting cards, etc. Ephemeral items are sometimes retained and exhibited for their graphic qualities or for their association with a specific person, event, or activity. When collected by libraries, they are usually stored in special collections. Also refers to material of brief currency that has reference value or sufficient literary or historical importance to merit permanent archival storage, for example, academic course catalogs and schedules, newsletters, staff directories, etc. Click here to see an online exhibition of medical ephemera, courtesy of the National Library of Medicine. Rodney Higginbotham of Northeastern Illinois University provides a Web site devoted to Theatre Ephemera. See also the Vietnam War Era Ephemera Collection displayed by the University of Washington Libraries. Compare with gray literature. See also: Ephemera Society of America and fugitive material.

Ephemera Society of America, The
Established in 1980, The Ephemera Society of America is an association of individuals and collectors who have an interest in the printed materials of everyday life, which are ordinarily short-lived, having little or no permanent value when issued, but which may be worth preserving as examples of cultural history (click here to see a partial list of categories). The Society has published Ephemera Journal since 1987 and also issues the quarterly Ephemera Newsletter. Click here to connect to the homepage of The Ephemera Society. See also: ephemera.

epic
A lengthy narrative poem in which the language, characters, and action are heroic and exalted in style. Most epics have a comparatively simple plot, a theme (or themes) reflecting the universal human condition, a hero of superhuman mental and physical capacity who is nonetheless fatally flawed, a setting imaginary or remote in time and place, with supernatural forces playing a decisive role in the action, upon which may depend the fate of an entire society or people. Epics are usually closely tied to the legends, oral traditions, and history of a specific culture (Iliad and Odyssey of Homer, Beowulf, Mahabharata, etc.). Literary epics, such as the Aeneid of Virgil and Paradise Lost by John Milton, are consciously modeled on traditional examples. Click here to connect to the Yahoo! list of Web sites on epic poetry.

epic fiction
Works of imaginative fiction in which the actions of heroic characters, often entwined with national destiny, are depicted on a grand scale (examples: the novels War and Peace [1869] by Leo Tolstoy and Exodus [1958] by Leon Uris). Compare with epic.

epigram
In the classical period, an inscription or epitaph, but in modern usage a tersely witty, often antithetical saying, ingeniously composed in prose or verse, delivered with aplomb to make a point in a manner calculated to enhance one's reputation in the company of people who value feats of intellectual and literary virtuosity. The satirical form, established in ancient Rome by Martial (see this 15th-century manuscript copy), was cultivated in England from the late 16th to the early 20th century. An example by Hilaire Belloc:

ON OLD LADY POLTAGRUE, A PUBLIC PERIL
The Devil, having nothing else to do,
Went off to tempt my Lady Poltagrue.
My Lady, tempted by a private whim,
To his extreme annoyance, tempted him.

The Victorian author and playwright Oscar Wilde has been dubbed "The Emperor of Epigrams." Examples of his work can be found in The Penguin Dictionary of Epigrams (2002) edited by M.J. Cohen.

epigraph
A brief quotation or motto included in the front matter of a book, usually following the dedication, or at the beginning of each chapter, suggesting an idea or theme that the author intends to develop more fully in the following text (example: the quotation from Dante's Inferno that precedes T.S. Eliot's poem "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock").

epilogue
A part added as a conclusion at the close of a literary work, for example, the statement of the moral at the end of a fable. Compare with afterword.

The term also refers to the final section of a speech, also called the peroration, and to a brief speech delivered at the end of a dramatic performance, requesting the approval of audience and critics. Compare in this sense with prologue.

episode
A single segment of a television series or mini-series, sometimes released on VHS or DVD in a collection with others originally broadcast during the same season, for example, "The Doorbell Rang" in the Nero Wolfe series (first season), originally seen on the A&E (Arts & Entertainment) network, with Timothy Hutton and Maury Chaykin in the lead roles.

episodic
A literary work consisting of a number of more or less self-contained but loosely connected incidents (episodes) strung together by the author to form a narrative (example: Idylls of the King by Alfred, Lord Tennyson).

epistemology
From the Greek episteme ("knowledge") and logos ("theory"), the branch of philosophy devoted to the theoretical study of the nature, methods, and validity of human knowledge, including the relationship between the knower (subject), the known (object), and the process of knowing.

epistle
A composition in poetry or prose written in the form of a letter so elegant in style that it is considered a literary work worthy of publication, for example, the epistles of Cicero, Horace, Ovid, and Pliny (for texts, see the Perseus Digital Library). Also refers to one of the letters from the apostles included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. In a more general sense, a written letter addressed to an absent person or, when published, an open letter meant to be read by persons in addition to the addressee. Click here to see an 18th-century example, courtesy of the Virginia Historical Society.

epistolary
A liturgical book containing readings for the Mass from the Epistles of the New Testament and sometimes from other books of the Bible, arranged according to the liturgical year. Click here to view a leaf from a 15th-century illuminated Italian epistolary with neumes written between the lines in red to aid the subdeacon in chanting this portion of the service (Cary Collection, Rochester Institute). The Gospel reading was normally done by the deacon from a separate book called the lectionary. From the 10th century on, the Epistles were combined with other liturgical readings in the missal. Synonymous with Apostle.

epistolary novel
A form of novel that reached its greatest popularity during the 18th century, in which the narrative is developed by the author in a series of letters (example: Clarissa by Samuel Richardson). Sometimes a novelist begins a work in epistolary style, then switches to conventional narrative (Busman's Honeymoon by Dorothy L. Sayers). Synonymous with novel in letters.

epistolary work
A work of fiction or nonfiction based, in whole or in part, on real or imaginary letters and/or diary entries (example: The Letters of Bernard Berenson and Isabella Stewart Gardner, 1887-1924). See also: epistolary novel.

epitaph
From the Greek epi ("upon") and taphos ("tomb"), a brief valedictory verse on the life and death of a person (or persons), composed as an inscription on a grave marker, sometimes by the deceased before death. Epitaphs are usually complimentary but may be humorous or ironic. One of the most famous was written by Simonides of Ceos (556-468 B.C.) commemorating the 300 warriors who died at Thermopylae:

Go, tell the Lacedaimonians, passer-by,
That here obedient to their laws we lie.

Click here to read Petrarch's epitaph, courtesy of the Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Yale University.

epithalamium
From the Greek epi ("at") and thalamos ("nuptial chamber"). A celebratory song or poem, often in sonnet form, in honor of a bride or groom or both, usually praising their virtues, describing the events of the wedding day, and wishing them good fortune in married life. Click here to see 18th-century decorated examples written for Jewish weddings (Library of the Jewish Theological Seminary). Click here to see an early 18th-century example published as a broadside in Scotland (National Library of Scotland) and here to learn more about the history of this literary form, courtesy of Wikipedia. Also spelled epithalamion. Plural: epithalamia.

epithet
From the Greek word epitheton, meaning "something added." A descriptive name or unofficial title expressing an important quality or attribute, usually added to distinguish a person (William the Conqueror), epoch (Age of Enlightenment), or thing (John Knox cap) from others of the same name or class. In library cataloging, the epithet follows the personal name in the heading under which an item is cataloged (example: John, the Baptist). In the case of royalty, popes, etc., a cross-reference is made from the name with epithet to the official heading consisting of name and title.

Also, a descriptive term or phrase used as a substitute for the name or title of a person, as in The Great Emancipator for President Abraham Lincoln. The use of epithets is common in ancient Egyptian inscriptions.

In biological nomenclature, each organism is given two names--a genus name, always capitalized, and a species name in lowercase, also known as a species epithet. In the example Escherichia coli (the name of a common bacterial species), Escherichia is the genus name and coli the species epithet.

epitome
A statement of the essence of a subject in the briefest possible form. Also refers to a very brief but accurate written statement of the main points of a work, usually prepared by a person other than the author.

eponym
A single name under which several authors are published. Also, the name of a person or character so closely associated with a quality, process, or activity that the name is used in signifying it (Herculean, pasteurization, Platonic, Romeo, etc.).

Also refers to a person who gives, or is reputed to have given, his or her name to an institution, structure, place, etc. (Guggenheim Museums), or to a distinguishing title derived from the name of a person, designating a people, place, thing, or period (Periclean Athens, Carolingian minuscule, Elizabethan drama). See also: eponymous imprint.

eponymous imprint
A publisher's imprint that carries a personal name or names, often of the founder(s) (examples: J.B. Lippincott and R.R. Bowker). More recently, eponymous imprints under the editor's name have been set up as one-person shops within larger publishing houses to give exceptionally talented editors the freedom to publish without the approval of an editorial committee and to develop an individual voice within the industry. Editor's imprints are often given distinctive names like Apple Soup, Greenwillow, and Silver Whistle, but publishers increasingly encourage star editors to use their own names. Books published under such imprints have received many top awards in children's book publishing where the practice began in 1972 with the creation of Margaret McElderry Books at Atheneum, followed in 1973 by Ursula Nordstrom Books at Harper & Row. The recent success of the Harry Potter series, published by Arthur A. Levine Books at Scholastic, demonstrates the important role of imprinted editors in the promotion of quality works by new authors.

e-preservation
A shortened form of electronic preservation. See: digital preservation.

e-print
A preprint in digital format, distributed electronically. The use of e-print servers to provide access to collections of preprints is a comparatively new mode of scholarly communication, developed in the physical sciences to circumvent the delays and high cost of commercial publishing. One of the earliest and best-known e-print repositories was created at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. The Open Archives Initiative (OAI) aims to facilitate the retrieval of scholarly papers from disparate digital archives. Also spelled eprint.

EPUB
An abbreviation of electronic publication. A free and open standard e-book file format, adopted by the International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF) in September 2007 to supersede the Open eBook Standard, EPUB enables text to be optimized for a particular display device or reading system by allowing word wrap (reflowable content) and resizing. It also features embedded metadata, DRM support, and CSS styling. File extension is .epub. Also spelled epub, ePub, EPub, or ePUB.

equal area projection
In cartography, a systematic representation of the graticule on which the area of any feature (large or small) on the map or chart is related to the area of the corresponding feature on a globe or on the surface of the earth by a constant scaling factor. The Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area and Albers Equal Area Conic are examples of equal area projections. Click here to learn more about equal area projections, courtesy of Carlos Furuti. See also the galleries of map projections by Paul Anderson or Hans Havlicek. Also spelled equal-area projection. Synonymous with equiareal projection and equivalent projection. Compare with conformal projection.

equalization (EQ)
Adjusting the balance of frequencies in vinyl-disc recording and playback by reducing or augmenting certain frequencies in relation to others to achieve better sound quality, reduce groove damage in playback, and allow longer recording times. Until the 1950s, each recording company used its own equalization system. In 1954, the Recording Industry Association of America established a specification for the recording and playback of phonograph records, known as RIAA equalization, which became the de facto standard for the global record industry. Click here to learn more about RIAA LP equalization, courtesy of Stereophile.

equidistant projection
In cartography, a systematic representation of the graticule on which the distances between one or two points and every other point on the map or chart differ from the corresponding distances on the globe or on the surface of the earth by only a constant scaling factor. The Azimuthal Equidistant and the Cylindrical Equidistant are examples of equidistant projections. Click here to learn more about equidistant projections, courtesy of Carlos Furuti. See also the galleries of map projections by Paul Anderson or Hans Havlicek.

equivalence table
A list in numerical order of the classes altered in a complete or extensive revision of Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), giving the class number in the current edition and its equivalent in the preceding edition (and vice versa). See also: comparative table.

erasure
Names or words written, stamped, or printed in a book and subsequently removed, usually with a gum eraser if in pencil or by some other abrasive means if in ink. Erasures almost always decrease the value of an item in the used book market. John Carter warns in ABC for Book Collectors (Oak Knoll, 1995) that erasures near the center of the title page, or in the upper half of the verso of the title page, should be regarded with suspicion because the intent may have been to remove the words Second (or nth) Edition from the imprint. Click here to see an example of erasures in the text of a 15th-century Flemish Book of Hours (Getty Museum, MS Ludwig IX 8). See also: correction and palimpsest. Also used synonymously with degaussing (magnetic media).

E-rate
An abbreviation of education rate. A federal program established under the Telecommunications Act of 1996 (TCA) and implemented in 1998, with oversight by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), E-rate allows schools, public libraries, and rural health care institutions to apply for substantial discounts on rates paid for telecommunication services, including Internet access, communications equipment, and internal wiring. The program is funded by the Universal Service surcharge on telephone bills and administered by the Universal Service Administrative Company (USAC) in Washington, D.C. Although it has been hampered by a byzantine application process and reported problems of fraud and abuse, and has also been subjected to filtering requirements under the Children's Internet Protection Act of 1999 (CIPA), the program has helped many schools and libraries build technological infrastructure, particularly in low-income areas. Click here to connect to the E-rate Web page maintained by the FCC. See also E-Rate Central, a Web site dedicated to simplifying the E-rate program for schools, libraries, and vendors.

ergonomics
The systematic study of the relationship between people and the environment in which they work, serving as the basis for the design and arrangement of equipment, furnishings, and workspaces with the aim of increasing productivity and avoiding negative effects on safety, health, comfort, and efficiency (see these examples of ergonomic desk chairs, courtesy of Google Images). Synonymous with human engineering.

ERIC
The Education Resources Information Center is a national information service consisting of a group of federally funded clearinghouses administered by the National Library of Education (NLE) that indexes and abstracts journal articles and research reports in education and related fields and publishes the results in the print publications CIJE (Current Index to Journals in Education) and RIE (Resources in Education), and in the ERIC database available online or on CD-ROM in most academic libraries supporting education curriculum in the United States. A detailed report on the activities of the Educational Resources Information Center is published in Library and Book Trade Almanac.

Items indexed in ERIC are assigned at least one subject descriptor from the Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors and a six-digit EJ number for journal articles, or a six-digit ED number for research reports (documents). Available on microfiche, ERIC documents are filed by ED number in microfiche cabinets usually located in the microforms section of the library. A reader-printer machine is required to enlarge and make copies of documents on microfiche. Click here to connect to the homepage of the Education Resources Information Center.

ERIC document (ED)
A separately published or unpublished research report on a topic in education or a related field, indexed by and available on microfiche and online from the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC). Access to ERIC documents is provided by most academic libraries in the United States that support curriculum in education. ERIC microfiche is filed by six-digit ED number in microfiche cabinets usually located in the microforms section of the library.

erotica
Works containing sexual content calculated to stimulate the passions of the reader, which also have some artistic value and integrity (example: Fanny Hill, or, Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure by John Cleland). Examples are usually found in private collections and in the special collections of libraries that specialize in the history of books and publishing. For more information see the Web site maintained by the Erotica Readers & Writers Association. Synonymous with adult fiction and erotic fiction. Compare with curiosa and pornography.

errata
The plural of erratum. Errors discovered after a book or periodical has gone to press but before it is distributed, brought to the reader's attention by the insertion of a list of corrections, separately printed on a small piece of paper known as an errata slip, usually tipped in at the beginning of the text or in the front matter. Synonymous with corrigenda. Compare with paste-in.

errata leaf
A leaf bound into a book or other printed publication indicating printing errors. Unlike an errata slip, which is usually tipped in, an errata leaf is included in the statement of extent of item. The presence of an errata leaf or slip may also be mentioned in a note in the bibliographic record.

error message
A text message displayed automatically by a computer system to indicate that the operation initiated by the user could not be completed for some reason. Common error messages in Web browser software include:

400 - Bad File Request
Usually means the URL contains an error in syntax. Check punctuation marks and case (URLs are often case-sensitive).
403 - Forbidden/Access Denied
User not authorized to view requested file. The site may require a password, the user's domain may be blocked, or the file may be available only to internal users.
404 - File Not Found
Host server cannot locate the requested file, usually because it has been renamed, no longer exists, or has been moved to another server or because the user made an error in entering the URL.
500 - Internal Error
HTML document could not be retrieved due to server-configuration problems. User should consult site administrator.
Bad File Request
Web form uses nonstandard form entry elements or has errors in HTML code. Notify Webmaster of programming error.
Connection Refused by Host
User does not have permission to access file or password is incorrect.
Failed DNS Lookup
Servers that translate domain names into IP addresses may be overloaded. Wait a few seconds, then select "Reload" or "Refresh" in browser toolbar.
File Contains No Data
The browser located the site but found no data in requested file. Try adding ":80" (without the quotation marks) to URL immediately preceding the first slash.
Network Connection Refused or Too Many Users
Host server is overloaded and unable to handle user's request. Try "Reload" or "Refresh" or wait and try again later.
Unknown Host or Unable to Locate Server
Host server is not accessible for some reason. Try "Reload" or "Refresh" or wait awhile before trying again. If site remains inaccessible for several days, it has probably been shut down permanently.

Click here for a more detailed list of common Internet error messages, courtesy of Brown University.

escalator clause
In publishing, a clause in an author's contract stipulating an increase in royalties as sales increase.

escape clause
A clause in a legal contract specifying conditions under which one of the parties is relieved of liability for failure to meet the terms of the agreement.

escape key
A key located in the upper-left-hand corner of a standard computer keyboard, usually labeled Esc, that allows the user to go backward one step in a sequence of operations, terminating the current operation.

escapist literature
Fiction written as light entertainment, intended mainly to divert the mind of the reader into a world of imagination and fantasy. Popular genres include romance, science fiction, thrillers, etc.

ESL
An initialism for English as a Second Language, a branch of English-language study and teaching.

esparto
A type of paper named after a coarse, short-fibered grass grown in the Mediterranean region that, when mixed with chemical wood pulp, produces the bulk and smooth finish suitable for printing fine-quality books and plates (see this photo of the living plant).

espionage
The practice of spying or using spies (or listening devices) to systematically collect strategic information that the government of a country or the management of a commercial entity would prefer to keep secret. When such information is used in military planning and decision-making, it is called intelligence. Because some research libraries in the United States provide public access to scientific and technical information that could be used by an aggressor, their policies have been scrutinized (see Library Awareness Program and USA Patriot Act).

Also refers to a subgenre of mystery fiction and motion picture devoted to tales of spies and spying, usually during wartime or the Cold War (examples: Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy by John Le Carré and Reilly: The Ace of Spies directed by Jim Goddard). Synonymous with spy fiction. See also: suspense and thriller.

essay
A short literary composition written in expository prose addressed to the general reader, usually dealing thoughtfully and in some depth with a single theme, seen from the personal point of view of the essayist who does not necessarily attempt the systematic or comprehensive analysis one would expect in a dissertation or treatise. There are no limitations on style or content--essays can be formal or informal, descriptive, narrative, persuasive, humorous, satirical, historical, biographical, autobiographical, or critical. In some cases, essays that appear on the surface to be straightforward have a deeper, more philosophical meaning. Essays published in collections and Festschriften are indexed in Essay and General Literature Index, published by H.W. Wilson. Click here to read the Essays (1575) of Michel de Montaigne, translated by Charles Cotton. See also: essay periodical and photographic essay.

essay periodical
A short-lived form of literary periodical, popular in Britain during the 18th century, in which each twice- or thrice-weekly issue was usually devoted to a single essay that was often didactic in tone. This type of periodical was closely associated with the coffee-house, a very popular institution in 18th-century London society. Well-known examples include Joseph Addison's and Richard Steele�s The Tatler (1709-1711) and The Spectator (1711-1714) and Samuel Johnson�s The Rambler (1750-1752) and The Idler (1758-1760). Having disappeared from the literary canon in the 20th century, the genre has recently received renewed critical attention because it raised the literary level of the periodical essay.

estimated price
The price that the acquisitions department of a library anticipates will be charged when an item or subscription is ordered from a publisher, jobber, dealer, or subscription agent. The price actually paid may be higher or lower due to a discount, shipping charges, etc. See also: list price.

estray
In archives, the legal term for a record or document no longer in the possession of its original creator or legitimate custodian.

et al.
An abbreviation of the Latin phrase et alii, meaning "and other people," used in bibliographic citations after the first of more than three collaborators, instead of listing all the names. Also an abbreviation of et alibi ("and elsewhere") and et alia ("and other things").

etc.
An abbreviation of the Latin phrase et cetera, meaning "and the rest" or "and so forth," used to shorten a list. Also abbreviated &c.

etching
An illustration or print made from a metal or glass plate on which a design is made with a needle or other pointed tool through a layer of wax, varnish, or other resistant material (the etching-ground). When subjected to an acid bath, areas of the surface exposed by the action of the needle are eaten away, becoming design elements that can be inked to produce an impression on paper in intaglio printing. Click here to view an etching by Giovanni Battista Piranesi from Vedute di Roma published c. 1765 (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, Hunterian Az.2.4 ). For other examples, see the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Timeline of Art History. Compare with engraving. See also: aquatint and zincograph.

Ethernet
Conceived at Xerox PARC in 1976 and developed in cooperation with Intel and DEC, Ethernet has become the industry standard for network architecture. It is the most widely installed local area network (LAN) technology in the world, connecting nodes over twisted pair, coaxial, or fiber optic cable. See also: packet switching.

Ethnic and Multicultural Information Exchange Round Table (EMIERT)
The Ethnic Materials Information Exchange (EMIE) Task Force of the Social Responsibilities Round Table (SRRT) became the Ethnic Materials and Information Exchange Round Table at the annual conference of the American Library Association (ALA) held in Philadelphia in 1982, and the current name was adopted in 1998. The primary purpose of EMIERT is to facilitate the expansion of ethnic collections, services, and programs in libraries of all types. The Round Table sponsors the annual EMIERT Multicultural Awards and publishes the quarterly EMIE Bulletin. Click here to connect to the EMIERT homepage.

ethnographic film
A nonfiction motion picture, usually made under the supervision of one or more anthropologists, that seeks to describe a distinct culture in a scientific and analytical manner, for example, The Hunters (1958) by John Marshall, a classic documentary on the Kalahari Bushmen produced by the Film Study Center of the Peabody Museum of Harvard University. In a more general sense, any documentary film that seeks to reveal one culture or society to another, for example, Nanook of the North (1922) and Man of Aran (1934) directed by Robert Flaherty.

ethnographic photograph
A photograph made by or for anthropologists and others engaged in the systematic documentation of a human culture, often irreplaceable evidence of a vanished way of life (see this example). Synonymous with ethno-photograph.

ethnography
A qualitative description of a specific human culture or society, based on empirical data gathered by an anthropologist or sociologist through participant observation, field notes, interviews, questionnaires, or other systematic methods (example: Argonauts of the Western Pacific [1922] by Bronislaw Malinowski).

Etruscan binding
A style of leather binding developed during the late 18th century by William Edwards of Halifax in which the panel on each cover, decorated by means of acid staining, is surrounded by borders of classical design (fretwork, etc.). A vase of classical shape sometimes adorns the center of each panel. Click here to view an early 19th-century example with an inner border of palmettes acid-stained terracotta and black to replicate the colors of an antique vase (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, BD14-i.28). To see other examples, try a search on the keyword "etruscan" in the British Library's Database of Bookbindings.

et seq.
An abbreviation of the Latin phrase et sequens, meaning "and the following one." Plural: et seqq. ("and those that follow").

etymology
The origin of a word traced back as far as possible in time, usually by the methods of comparative linguistics. Most language dictionaries provide some information about word derivation but often differ in how far back origin is traced and the amount of historical detail. Most English-language dictionaries trace the origin of a word back to Latin or ancient Greek, but not as far back as Proto-Indo-European (PIE). The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the leading example of an English-language dictionary constructed on historical principles. Specialized etymological dictionaries provide the most complete description of the evolution of words (example: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology edited by C.T. Onions).

eulogy
A written or spoken composition in praise of someone or something, especially a person who is deceased, for example, Ben Jonson's eulogy on Shakespeare. Click here to read some examples, courtesy of Euology Speech Guide. Synonymous with encomium. Compare with elegy.

e-usage
The extent to which an online resource, such as an aggregated database, is used by the clientele of a library. Because e-content is expensive to provide, libraries are under pressure to document usage in order to justify funding. COUNTER is a cooperative endeavor on the part of publishers, librarians, and vendors to develop international cross-platform standards for generating usage statistics for online resources.

evangelary
A liturgical book containing the passages from the Gospels read during the Mass, arranged in order of the liturgical year, easier to use than the earlier Gospel book that had capitularies added at the end to indicate the time of year or the celebration for which specific passages were to be read. Click here to view an incipit page from an evangelary (Royal Library of Denmark). Also spelled evangeliary and evangelistary. Synonymous with Gospel lectionary and pericope book.

evangelist portrait
In medieval Gospel books, a miniature preceding the text of one of the four gospels, depicting its author (Matthew, Mark, Luke, or John) often seated writing or reading at a desk or lectern, sometimes accompanied by his traditional symbol (man, lion, ox, or eagle). Strictly speaking, the miniatures are not portraits because the actual physical appearance of the evangelists is not known. Although the four portraits sometimes appear on the same page at the beginning of a Gospel book, they are usually full-page miniatures, often done in similar style with a solid gilt background. See St. Matthew (Getty Museum, MS Ludwig II 3), St. Mark (British Library, Burney 20), St. Luke (Getty, MS Ludwig II 3), and St. John (British Library, Burney 20). Click here to see the four evangelist symbols in the Book of Kells, courtesy of Wikipedia.

exact size
The actual size of the binding of a book as measured in inches or centimeters, independent of the dimensions of the leaves or any other size designation. In library cataloging, exact size is given as the height of the binding in centimeters in the physical description area of the bibliographic description. Synonymous with absolute size. Compare with book size.

examination copy
A copy of a book sent by a publisher on approval or at no charge to a prospective customer for consideration. Educators are the primary recipients of this type of promotion because they are often in a position to adopt an edition as a textbook for courses on the subject. Synonymous with inspection copy. See also: desk copy.

example
In printing and the book trade, a specific copy of a given edition, no different in any respect from other copies of the same edition.

exception dictionary
A list or file of words with special word break requirements that do not follow normal rules of hyphenation, for use in word processing, desktop publishing, and photocomposition.

excerpt
A lengthy verbatim selection taken from a speech or written work, usually longer than a quotation. Reprinting an excerpt without permission may be an infringement of copyright. Excerpts are sometimes published in the form of a digest (example: Book Review Digest). Compare with extract.

In film and video, a portion (usually a few minutes or less in duration) of a longer, fully edited, complete work. Too brief to be considered a incomplete version of the work, an excerpt typically consists of the title sequence, a musical number, or footage highlighting a dramatic moment or special effects. Synonymous in this sense with film clip. The term is not used for unedited material or stock shots, or for footage not utilized in the final cut (see outtake).

exchange
An arrangement in which a library sends items it owns to another library and receives in return items owned by the other library, or sends duplicate copies to another library and receives duplicate materials in return. Also refers to any publication given or received in this manner. Compare with gift. See also: Duplicates Exchange Union.

In acquisitions, an agreement with a publisher or jobber allowing the return of an item to receive another item of comparable value, for example, when a library orders the wrong title or a duplicate copy by mistake.

exclusive license
In online journal aggregation, a contractual agreement between a publisher and a database vendor, specifying that the content of one or more publications will be accessible in online full-text only from the licensed vendor, to the exclusion of competing aggregators, a practice that has sparked debate among serials librarians. EBSCO has been criticized by other vendors for seeking exclusivity from publishers of academic journals and mainstream periodicals.

executive producer
The top-level administrator and/or financier of a theatrical or film production, who may or may not be directly involved in the creative process or in technical aspects of production. Most executive producers handle the business side and legal issues.

exegesis
Scholarly explanation or interpretation of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage in a written work, based on close study and critical analysis of the text, especially to clarify an obscure point in the Bible or some other sacred work. See also: scholium.

exemplar
In the context of medieval manuscript production, a masterwork from which another was copied. The scribe kept the exemplar propped open on a lectern or close at hand on a sloping writing desk, consulting it frequently. In the early Middle Ages, monks working in scriptoria obtained exemplars by borrowing them from other monastic establishments. When book production became a commercial activity in the 12th century, copies of scholastic texts made by stationers on the authority of the university were rented as exemplars to students in need of textbooks, to be copied under the pecia system. See also: apograph.

In calligraphy, an alphabet or lettering style used for the purpose of study or decoration. Click here to see a late-16th-century Dutch example (Koninklijke Bibliotheek). In a more general sense, someone or something that serves as a model, type, specimen, instance, or example of a quality, category, or group.

exemplum
A story or anecdote told to illustrate a moral point, especially in the context of a sermon given by a medieval preacher. An exemplum differs from a parable in having the moral stated at the beginning, rather than the end. It is also presumed to be based on actual events. Plural: exempla.

exhaustive
A search of an index, catalog, bibliographic database, or library collection with the aim of identifying all the records or items relevant to the topic. An exhaustive literature search, using all the finding tools at the scholar's disposal, is one of the first steps in a major research project.

exhaustivity
In subject analysis, a measure of the level of detail with which a cataloger or indexer describes the content of a document to facilitate retrieval by subject, expressed as the average number of terms extracted from the title and text or the average number of preferred terms (subject headings or descriptors) selected from a controlled list, for assignment in the bibliographic record representing the item.

exhibit
A physical object placed on display in a museum, gallery, or other public place, usually because of its historical, cultural, or scientific importance or its aesthetic qualities, extraordinary characteristics, or monetary value. Libraries typically exhibit rare and valuable books, manuscripts, personal papers, and memorabilia associated with authorship, publishing, book history, and reading (click here to see displays at the George Peabody Library, Johns Hopkins University). Exhibits may be permanent or rotate periodically, depending on the availability of materials suitable for display and the policy of the library. Also refers to the event during which such objects are displayed. Click here to connect to a list of online exhibits sponsored by the Library of Congress. See also: display case and exhibition catalog.

Also, a booth or table at which a book publisher, jobber, or dealer, or a library vendor or supplier, displays its products and services at a conference or book fair to attract prospective customers. Companies and organizations that lease exhibit space are exhibitors. See also: display copy and Exhibits Round Table.

exhibition
A collection of objects shown or displayed in a public place. Also, the act of displaying a collection of objects publicly.

exhibition catalog
An art book in hard or softcover containing reproductions of the works of art displayed at an exhibition or series of exhibitions held in a museum or gallery. The illustrations are usually numbered and may be arranged in the order in which the items are exhibited, with or without prices. Accompanying text may be minimal. Exhibition catalogs are often issued by museum publishers. For examples, see the "Books" section of the Metropolitan Museum of Art's online Met Store. Synonymous with exhibit catalog.

exhibition poster
A poster designed to publicize an organized display, such as an art exhibition (example), trade or hobby show, book fair, or world's fair.

exhibition print
A positive print of a motion picture made for film screenings rather than for release.

exhibitor
A person, company, or organization whose work is displayed to attendees at a conference or convention, usually in one of many exhibit booths (see this example).

Exhibits Round Table (ERT)
A permanent round table of the American Library Association (ALA), ERT provides a venue for cooperation between the Association and exhibitors, with the aim of making exhibits an effective part of state, regional, and national library conferences. Click here to connect to the ERT homepage.

exit
A door or set of doors through which patrons are permitted to leave a library facility under normal conditions, usually located near the circulation desk and equipped with a security alarm to detect unauthorized removal of library materials. In the United States, special emergency exits are required by law in libraries open to the public.

Also, to end a session using a computer application by closing the program. The procedure for ending a session on the computer itself is called logging off.

exit interview
An interview conducted by a personnel director, or some other person designated by management, at the time an employee leaves employment (voluntarily or involuntarily), usually to determine the reason(s) for leaving, in particular whether separation is the result of grievances that might have been resolved or prevented. For retirees, the interview also provides a final opportunity to discuss with the employer matters concerning pension, health insurance, etc.

ex-library copy
A copy of a book or other item once owned by a library and subsequently acquired by a used book dealer, usually identified by an ownership mark, library binding, and/or spine label. An ex-library copy may also show signs of heavy use. Condition may reduce its value to collectors. If not stamped "discard," the volume may still belong to the library. Click here to see examples of ex-library markings, courtesy of My Wings Books. Abbreviated ex-lib or x-lib.

ex libris
A Latin phrase meaning "from the books of," usually printed on a bookplate, followed by a blank space for the owner's name (click here to see some medical examples, courtesy of the National Library of Medicine). An ex libris inscription is a note written in or on a book to record its inclusion in a private or institutional library, sometimes providing evidence of the item's provenance. A super ex libris is a mark or symbol of ownership appearing on the outside cover of a book, as on this copy of a 15th-century edition (Royal Library of Denmark). Also used synonymously with bookplate. Also spelled exlibris and ex-libris. Abbreviated ex lib. Compare with supralibros.

exotics
In the printing trade, a general term for non-Latin alphabets (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Hebrew, Japanese, etc.).

expanded
A typeface wider in proportion to its height than the normal version of the same style. The opposite of condensed. Synonymous with extended. Compare with full face.

expanded edition
A previously published work enlarged by the addition of a significant amount of new material, sometimes in the form of at least one supplement or appendix, with little or no revision of the existing text. Compare with revised edition.

expansion
Enlargement of the space available in an existing library facility. The amount of floor space in a library is usually increased by moving nonlibrary functions, such as a computer lab or offices, to other facilities or by adding a new wing or floor to the existing structure. Some libraries are designed with a knock-out wall and sited on property large enough to accommodate future expansion. In libraries critically short of space, a new addition may dwarf the original structure. Major library expansions are reported annually in Library Journal and in Library and Book Trade Almanac. Compare with new construction and renovation.

Also refers to the development of an existing class or subdivision in the schedules or tables of Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), usually to accommodate advances in the literature on the subject requiring more specific notation.

expedition photograph
A photographic image made to gather data or document the activities of a voyage undertaken for the purpose of geographical, botanical, anthropological, archaeological, or other scientific discovery, often by a member of the expedition trained in photography, a category of photograph of particular interest to historians and archivists. Click here to view a photograph of the HMS Investigator, abandoned in the Arctic ice in 1853. Synonymous with exploration photograph.

experimental film
A non-commercial motion picture that presents a unique and personal vision by abandoning narrative storyline and realistic portrayal of the world outside the cinema to explore the expressive possibilities of the film medium itself, usually by the use of unconventional techniques (example: L'Étoile de Mer, a surrealist film by Man Ray). When images of the real world are employed, their meaning may be altered by placing them in an unexpected context. The annual Ann Arbor Film Festival is devoted to showing experimental and independent films. Synonymous with avant-garde film. See also: flicker film.

expert system (ES)
A computer system or application based on artificial intelligence designed to replicate the ability of a human expert to solve a problem or perform a specific task (or sequence of tasks), for example, financial analysis and forecasting. An expert system requires a knowledge base (KB) composed of facts and rules bases, plus an inference engine to run the KB. In the plural, the term refers to the science of creating such systems.

expert user
A person with sufficient knowledge and experience to be able to use a library or computer system effectively and efficiently, with only occasional assistance. The opposite of novice.

expiration date
The date on which delivery of a periodical subscription ceases if payment is not received from the subscriber in response to a final renewal notice. Also, the date after which a library is no longer eligible to receive a prepublication price, special discount, or other promotional incentive for ordering an item. Also, the date after which a library card, password, membership, software license, document, etc., is no longer valid. Synonymous with expiry date.

explanatory reference
A cross-reference provided in a library catalog or index when more information is required than is normally given in a see or see also reference, usually an explanation of the conditions under which the heading(s) is applied.

Example:
Klama, John
The joint pseudonym of John Durant, Peter Klopfer, and Susan Oyama.
For separate works entered under each name see
Durant, John
Klopfer, Peter
Oyama, Susan

explication
A form of critical analysis requiring close examination of the language, style, symbolism, and structure of a literary text, intended to provide a clear and detailed exposition of its meaning and significance. Examples can be found in the literary quarterly titled The Explicator.

explicit
An abbreviation of the Latin phrase Explicitus est liber, meaning "the book is unrolled to the end." Originally used to signify the end of a text written on a continuous papyrus or parchment scroll or volumen, the expression continued to be used in codex manuscripts and early printed books to indicate the end of the work or the conclusion of one of its major divisions. The explicit sometimes included the author's name and title of work but more often the place and date of production/publication and name of printer. Compare with incipit. See also: colophon and finis.

explode
A command available in some bibliographic databases, such as MEDLINE, that automatically creates and executes a search statement in which the Boolean OR is used between a given subject heading and each and every one of the headings indented under it in the hierarchical tree structure, expanding retrieval to include narrower subdivisions of the topic.

exploded drawing
A graphic representation in which the individual components of an object or structure are shown disassembled, but in correct relationship to each other with respect to their positions in the assembled whole. To see examples, try a search on the term in Google Images.

exploit
In the publishing industry, to promote, advertise, publicize, or advance by other means an author (or other creative artist) and his/her works for the purpose of profit.

export
To send data in digital format from one application or computer system to another, usually by means of a specific command, for example, bibliographic records retrieved from an online catalog or database to an e-mail address or storage medium (usually floppy disk). The export process may require the conversion of data into a format compatible with the receiving application or system. Most applications have the capacity to convert a variety of popular formats. The opposite of import.

export edition
An edition of a publication prepared by the publisher specifically for distribution or sale in another country (or countries). Compare with co-edition.

export price
A special price put on a book offered for sale outside the country in which it is originally published, not determined by the list price in the publisher's home market.

exposé
A piece of in-depth investigative journalism that reveals the truth about a situation, which is often shocking to the general public.

exposure
The amount of light falling on a photographic medium, such as a light-sensitive plate or film or an image sensor, during a single shutter cycle, measured in lux seconds. Also used in reference to the photographic image produced by a single click of the camera shutter. In a multiple exposure, the same medium is exposed to more than one shutter cycle. See: overexposure.

expression
As defined in FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records), the form in which a creative work is realized, for example, a single variant of the text of a literary work (Shakespeare's Hamlet) or composer's score or a specific performance of a musical work (original Broadway production of West Side Story). Any alteration of the intellectual or artistic content of a work (abridgment, adaptation, revision, translation, etc.) produces a new expression. The term is abstract in the sense of excluding aspects of physical form not essential to the intellectual or artistic content, such as the typeface, type size, and page layout used in printing the text of a written work. Compare with manifestation.

expressive notation
In some classification systems, the structure of the letters, numerals, and/or symbols used to indicate the classes is designed to show the hierarchical position or facets of each class and subclass. For example, in Dewey Decimal Classification, the successive subdivisions of a class are indicated by arabic numerals and decimal fractions. In the DDC notation 782.42, assigned to the book titled Broadway Love Songs, 700 indicates that the work is about a topic in the the arts, 780 that it concerns music, 782 vocal music, and the decimal fraction .42 songs.

expunction
An unobtrusive method of correction used in medieval manuscripts in which a dot was written beneath one or more letters or words to indicate deletion.

expurgated
A text or edition from which portions have been deleted ("purged") usually to satisfy moral or political objections, an alternative to banning the work completely from publication or distribution (see these examples). The opposite of unexpurgated. See also: bowdlerize and censorship.

extended binding
A binding in which the front and back covers extend beyond the trimmed edges of the leaves it encloses. Compare with flush binding. See also: squares.

extended offer
In publishing, an introductory offer or prepublication price continued beyond the originally announced expiration date, usually in response to strong demand. Sometimes a publisher reissues an entire sale catalog with an extended expiration date.

extended play (EP)
An obsolete phonograph record format consisting of a 7-inch wide 45 rpm vinyl disc containing two or more tracks per side, in contrast to the standard 45 rpm record with only one track per side. EPs were introduced by RCA Victor in 1952 to compete with the 12-inch 33 rpm long-playing (LP) record introduced by Columbia in 1948. The term is also used in a general sense for any phonograph record containing more music than a single, but too brief to qualify as a record album or LP.

extended subscription
Instead of resupplying claimed issues or parts, or issuing a credit, the publisher of a periodical may compensate the subscriber by lengthening the period of the current subscription.

extender
A decorative addition to an initial letter in a medieval manuscript continuing the letterform into the margin of the page. Click here to view a zoomorphic extension of the letter "S" in a 13th-century Latin Bible (Bodleian Library, MS Lat. bib. e. 7) and here for a similar example in a 13th-century French manuscript (British Library, Burney 38). Click here to see foliate extenders in a 15th-century Italian Book of Hours (Morgan Library, MS G.14). In some manuscripts, extenders have been carried even further, forming a decorative border along the margin and around the corners of the text (see this leaf from a 13th-century French missal, courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art). There are also many examples in the 15th-century Burnet Psalter (University of Aberdeen Library, AUL MS 25). In this example from a 13th-century Belgian psalter, the lower extender is historiated in roundels (Morgan, MS M.183). See also: bar border.

Extensible Markup Language (XML)
A subset of the SGML markup language in which the tags define the kind of information contained in a data element (i.e., product number, price, etc.), rather than how it is displayed. "Extensible" means that XML tags are not limited and predefined as they are in HTML--they must be created and defined through document analysis by the person producing the electronic document. Designed to meet the needs of large-scale electronic publishing, XML is a flexible text format that can be used with HTML in the same Web page. Document structure can be defined in a Document Type Definition (DTD) or XML Schema capable of handling document hierarchies. The most elaborate XML vocabularies have been developed to support business-to-business transactions. Click here and here to learn more about XML. See also: Encoded Archival Description and MARCXML.

Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL)
A language for expressing style sheets to determine the presentation of XML documents or data files, for example, how the content is formatted, laid out, and paginated in a presentation medium, such as a window in a Web browser or hand-held device or a set of printed pages. Click here to learn more about XSL.

extension
A three- or four-character code added to a filename following a period (full stop) to indicate file type, for example, .txt to indicate a file in plain ASCII text, .doc for a document file created in MS-Word, or .html for a file in HTML script. For a more complete list of extensions, see Every File Extension in the World from Whatis?com. Also used synonymously with extender.

extension card
A second or subsequent catalog card used in a manual card catalog when the descriptive information about a bibliographic item is too long to fit on a single card.

extension tabs
Small flaps of leather, cloth, or strong paper, attached to and extending beyond the fore-edge of the leaves of a book, usually added to facilitate indexing. See also: tab index.

extent
A publishing term for the length of a book or other printed publication expressed as the total number of pages. Type size and width of margins can be manipulated by the typographer to make a work appear longer or shorter than it actually is. In library cataloging, number of pages is given in the physical description area of the bibliographic record. In a more general sense, the length of any bibliographic item, print or nonprint. See also: extent of item.

extent of item
The first element in the physical description area (MARC field 300) of a bibliographic record, giving in arabic numerals the number of physical units comprising the item (example: 356 p. or 13 v.), the specific material designation, and any other details of extent, such as playing time in the case of sound recordings, motion pictures, videorecordings, and DVDs.

In the description of archival materials, extent of item is given as the number of linear or cubic feet (meters in Canada) occupied by an archival collection, and/or the exact or approximate number of items it contains, for example, ca. 8,700 items (11.8 cubic ft.) or 13 linear ft. (32 boxes). Microfilm is described in number of reels (128 microfilm reels: negative) or in feet if not on a reel (5 ft. of microfilm). If the collection contains more than one type of material, each measured in a different way, separate statements are given. If the description of extent is complicated, it may be given in a note to avoid confusion. Synonymous with statement of extent.

external decoder
An electronic device that connects one or more barcode scanners by cable to a computer or computer system and translates input from the scanner into digital signals that can be processed by the computer. Some barcode scanners come with a built-in decoder.

External Review Panel
A group of educators and practitioners in the field of library and information studies (usually six) selected to visit a program under evaluation for accreditation to verify information provided in the Program Presentation document submitted as part of the two-year comprehensive review. Panelists are appointed by the Committee on Accreditation (COA) with the cooperation of the dean of the program and the Office for Accreditation of the American Library Association (ALA). When possible, panelists are selected to reflect the emphasis indicated in the program�s Plan for the Program Presentation and to meet requests for areas of special expertise.

extra bound book
A book specially bound and finished by hand, rather than by machine.

extract
One or more lengthy quotations from a book or other work set within the main text of another work, usually indented and sometimes printed in distinguishing type. When printed in the same type size as the text and without indention, an extract is enclosed in quotation marks and preceded and followed by a blank line. In a more general sense, any piece taken from one work and used in another, sometimes to represent the whole, as in a scene from a motion picture used in a trailer. Compare with excerpt.

Also, one ore more portions of a document selected to represent the content of the whole.

extract type
In printing, notes and lengthy quotations or extracts are distinguished from the body of the text by setting them in a smaller size of the same typeface. Compare with text type. See also: display type.

extra-illustrated
A volume into which additional illustration (usually plates from other sources) and sometimes printed matter or autograph material has been inserted, not part of the publication as issued. Synonymous with privately illustrated. See also: grangerized.

extraneous matter
Material found inside or attached to a bibliographic item, placed there by someone other than the publisher or printer, for example, bookmarks, post-it notes, newspaper clippings, photographs, paper clips, staples, rubber bands, etc. In libraries, extraneous matter may include paperwork generated in technical processing and handling, such as order slips, gift slips, work tickets, catalog cards, routing slips, and binding slips. Extraneous matter may leave permanent marks on the item or stress the binding.

extranet
A private computer network designed to serve the employees of a company or members of an organization (as in an intranet) and also to provide various levels of accessibility to selected persons outside the organization (business partners, customers, clients, etc.) but not the general public. When transmission occurs over public telecommunication channels (the Internet), the system is password-protected to exclude unauthorized users. Services may be fee-based or offered at no charge.

extrapolation
The addition of one or more new subjects at the end of an array in a classification system, based on a shared characteristic or characteristics. Compare with interpolation.

extras
Charges not included in the price of library materials, such as shipping and handling.

eye-readable
A document or code that can be read by the human eye without the aid of magnification or computer, for example, a printed standard number, as opposed to its scannable barcode equivalent. The identifying header across the top of most microfiche is eye-readable, but the stored text and/or microimages are not. Also refers to materials that can be read by the human eye, as distinct from materials in a format specifically designed to be "read" by a visually impaired person, for example, books in Braille. Compare with human-readable.

EZproxy
Proprietary proxy server software, designed to enable libraries to provide easy access from outside their local computer networks to Web sites that restrict access by IP address, for example, to bibliographic databases leased from vendors whose licensing agreements restrict access to registered users. Created in 1999 by librarian Chris Zagar, whose accomplishment won him the LITA/Brett Butler Entrepreneurship Award in 2006, EZproxy was acquired by OCLC in January 2008. Click here to learn more about EZproxy.


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