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ODLIS

Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science

by Joan M. Reitz
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cabinet card
An early photographic print mounted on 4 1/2 x 6 1/2 inch card stock, often a commercial portrait or vignette with the photographer's imprint across the bottom or on the back. Early albumen prints are in sepia and later examples are in silver tones and rich blacks, printed on gelatin papers introduced in the 1870s. Easy to mass produce, cabinet cards appeared in the mid-1860s, replacing the wallet-sized carte-de-visite, and were sold up to about 1905 when the tinted picture postcard became popular. Click here to see a cabinet card portrait of Sigmund Freud's mother, Amalia, and here to see a vignette of Capt. Cornelius M. Schoonmaker (1839-1889), U.S. Navy. Synonymous with cabinet photograph. See also: imperial card photograph.

cable modem
A modem designed to operate over cable television lines, instead of telephone lines, providing faster data transmission because the coaxial cable used by cable TV companies has higher bandwidth. With millions of homes in the United States already wired for cable TV, Internet access via cable modem is growing.

cable television (CATV)
Television service transmitted directly to subscribers via cable connection, rather than broadcast over the air to all who own receivers. Originally designed to extend service to homes in rural areas, cable TV reached nearly half the homes in the United States by the early 1990s. Today, cable systems deliver hundreds of channels, many providing specialized programming, to approximately 60 million U.S. homes, and high-speed Internet access to a growing number of people. Some cable systems allow subscribers to make telephone calls and receive new programming technologies, such as pay-per-view. Click here to learn more about cable television, courtesy of HowStuffWorks.

cache
A small section of dedicated high-speed memory built into a microcomputer to improve system performance by providing temporary storage for blocks of data and instructions that would otherwise be retrieved from slower memory. As a general rule, the larger the cache, the greater the enhancement of performance and speed. Click here to learn more about caching, courtesy of HowStuffWorks. Pronounced "cash." See also: browser cache.

cadastral map
From the Latin capitastrum, meaning "register of the poll tax." A map showing boundaries and subdivisions made to record ownership and rights in land and to describe and establish the value of property, usually for the purpose of tax assessment (see these modern examples, courtesy of Rootsweb). A cadastral map may also show culture (roads, buildings, etc.), drainage, and other features that have a bearing on land use and value. Click here to see an 18th-century example, courtesy of the Royal Library of Denmark. To see other examples, try a keywords search on the term in Google Images. See also: plat.

cadel
A large capital letter composed of sweeping pen strokes creatively embellished with wide parallel calligraphic flourishes and occasional cross-strokes, giving the letterform the appearance of a versal. Cadels were an exaggerated form of gothic littera bastarda, used in medieval manuscripts from the 13th to the 15th century. Click here to see an elaborate "H" at the beginning of a calendar leaf in The Hours of Henry VII (Leaves of Gold) and here to see an illuminated example in a 15th-century Flemish manuscript (Getty Museum, MS 37). Click here to see a large rubricated cadel in a 16th-century Scottish manuscript (British Library, Arundel 285). Also spelled cadelle.

calamus
The pen made from a dried reed, used from about 200 B.C. for writing in ink on papyrus, as distinct from the stylus used during the same period for writing on wax tablets and the quill pen used from the 6th century for writing on parchment and vellum (see this example). Marc Drogin notes in Medieval Calligraphy: Its History and Technique (Allanheld & Schram, 1980) that a sharp point was used at first, producing monoline script. After about 100 B.C., a broad-nibbed reed was used, allowing the scribe to vary the width of pen strokes, giving the letterforms a more calligraphic appearance.

Caldecott Medal
A literary award given annually since 1938 under the auspices of the American Library Association to the illustrator of the most distinguished children's picture book published in the United States during the preceding year. Donated by the family of Frederic G. Melcher, the medal is named in honor of the Victorian children's book illustrator Randolph Caldecott. The ALSC maintains the Caldecott Medal Home Page. Click here to view a list of Caldecott Medal winners. Compare with Newbery Medal. See also: Amelia Frances Howard-Gibbon Illustrator's Award and Greenaway Medal.

Caldecott, Randolph (1846-1886)
Born in Chester in northwest England, Randolph Caldecott taught himself to draw as a child and persisted despite his father's wish that he go into banking. His first published drawings appeared in a Manchester newspaper. After various journals accepted his work, Caldecott went to London in 1872 where he studied at the Slade School with Sir Edward Poynter. His career as an illustrator got a boost the following year with the publication of Washington Irving's Old Christmas, and beginning in 1874 his illustrations appeared in the periodicals The Graphic and Punch. Lodging near The British Museum in the heart of Bloomsbury, Caldecott made many friends in artistic and literary circles and became the most popular Victorian illustrator of children's books. He died at the age of 40 in Florida after undertaking an ill-fated trip to America for his health. The annual Caldecott Medal for children's book illustration is named in his honor. Click here to see examples of Caldecott's work, courtesy of Mary Mark Ockerbloom. Other examples can be seen at the Web site maintained by the Randolph Caldecott Society (UK).

calendar
A tabular register of the days in a year, usually arranged by month and within each month by week, sometimes indicating the dates of important events such as national and religious holidays. To learn about the history of calendars, see Calendars through the Ages. Also, an almanac listing days of the year significant to a particular culture or political entity. The calendar of forthcoming library events, provided in Library and Book Trade Almanac, includes state, regional, national, and international association meetings. Compare with chronology. See also: calendar year and perpetual calendar.

In medieval manuscripts used in Church services and private devotion, a calendar section often preceded the text, identifying the feast days celebrated in the region. The most important were highlighted in red ink ("red letter days") with other colors used to indicate degrees of importance. The Julian calendar (365 days with an extra day every four years) was adopted from the Romans, but the Roman civil year (beginning on January 1) was replaced by the Christian year in the 7th century. Click here to page through the liturgical calendar in the Burnet Psalter (University of Aberdeen Library, AUL MS 25), and here to see the complete calendar from a 15th-century book of computus texts (Celebrating the Liturgy's Books). Other examples can be seen in the Schøyen Collection (Oslo and London). The illumination of medieval calendars often depicted the labors of the month (largely agrarian) and the signs of the zodiac (see Les très riches heures du Duc de Berry, courtesy of WebMuseum). For an early printed calendar, see this example published in Venice in 1482 by Erhard Ratdolt (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, Euing BD7-f.13).

Also refers to a chronological list of the documents included in an archival collection (rolls, charters, state papers, etc.), usually annotated to indicate the date, place, contents, and other characteristics of each item--a type of finding aid that can be comprehensive or selective.

calendar year
The one-year period beginning on January 1 and ending on December 31 (following the civil year of the ancient Romans). Most journal subscriptions run for a single calendar year, although some publishers offer a financial incentive to subscribe or renew for multiple years. Compare with publication year. See also: subscription period.

calender
The part of a papermaking machine consisting of one or more smooth rollers designed to smooth paper after drying, reducing its permeability to moisture by closing the pores in its surface (see this example). In calendering, the degree of smoothness depends on the amount of pressure applied by the rollers. Supercalendering produces the glossiest finish that can be applied to paper without coating it.

calf
A leather binding made from the skin of a calf usually no more than a few weeks old. Its soft, smooth, unblemished surface made it the preferred material in England for hand-binding trade editions but not on the Continent, where printed books were usually sold in paper covers to be custom-bound at the discretion of the purchaser. Calfskin bindings can be dyed any color and decorated in various ways (marbled, mottled, speckled, stained, tree, etc.). Although it is sturdy and provides a good base for tooling and blocking, the smooth surface of calfskin makes it susceptible to scratching and scuffing. Click here to see an undecorated 17th-century calf binding (Princeton University Library) and here to see a 17th-century example tooled in gold (St. John's College Library, University of Cambridge). Synonymous with calfskin. See also: kipskin, law calf, ooze leather, rough, russia, and Spanish calf.

calfskin
See: calf.

calligraphy
The art of elegantly beautiful handwriting. A highly skilled penman is a calligrapher. The term also refers to handwritten characters, words, pages, and entire documents that meet the aesthetic requirements of highly skilled penmanship. In Far Eastern cultures, calligraphy is done with a pointed brush held in a vertical position. In Western and Islamic cultures, it is done with a reed, quill, or nib pen held at an angle to the writing surface. During the Middle Ages, certain scribes were known for the beauty of their script. Some became writing masters and created model books like this one created by Georg Bocskay, Croatian-born court secretary to the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I (Getty Museum, MS 20).

In the Islamic world, the proscription on religious imagery facilitated the development of Arabic calligraphy into a sophisticated art form. For online exhibition of Islamic calligraphy See Traces of the Calligrapher, courtesy of the Asia Society, and Arabic Calligraphy (Islamic Arts and Architecture Organization). For Chinese calligraphy, see Chine: L'Empire du Trait (Bibliothèque Nationale de France) or Calligraphy of the Masters. To learn more about calligraphy, see the entry in Wikipedia.

call number
A unique code printed on a label affixed to the outside of an item in a library collection, usually to the lower spine of a book or videocassette (see these examples), also printed or handwritten on a label inside the item. Assigned by the cataloger, the call number is also displayed in the bibliographic record that represents the item in the library catalog, to identify the specific copy of the work and give its relative location on the shelf.

In most collections, a call number is composed of a classification number followed by additional notation to make the call number unique. This gives a classified arrangement to the library shelves that facilitates browsing. Generally, the class number is followed by an author mark to distinguish the work from others of the same class, followed by a work mark to distinguish the title from other works of the same class by the same author, and sometimes other information such as publication date, volume number, copy number, and location symbol.

In Library of Congress Classification (LCC), used by most academic and research libraries in the United States, class notation begins with letters of the English alphabet (example: PN 2035.H336 1991). In Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), used by most public and school libraries in the United States, class notation consists of arabic numerals (example: 480.0924 W3). U.S. federal government documents are assigned SuDocs numbers (example: L 2.2:M 76).

call slip
A brief form that the user must fill out to request an item from the closed stacks of a library or archives, or from some other nonpublic storage area, usually retrieved by hand by a staff member called a page, although automated and semi-automated retrieval systems are used in some large libraries. Synonymous with request slip.

calotype
An early photographic process patented in 1841 by William Henry Fox Talbot, who found that by treating high-quality writing paper with light-sensitive chemicals and exposing it to light in a camera, a latent image resulted from which prints could be developed on similarly treated paper. Strictly speaking, the term "calotype" refers only to the paper negative from which positive prints were made on salted paper. Because the negative was embedded in the paper, rather than on a surface coating, the texture of the fibers and any imperfections in the paper tended to make the prints appear mottled or sketchy (see this example).

According to Robert Leggat (A History of Photography, 1999), the calotype was not as popular as the daguerreotype due to patent restrictions and because the materials used were not as sensitive to light, requiring longer exposures. The two-step process took longer and the prints tended to fade. However, the process had significant advantages over the daguerreotype: (1) retouching could be done on either the negative or the print, (2) multiple prints could be made from a single negative, (3) paper prints were easier to examine and handle, and (4) the tones of a calotype were warmer. Introduction of the collodion process and albumen prints in 1851 made the calotype obsolete, but the negative-positive process invented by Talbot has become the standard in modern photography. Click here to see other examples, courtesy of the Getty Museum. Click here to learn more about the calotype process (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library). Synonymous with Talbotype.

Cambridge style
A distinctive 18th-century style of English bookbinding used mainly in university libraries and on theological works in which the boards are covered in two shades of brown leather, an effect achieved by masking and sprinkling calfskin so as to leave a stained rectangular panel in the center, surrounded by a plain rectangular frame bounded in turn by a stained outer frame. According Roberts and Etherington in Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books: A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology, volumes bound in this style were sewn on raised cords and had Dutch marbled endpapers and red stained edges. The spine, pieced with red russia leather labels, had double blind lines on each side of the raised bands, and the covers were decorated with a double fillet close to the edges and on each side of the panel, with a narrow flower roll worked very close to the panel lines. Tooling was done in blind or gold. The style was so popular with binders in Cambridge that it came to be regarded as their specialty, although it was practiced elsewhere. Click here and here to see examples, courtesy of the Royal Library of Denmark.

camcorder
A self-contained electronic device, introduced by Sony in 1983, that combines the capabilities of a video camera and videocassette recorder (VCR) in the same portable unit. Newer camcorders record video images and sound in digital format and are considerably smaller in size (and lower in price) than earlier analog models. Click here to learn more about the history of the camcorder, courtesy of Wikipedia.

cameo
A typeface used for special effect in which the normal method of printing is reversed, the characters appearing in white against a solid or shaded background, instead of in black against a light background. Compare with outline letter.

cameo binding
A style of bookbinding popular in Italy from about 1500-1560 in which the centers of the boards forming the cover are stamped in relief in imitation of a coin or medallion. The decoration may be left blind or embellished with ink, silver, or gold leaf. Click here to see an example done in blind (Southern Methodist University). Synonymous with plaquette binding. Compare with centerpiece.

cameo stamp
In binding, a metal tool of oval shape engraved with a design, usually in the form of a picture, used from the 11th to 16th century in blind tooling to make an impression resembling cameo jewelry on the side of a leather-bound book. See also: cameo binding.

cameraless animation
A film animation technique in which the images are drawn or scratched directly on the film stock, rather than photographed frame-by-frame (see this example). Synonymous with drawn-on-film animation.

camera lucida work
Latin for "lit chamber." A drawing made by tracing the image of an object or scene as it appears when reflected onto a drawing surface from the mirror of a camera lucida, a portable optical device widely used by artists up to the early 1800s to achieve accuracy and facilitate enlargement or reduction. Also refers to paintings and other works made from such drawings. Click here to learn more about the camera lucida, courtesy of About.com. Compare with camera obscura work.

camera microfilm
In reprography, an image of an original source document, made with a camera on high-quality film (silver halide emulsion on a polyester base), usually retained by the producer for the purpose of making second-generation archival print masters ("printing dupes") from which third-generation distribution or service copies are made. Synonymous with first generation and master negative.

camera obscura work
Latin for "darkened chamber." A drawing made by tracing the image of an object or scene as it appears when projected through the aperture (originally a pinhole) of a camera obscura, a simple optical device available to artists from the 1500s on (see these drawings by Canaletto, made with a camera obscura). Also refers to paintings and other works made from such drawings. Click here to learn more about the camera obscura. Compare with camera lucida work.

camera original
Processed or unprocessed photographic film exposed inside the camera, as opposed to a subsequent copy. Synonymous with original negative.

camera-ready copy (CRC)
In printing, copy typed using word processing software, or produced by some other means, that has been fully edited and is ready to be photographed for platemaking without having to be typeset. Synonymous with camera copy.

campaign
In medieval manuscript production, a single phase of work on a manuscript made in more than one phase over a period to time. The text was usually copied first, followed by the underdrawing of decorated initial letters and miniatures, then by gilding and painting, and finally binding.

campaign biography
The life story of a political candidate, issued at the time of his or her campaign for election to public office. The genre began in the United States in 1817 with the publication of The Life of Andrew Jackson by John Reid and John Henry Easton.

can
See: film can.

Canadiana
The national bibliography of Canada, produced since 1950 by Library and Archives Canada for use in reference and research as a selection aid, to provide bibliographic information for cataloging, and as a record of the nation's published heritage. Available online, on CD-ROM, and via FTP, Canadiana is a comprehensive list of titles published in Canada, including books, periodicals, sound recordings, microforms, music scores, pamphlets, government documents, theses, educational kits, videorecordings, and electronic documents. It also provides information about forthcoming titles to facilitate advance ordering. The printed edition of Canadiana was discontinued after the December 1991 issue and the microfiche edition after December 2000. Click here to connect to the Canadiana homepage.

Canadian Association for School Libraries (CASL)
A division of the Canadian Library Association (CLA) formed in 2004 by the merger of the Association for Teacher-Librarianship in Canada (ATLC) and the Canadian School Librarianship Association (CSLA), CASL is devoted to providing a national voice for school libraries in Canada, promoting excellence in school libraries, and facilitating the professional growth of school librarians. CASL sponsors conferences in conjunction with CLA and with provincial and territorial library associations. Click here to connect to the CASL homepage.

Canadian Association of College and University Libraries (CACUL)
A division of the Canadian Library Association, CACUL seeks to develop and promote high standards of librarianship in institutions of postsecondary education. The organization gives awards, publishes CACUL Divisional Notes, and sponsors the CACUL List-Serv. Click here to connect to the CACUL homepage.

Canadian Association of Public Libraries (CAPL)
The division of the Canadian Library Association (CLA) charged with enhancing public library service throughout Canada, CAPL holds an annual meeting in conjunction with the annual CLA conference and publishes the CAPL Newsletter. Click here to connect to the CAPL homepage.

Canadian Association of Special Libraries and Information Services (CASLIS)
The division of the Canadian Library Association (CLA) charged with enhancing special library service throughout Canada, CASLIS sponsors an annual meeting in conjunction with the annual CLA conference and an annual award for outstanding special librarianship in Canada. Click here to connect to the CASLIS homepage.

Canadian Bookbinders and Book Artists Guild (CBBAG)
Founded in 1983, CBBAG is a nonprofit association of craftspeople working in the hand book arts, including papermakers, paper decorators, bookbinders, book restorers, and paper conservators, both amateur and professional. CBBAG seeks to provide access to education in the book arts, promotes greater awareness of the book arts, and advocates high standards of excellence in the book arts through exhibitions, workshops, lectures and program meetings, and publications. CBBAG sponsors an annual book arts fair and publishes the CBBAG Newsletter. Click here to connect to the CBBAG homepage.

Canadian Booksellers Association (CBA)
A nonprofit national trade association devoted to promoting the current and future interests of the bookselling industry in Canada and to meeting the needs of Canadian booksellers. Its members include over 1,200 bookstores and over 350 publishers across Canada. CBA publishes the trade journal Canadian Bookseller in nine issues per year. Click here to connect to the CBA homepage.

Canadian Children's Book Centre (CCBC)
A nonprofit organization founded in 1976 to promote, support, and encourage the reading, writing, and illustration of Canadian books for children and teens, CCBC provides resources for teachers, librarians, students and parents, authors, illustrators, storytellers, publishers, and booksellers. The organization also administers that annual Geoffrey Bilson Award for Historical Fiction for Young People, publishes the quarterly magazine Canadian Children�s Book News, and sponsors TD Canadian Children's Book Week. Click here to connect to the CCBC homepage.

Canadian Intellectual Property Office (CIPO)
The special operating agency (SOA) associated with Industry Canada that is responsible for administering the greater part of the intellectual property system in Canada. CIPO is responsible for administering patents, trademarks, copyrights, and the legal protections for industrial designs and integrated circuit topographies. Click here to connect to the CIPO homepage. See also: U.K. Copyright Service, U.S. Copyright Office, and World Intellectual Property Office.

Canadian Library Trustees Association (CLTA)
The division of the Canadian Library Association (CLA) charged with providing a national voice for public library trustees in Canada, CLTA holds an annual meeting in conjunction with the annual CLA conference. Click here to connect to the homepage.

Canadian Publishers' Council (CPC)
Founded in 1910, CPC is a trade association representing the interests of Canadian publishers of English-language books and media for schools, colleges and universities, professional and reference markets, and the retail and library sectors. Located in Toronto, CPC also represents the Canadian publishing industry internationally and maintains a liaison with the Association of American Publishers. Click here to connect to the CPC homepage. See also: Association of Canadian Publishers.

Canadian-U.S. Task Force on Archival Description (CUSTARD)
An international group of archivists working to reconcile the three existing descriptive content standards used by archivists--APPM (Archives, Personal Papers, and Manuscripts); the Canadian Rules for Archival Description (RAD); and the General International Standard Archival Description (ISAD[G])--into a single descriptive standard. The product is expected to be the foundation of a truly international content standard.

cancel
A new leaf or leaves printed to replace part of a book or other publication when changes are required in the text or illustrations, usually before binding but after the work has gone to press, more common in the 17th and 18th centuries than today because as printing developed, the frequency of printing errors declined.

canceled
Said of a regular order, continuation order, or periodical subscription terminated for some reason by the library or the seller. A nonserial item may be reordered if it is still available. Library holdings of a canceled serial title are noted in the catalog record in a closed entry. Serial cancellations have increased in recent years, particularly in academic libraries, due to the rising cost of print subscriptions and the availability of full-text in bibliographic databases. Compare with discontinued. See also: noncancellable.

cancellation
In the context of medieval manuscripts, a superimposed "x" used to indicate a correction by crossing out one or more letters; a form of deletion. See also: expunction.

cancellation period
The period of time a library allows a publisher, jobber, or other vendor for shipment of a book or item before the order is automatically canceled, usually 90 to 180 days. The item may subsequently be reordered from the same vendor or a different source.

candidate
A person whose application for employment has been accepted and who is being seriously considered for a position. Also refers to a person taking an examination, running for an elected office, considered for an award or degree, or destined for a particular purpose or fate. See also: short list.

candid photograph
A photograph in which spontaneity and naturalness, rather than technique, are over-riding considerations. The subject is generally unposed and the shot unplanned, taken unobtrusively with an unhidden camera by a person immersed in an event that is often private, involving people in close relation to each other or engaged in unrehearsed activity. Henri-Cartier Bresson is considered a master of candid photography. Some candid photographs have become iconic documents (see this example).

canned
A performance that is prerecorded or filmed (not live), derived from the expression "in the can" in reference to the metal containers used for storing film and recording tape.

canon
In literature, the accepted list of works by a given author considered by scholars to be authentic, for example, the 37 plays of William Shakespeare. Also refers to the approved list of works included in the Bible. In the most general sense, a criterion or standard of judgment applied for the purpose of evaluation. Compare with apocryphal. See also: canonical order.

canonical order
The arrangement of headings, parts, divisions, or items in an order established by law or tradition, for example, the sequence of the books of the Bible.

canon tables
A system of indexing the canonical Gospels devised in the 4th century by Eusebius of Caesarea, in which the concordance of passages numbered in the text is displayed in four parallel columns, usually placed at the beginning of a Gospel book, Bible, or New Testament. Popular during the early Middle Ages, canon tables were usually given architectural treatment in manuscript decoration. Some designs include the symbols of the four evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Click here to page through colorful examples in a 12th-century German Gospel book (Getty Museum, MS Ludwig II 3).

canto
A major subdivision of a long narrative or epic poem serving the same function as a chapter in a novel. Cantos are traditionally numbered in roman numerals. Examples of works divided in this way are Dante's Divina Commedia, Spenser's Faerie Queene, and Byron's Don Juan.

caoutchouc binding
The precursor of modern perfect binding. In 1836, William Hancock was granted a patent for a binding method in which single leaves, produced by trimming away the back folds of the sections, were attached directly to the cover without the use of thread by applying to the binding edge a layer of rubber solution made from the latex of various tropical plants. This form of adhesive binding did not wear well--spines cracked and pages fell out. Also called gutta percha and rubberback.

caper
A fictional work (novel, story, motion picture, etc.) in which the plot is centered on the planning and execution of a single daring escapade, usually a complicated crime, such as the robbery of a well-protected bank vault, train shipment, or museum (examples: the 1975 novel The Great Train Robbery by Michael Crichton and the 1964 film Topkapi directed by Jules Dassin). The operation is usually undertaken by two buddies or a motley gang, who together possess the diverse skills and specializations required for the enterprise, although their interpersonal relations may be less than cordial. Uncertainty of success creates suspense.

capital expenditure
In budgeting, an allocation made on a one-time basis, usually for the construction of new facilities, the renovation or expansion existing facilities, or a major upgrade of automation equipment or systems, as opposed to the operating budget allocated annually or biennially to meet the ongoing expenses incurred in running a library or library system.

capital improvement
The acquisition of a long-term asset, such as a new or renovated facility, initial book stock, or new equipment, furnishings, or vehicle(s), funded on a one-time basis from a budget for capital expenditures, as distinct from the ongoing purchase of library materials, payment of salaries and wages, routine repair and replacement of existing equipment and furnishings, and regular maintenance of facilities, funded from the operating budget.

capitalization
The writing or printing of a letter, word, or words in uppercase rather than lowercase. Also refers to the conventions in a language with respect to words written or printed with certain letters in uppercase. For example, in English the first letter of the first word of a paragraph, and of each of the parts of a proper name, is normally capitalized. The general rules governing capitalization in library catalog entries can be found in Appendix A of AACR2.

capital letter
A large letter of the roman alphabet (A, B, C, etc.) that prior to the 4th century A.D. consisted of capitals only. The name is derived from the lapidary Roman letterforms incised with a chisel at the top (capital) of architectural columns and on other stone monuments. Also, any letter written or printed in a form larger and usually different from that of the corresponding small letter. Abbreviated cap. Synonymous with uppercase. Compare with majuscule. See also: capitalization, cap line, rustic capital, small capital, and square capital.

cap line
In typography, the imaginary horizontal line connecting the tops of the uppercase letters of a type font, often, but not necessarily, the same as the ascender line. Compare with mean line. See also: base line.

capsa
A box of cylindrical shape used in libraries of antiquity for storing scrolls in an upright position (see this example). See also: scrinium.

caption
From the Latin word for "capture" or "seizure." A brief title, explanation, or description appearing immediately above, beneath, or adjacent to an illustration or photograph on a page, sometimes indicating the source of the image. Synonymous in this sense with cut line or legend. See also: overleaf.

In cartoons, the line of text printed at the foot of the illustration, indicating the humor in the image (see this example). The New Yorker magazine sponsors a weekly cartoon caption contest.

Also refers to a heading printed at the beginning of a chapter or other section of a book and to the headline at the beginning of the text of a periodical article or section of it. See also: hanging caption.

In microforms, a title or brief line of description in a type size large enough to enable the viewer to identify the photographed document without the aid of magnification. In films and filmstrips, a line of text at the bottom of a frame or sequence of frames identifying or explaining the content. A continuously moving line of text at the bottom of television screen is called a crawl. Compare with subtitle. See also: closed caption.

caption title
A title printed at the beginning of a chapter, section, or other major division of a book, or at the beginning of the first page of the text, which, in the absence of a title page, is sometimes used as the title of the whole in creating the bibliographic description. The cataloger usually adds Caption title: as a note in the bibliographic record to indicate its source. In a musical score, the title that appears immediately above the opening bars may be used as the caption title. Synonymous with head title. Compare with drop-down title.

captivity narrative
An account of the experiences of a person captured and held against his or her will, usually by an enemy or by members of a society or culture foreign to the captive. Accounts by men and women of European descent, captured by Native Americans, were popular in the United States and Europe from the colonial period until the close of the frontier in the late 19th century (example: A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson by herself). Narratives based on journals written in captivity are generally less fictionalized than accounts written from memory after the event.

carbon copy
A copy of a document made at the same time as the original by the use of thin paper coated on one side with a mixture of dark waxy pigment (initially carbon) easily transferred to a second blank sheet under the pressure of pen or typewriter. Multiple copies can be made by alternating sheets of carbon paper with regular paper, but succeeding copies become fainter because each additional layer absorbs some of the pressure. The technique can be messy if the pigment is easily smudged. Click here to see a carbon copy of an address (with holograph revisions) given by Winston Churchill to the Virginia General Assembly in 1946, courtesy of the Library of Congress. According to Richard Pearce-Moses in A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology, carbon paper was invented in England by Ralph Wedgwood in the early 1800s and became available in the United States by the 1820s, but was not widely adopted until the introduction of the typewriter because it did not work well with quill pens. The use of carbon paper has been superseded by photocopying. Abbreviated cc.

carbon ink
An ink made from fine particles of carbon, such as soot or lampblack, mixed with a binding medium of oil, gum, or aqueous glue (see this example). Unlike the iron gall ink used in the early medieval period, which browns with age and can be so acidic that it corrodes paper and parchment, the carbon ink used in manuscripts of the late middle ages and in early printed books is highly stable and has no destructive effect on paper or parchment. However, it does not bond with the writing surface and is easily affected by water, which can present problems in restoration.

carbon print
The result of a photographic process patented by Joseph Wilson Swann in 1864 and popular until about 1910, in which a thin sheet of paper coated with a layer of light-sensitive gelatin containing a permanent pigment is exposed to ultraviolet light under a negative. The resulting image is transferred under pressure to a second sheet of gelatin-coated paper, then washed in water to set the gelatin, producing a permanent print with a raised surface where the image is darkest. The most commonly used pigments are carbon black and sepia, but a wide range of tints can be used. Because carbon prints contain no silver, they are highly resistant to fading, making them especially suitable for book illustration and commercial editions of photographic prints. Click here to see examples (Getty Museum) and here to learn more about the process, courtesy of Victoria & Albert Museum, London.

carborundum print
A collagraph print made by a process invented in the 20th century in which the printing plate is coated with a layer of carborundum, an abrasive powder of silicon carbide, mixed with resin, varnish, glue, or some other adhesive that hardens on the surface. The plate can then be worked to create an image in the same way as a mezzotint (see this example, courtesy of Aberystwyth University).

card
A small, flat, rectangular piece of thin paperboard or stiff paper, specifically designed to convey a message or other information. When printed, cards may include graphic design. The category includes such ephemera as advertising cards, business cards, trade cards, collecting cards, comic cards, dance cards, greeting cards, membership cards, playing cards, postcards, sports cards, and visiting cards. See also: index card and catalog card.

card catalog
A list of the holdings of a library, printed, typed, or handwritten on catalog cards, each representing a single bibliographic item in the collection. Catalog cards are normally filed in a single alphabetical sequence (dictionary catalog), or in separate sections by author, title, and subject (divided catalog), in the long narrow drawers of a specially designed filing cabinet, usually constructed of wood (see this example). Most large- and medium-sized libraries in the United States have converted their card catalogs to machine-readable format. Also spelled card catalogue. Compare with online catalog.

card-mounted photograph
A photographic print, often a portrait, mounted on a standard-sized piece of thin cardboard, popular during the second half of the 19th century. Common sizes (according to the California Historical Society):

Cigarette card - 2 3/4 x 2 3/4 inches (1885-1895 and 1909-1917)
Carte-de-visite - 2 1/2 x 4 inches (1859-1900s)
Victoria - 3 1/2 x 5 inches (introduced 1870s)
Kodak - 4 1/4 x 5 1/4 inches (introduced 1880s)
Cabinet card - 4 1/2 x 6 1/2 inches (1866-1900)
Stereograph - 3 1/2 x 7 to 5 x 7 inches (1850s-1920s)
Promemade - 4 x 7 or 7 1/2 inches (introduced ca. 1874)
Boudoir - 5 1/2 x 8 1/2 inches (1890s on)
Paris - 6 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches
Imperial - 7 x 10 inches (introduced 1890s)
Panel - 7 1/2 x 13 inches

Compare with cased photograph.

caricature
A deliberately distorted picture of a person, or a critical or facetious imitation of a performance or literary style, achieved by grossly exaggerating certain features or mannerisms peculiar to the object of satire or ridicule. The Lilly Library at Indiana University provides America in Caricature, 1765-1865, an online exhibition of political cartoons. See also Monstrous Craws & Character Flaws and Stagestruck! Performing Arts Caricatures at the Library of Congress. See also: caricature publication and lampoon.

caricature publication
A magazine or newspaper designed to imitate another publication (or type of publication) with openly satirical intent. Published fortnightly from 1825 to 1826, the Glasgow/Northern Looking Glass, satirizing political and social life in 19th-century Scotland, is an early example of a caricature publication (Glasgow University Library, Bh14).

Carnegie library
A library facility constructed wholly or in part with grant funds provided by the American steel magnate and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), who in his later years devoted his considerable wealth to the promotion of libraries and world peace. Between 1881 and 1917, over 2,500 Carnegie libraries were built around the world, the majority in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada. The libraries of many small towns in the United States still occupy facilities built with Carnegie funds. The buildings are typically monumental in appearance--to see examples, try a keywords search on the term "carnegie library" in Google Images. Click here to learn more about Carnegie libraries in Wikipedia and here to see images of Carnegie libraries.

The future of Carnegie libraries in the United States is uncertain. In the article "Carnegie Legacy: Preserving the Past by Looking into the Future" published in American Libraries (April 2006), architect Joseph C. Rizzo reports that of the 1,689 Carnegie libraries constructed in the U.S., only around 772 are still functioning as public libraries, another 350 are serving other purposes (museums, offices, etc.), and 276 have been demolished or destroyed by fire or other disaster. See also: Carnegie Medal.

Carnegie Medal
A literary award presented annually since 1936 by the Library Association of the United Kingdom to the author of the most outstanding English-language children's book published in the UK during the preceding year. The prize is named after the American steel magnate and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) who devoted the last years of his life to the advancement of libraries and world peace. Click here to view past Carnegie Medal winners. Compare with Greenaway Medal. See also: CLA Book of the Year for Children and Newbery Medal.

In the United States, a Carnegie Medal has been given annually since 1991 by the Carnegie Corporation of New York for excellence in children's video production. The award is announced at the midwinter meeting of the American Library Association by the Carnegie Award Selection Committee of the Association for Library Services to Children. Click here to learn more.

carol
From the Old French carole, a circular dance. A festive song, generally religious but not necessarily associated with church worship. Today, the form is represented almost exclusively by the Christmas carol, a song of joy and praise once sung by groups of amateurs in streets and in homes, especially on Christmas eve (see this illustration), but now heard mainly as muzak piped into retail businesses.

Carolingian minuscule
The first Latin script to introduce small letters, Carolingian minuscule may have evolved from Luxeuil minuscule, a script developed at the monastery in Corbie in France. It was adopted in the late 8th century by Alcuin of York, Abbot of St. Martin at Tours, in response to Charlemagne's desire for a standard alphabet in which books of the Catholic Church could be copied throughout his realm. Also influenced by English half uncials, the script Alcuin learned in his youth at the cathedral school in York, Carolingian minuscule quickly became the dominant book hand in Europe, where it was used through the 11th century and adopted in England following the Norman Conquest, replacing Insular and Anglo-Saxon scripts.

Its letterforms are wide and curved, with ligatures sparingly used, each letter written separately. Carolingian style systematized punctuation and the division of text formerly written in scriptio continuo into words and sentences. The practice of beginning each sentence with a single majuscule and completing it in minuscules was also standardized. Marc Drogin notes in Medieval Calligraphy: Its History and Technique (Allanheld & Schram, 1980) that the development of Carolingian minuscule made possible the copying of thousands of early manuscripts that would otherwise have been lost to history. Interest in Carolingian minuscule revived in the late 14th century in Italy, resulting in a humanistic script that became the basis for the lowercase letters of many modern typefaces. Click here to see a page from the 12th-century Italian Life of Mathilda of Canossa written in Carolingian minuscule (Library of the Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame), and here to see more examples from the Schøyen Collection (Oslo and London). Synonymous with Caroline minuscule.

carousel
A detachable, circular slotted container, usually made of plastic, in which dozens of slides can be queued for sequential viewing on a specially designed slide projector. Although carousels are bulky, they can also be used to store slides when not in use. To see examples, try a keywords search on the phrase "slide carousel" in Google Images. Compare with magazine.

carousel book
A type of tunnel book that opens in a circle to reveal, in three dimensions, several scenes in the story (click here and here to see examples).

carpet page
A page in a medieval manuscript or early printed book that bears little or no text but is covered with elaborate decoration, sometimes with the Christian cross incorporated into the overall design. The term is derived from its resemblance to hand-knotted carpets imported from the East. Michelle Brown notes in Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts (Getty Museum/British Library, 1994) that this style of ornamentation, popular with the scribes of Ireland and Britain from about A.D. 550 to 900, was used to separate the major divisions of Gospel books and Bibles and may have been of Coptic origin. Examples can be seen here in the Book of Kells and here in the Lindisfarne Gospels, an illuminated masterpiece produced in Northumbria at the end of the 7th century, currently in the custody of the British Library.

carrel
Originally, a small stall or pew in a medieval cloister containing a desk for reading, writing, and semiprivate study. In modern libraries, a small room or alcove in the stacks designed for individual study (click here and here to see examples). Also refers to a free-standing desk (or two desks face-to-face) with low partitions at back and sides to provide some degree of privacy, with a shelf across the back facing the reader. Newer study carrels have built-in illumination and may be wired to provide network access for patrons using laptops.

carrier's address
A verse in the form of a broadside or pamphlet, sometimes recapping the previous year's major events, distributed to clients at the beginning of a new year by newspaper carriers or other trades people in hope of a gratuity (click here and here to read examples).

carta lustra
A form of tracing paper, probably made from kid parchment, that may have been used in medieval book production to transfer designs from a finished exemplar to a manuscript in process (Christopher de Hamel, The British Library Guide to Manuscript Illumination, University of Toronto Press, 2001).

carte-de-visite (cdv)
French for visiting card. A small albumen photographic print, usually a studio portrait of an individual, couple, family, or group, mounted on 2 1/2 x 4 inch card stock, a format introduced by the Parisian photographer Andre Adolphe Disdéri, who in 1854 patented a method of taking a number of photographs (usually eight) on a single plate, reducing production costs considerably. The fashion of exchanging cartes-de-visite like calling cards and collecting them in albums spread throughout the world in the second half of the 19th century. Portraits of celebrity sitters were particularly prized (see this one of Abraham Lincoln taken in 1864). Cartes-de-visite can be dated by thickness (early cards were thin), corner shape (square or rounded), image size (small at first), border style, and studio props and background. By the early 20th century, the format had been superseded by the larger cabinet cards. Here is a selection of portrait cards of 19th-century actors and actresses from the Digital Collections of the University of Washington Libraries. Click here to learn more about the history of the carte-de-visite, courtesy of The American Museum of Photography. Also spelled carte de visite. See also: visiting card.

cartobibliography
A systematic list of references to maps and/or works about maps arranged in some kind of order, with or without annotations, usually related to a particular location, region, subject, person, or time period. Also, the branch of bibliography pertaining to cartographic materials and mapping. For an online example, see Cartobibliography of Maps of the Isle of Man. The Libraries of Memorial University of Newfoundland provide the searchable Newfoundland and Labrador Maps Bibliography. The Sir George Fordham Award for Cartobibliography is given every three years by the Royal Geographical Society for distinguished contributions to the field.

cartogram
A simplified map on which the size, outline, or location of geographic features is altered or exaggerated to illustrate a concept or a set of quantitative data for which the base is not necessarily true to scale. An area proportional to (APT) map is a cartogram on which surface extent (area) is relative to the amount of map data for a feature (e.g., population), rather than the geographic extent of the base to which the feature is related. Click here to see a world map based on estimated number of Internet users in the year 2015 (from An Atlas of Cyberspaces) and here to see maps of the United States based on the number of votes cast in the presidential election of 2008. Also refers to a small diagram included on the face of a map for the display of statistical data. See also: schematic map.

cartographic materials
Any systematic representation of part or all of the surface of the earth or another celestial body (real or imaginary) on any scale. The category includes two- and three-dimensional maps and plans; nautical, aeronautical, and celestial charts; atlases; globes and planetaria; block diagrams, sections, and profiles; views; remote sensing images (including aerial photographs with cartographic purpose); cartograms; etc. Most cartographic materials are visual representations, but spatial data sets are a notable exception. In the bibliographic record representing a cartographic item, the characteristics of the material are described in the material specific details area (MSD). See also: Anglo-American Cataloguing Committee for Cartographic Materials, cartobibliography, and map library.

Cartographic Users Advisory Council (CUAC)
Committed to promoting the development and use of cartographic and spatial data, CUAC meets with representatives of various U.S. government agencies each year to (1) discuss issues and concerns raised by advances in the use of cartographic materials produced by the federal government, (2) offer the perspectives of its constituents, and (3) hear plans for new products and services from federal agencies. CUAC is composed of 12 representatives, two each from the Map and Geospatial Information Round Table (MAGIRT) and the Government Documents Round Table (GODORT) of the American Library Association (ALA), the Geography and Map Section of the Special Libraries Association (SLA), the Geoscience Information Society (GSIS), the Western Association of Map Libraries (WAML), and the North American Cartographic Information Society (NACIS).

cartography
The art and science of making maps, charts, and other cartographic materials. Broadly speaking, the term includes all the steps required to produce a map (planning, aerial photography, field surveys, photogrammetry, editing, color separation, and printing), but mapmakers often apply the term only to map-finishing operations. Click here to learn about the process of making a topographic map, courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey. Automated cartography is the production of maps and charts with the aid of digital technology, not to be confused with geographic information systems (GIS). A person who makes or produces maps is a cartographer. Synonymous with mapmaking.

cartonnage
Pieces of papyrus glued and tightly pressed together to form rigid sheets, used as boards in early bookbinding (see Coptic binding). The same material was used in ancient Egypt for making mummy cases (see this example).

cartoon
A symbolic or representational drawing in one or more panels intended to caricature a person or institution or to satirize, with wit and imagination, an action, event, or situation of current popular interest. Usually published in a newspaper or magazine, cartoons may be captioned or contain monologue or dialogue in balloons. Political cartoons usually appear on or near the editorial page of a newspaper. Successful cartoonists are often syndicated. For examples, see Herblock's History and Oliphant's Anthem, two online exhibitions of political cartoons provided by the Library of Congress. See also the Cartoon Library and Museum at Ohio State University and the Center for Cartoon Studies in Vermont. A searchable database of New Yorker cartoons is available at Cartoonbank.com. See also: comic book, lampoon, and manga.

Also refers to an animated film created by photographing a series of drawings done as individual cels, then editing the images into a sequence of frames which, when viewed in rapid succession, create the illusion of continuous motion. To locate commercially produced cartoons, try The Big Cartoon Database.

In art, a full-size preparatory drawing done on paper as a working draft for transfer (sometimes in sections) to the surface of a fresco, tapestry, stained glass window, or other large work.

cartouche
A frame or panel, often in the form of a scroll, drawn or printed on a map or chart, usually as an inset, enclosing the title or subject of the work, name of cartographer, scale, and other descriptive information (legends). On older maps, the cartouche often includes decorative elements, ranging from simple ornamentation to elaborate embellishment. The presence of a coat of arms signified land ownership. Click here to see an example on a 17th-century map of Pennsylvania (Library of Congress). Click here to see a cartouche in the form of a medallion, and here and here to see draped examples (University of Wisconsin, Green Bay). Some decorative cartouches are very elaborate (University of Southern Maine). To see other examples, try a keywords search on the terms "cartouche and map" in Google Images. Also found on engravings and older bookbindings.

In a more general sense, a decorative element in the form of a scroll, often used in the Islamic decorative arts (click here to see cartouches used in the border of an 18th-century Turkish illuminated manuscript, courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art).

In Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions, a group of characters representing a divine or royal name or title, enclosed in an oval or oblong frame, often identifying a figure in a painting or sculpture. Click here to see examples carved in stone at Luxor, here to see examples in painted relief, and here to see a cartouche included in a jeweled pectoral (Metropolitan Museum of Art).

cartridge
A completely enclosed physical housing, usually made of hard plastic or metal, designed to store and facilitate access to a roll of film or tape, usually wound on a single core, for example, a light-tight, factory-loaded roll of photographic film designed to be placed in and removed from a camera in full daylight without risk of accidental exposure. A cartridge is distinct from a container in being integral to, rather than separable from, the item. Cartridges may be constructed with the recording medium in a continuous loop. Some libraries use cartridge microfilm in which the ends of a length of film are permanently attached to two take-up reels for playback and rewinding. Compare with cassette.

In computing, a removable electronic storage medium (disk, memory chip, magnetic tape, etc.), as opposed to a medium that is not removable, for example, a hard disk. Some computer printers are made with slots into which font cartridges can be inserted to load a variety of fonts. By extension, any self-contained removable module used in computing equipment, for example, the toner and ink cartridges commonly used to resupply laser and ink-jet printers.

Also, a removable electro-acoustic transducer, usually encased in hard plastic, designed to hold the needle in the arm of a phonograph record player. Click here to learn how a phonograph cartridge works, courtesy of MicroPhone Solutions.

cartulary
The room or place where the official papers or records of a medieval monastery, landowner, or corporation were kept. Also refers to the register in which they were listed, synonymous in the latter sense with chartulary. Click here to explore the 15th-century Aldgate Cartulary (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, MS Hunter 215 U.2.6).

cascading style sheets (CSS)
A feature added to HTML code that allows Web site developers to automatically apply the same layout to multiple documents. The appearance of design elements (logos, headers, footers, fonts, links, margins, etc.) is determined by one or more templates called style sheets linked to or embedded in the HTML document, rather than specified in the source code of each document. By governing style externally, CSS enables the site developer to give the pages of a Web site a uniform look and alter style of presentation as desired without having to rewrite source code. For more information see CSS Frequently Asked Questions, provided by the HTML Writers Guild.

case
In machine binding, a cover made completely before it is attached to the body of a book, consisting of two boards and a paper inlay covered in book cloth or some other protective material (see this diagram). The edition binder submits a specimen case to the publisher for approval showing the size, boards, covering, lettering, and squares. The process of attaching the case to the text block by pasting down the endpapers is called casing-in (see this result). See also: case binding and recased.

Also refers to a container used by a typesetter to hold movable type. The words uppercase and lowercase are derived from the relative positions of the compartments used to store the two kinds of type (see this example).

Also, a small, flat container hinged to open like a book, in which one or two daguerreotypes, ambrotypes, or tintypes were preserved, allowing them to be carried conveniently and safely. Early examples were made of wood covered in leather or cloth, often decorated on the outside, with fabric lining and metal hinges and fasteners. The photograph(s) fitted snugly into the rear of the front and/or back half of the case, protected under a sheet of glass and a brass mat. Thermo-plastic began to replace leather in 1854. Click here to see two closed examples, courtesy of Lost & Found: Rediscovering Early Photographic Processes, an online exhibition hosted by the University of Southern California. Click here to see one open (Metropolitan Museum of Art). Similar cases were used to protect portrait miniatures during the medieval period.

Also refers to a small, flat plastic container, hinged to open like a book, in which media items, such as VHS tapes and DVDs, are stored (see this example). A clear plastic case for storing CDs and CD-ROMs is called a jewel case (example). Locking cases are available to protect media against theft.

case binding
A form of mechanized bookbinding in which a hard cover, called a case, consisting of two boards and an inlay covered in cloth, leather, or paper, is assembled separately from the book block and attached to it after forwarding by gluing the hinges, sewing supports, and paste-downs to the boards in a process called casing-in or hanging-in. The spine of the case is not adhered to the binding edge of the sections in case binding. When the method was first introduced in 1823, plain cloth was used to cover the boards, but by the 1830s a variety of finishes had been developed and embossing was often added. Click here to see all the parts of a typical case-bound book labeled. See also: recased.

casebook
A book containing records or descriptions of actual cases that have occurred in a professional discipline (law, medicine, psychology, sociology, social work, counseling, etc.), selected to illustrate important principles and concepts, for the use of students as a textbook and practitioners for reference. Legal casebooks are typically plainly bound (see this example). Compare with case study

cased photograph
A photographic image mounted in a shallow, hinged box, usually made of wood covered in tooled leather (see this example), paper, or cloth, or of metal or an early molded composite (see union case), often with a metal clasp. Common in the mid-19th century, case mounting was used to protect daguerreotypes (example), ambrotypes (example), tintypes, and porcelain photographs. Some cases are oval (example) or octagonal in shape (example), but most are square or rectangular. Gilding and fine fabric linings were often used to create a luxurious effect (example). Photographs made by later processes may be mounted in cases that once held images of an earlier type. Cased photographs are often in need of repair when acquired by a library (click here to see the conservation process). The Bancroft Library at UC Berkeley and the California State Library host a Web site on their joint Cased Photographs Project. Compare with card-mounted photograph.

case file
In archives, a folder or other file unit containing material related to a specific project, task, action, event, person, place, or other subject, or a collection of such folders or units, also known as a project file or transaction file.

casein glue
An adhesive made from milk protein, used in bookbinding and in manufacturing coated papers, which is almost acid-free. A widely used example is Elmer's Glue-All.

case-sensitive
A computer system or software program in which uppercase letters (A, B, C...) and lowercase letters (a, b, c...) are not interchangeable as input (FAQ versus faq). On the Internet, Web addresses (URLs) are case-sensitive, but e-mail addresses and filenames usually are not.

case study
In the social and medical sciences, analysis of the behavior of one individual in a population, or a single event in a series, based on close observation over a period of time, often to reveal principles underlying individual behavior or events in general. A case study may be published as an article in a journal, as an essay in a collection, or in book form. In bibliographic databases that permit the user to limit retrieval by type of publication, case studies may be one of the options (example: PsycINFO). Synonymous with case report. Compare with casebook.

cash book
A blankbook used to record all money spent or received as payment, generally in a business in which it is necessary or desirable to know the amount of cash on hand at any given time, or in a partnership in which an accurate record of total assets must be maintained (see this example). Today, computer software is available for recording such transactions electronically. In libraries, a petty cash book may be used to record monies received (in payment of fines, etc.) and spent (usually on supplies and other minor items). Also spelled cashbook. Compare with account book.

cash on delivery (C.O.D.)
Payment which must be received at the time the goods are delivered.

cassette
A flat, completely enclosed container, usually made of metal or hard plastic, designed to hold a length of film or magnetic tape wound on two cores past an opening through which the film is viewed or the tape is read. The most common varieties used in libraries are audiocassettes, videocassettes, and cassette microfilm. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with cartridge, but some cartridges have only one hub. See also: compact cassette.

cassette single (CS)
A commercially released audiotape recording containing two tunes, a format first released in large scale in 1987. Some cassette singles contain one song on each side, similar to 45 rpm phonograph record singles; others have the same two songs on both sides. Abbreviated cassingle.

cast album
Recorded music from a musical, motion picture, or other theatrical production in which the vocals are sung by members of the performance cast. In an original cast album, the vocals are sung by the cast of the initial production, usually a Broadway or London premiere. To see examples, try a keywords search on the term in Google Images.

cast list
A list of the performers in a play, opera, ballet, or other theatrical performance, with their parts in the production, usually included in the printed program distributed to members of the audience as they are seated (see this example).

cast paper print
An artistic work in paper made by pouring wet pulp, colored or uncolored, into a mold and allowing it to dry. Produced since the 1970s, such works may be difficult to distinguish from embossed prints. Click here to see an example, courtesy of the Society of Scottish Artists.

catalog
A comprehensive list of the books, periodicals, maps, and other materials in a given collection, arranged in systematic order to facilitate retrieval (usually alphabetically by author, title, and/or subject). In most modern libraries, the card catalog has been converted to machine-readable bibliographic records and is available online. The purpose of a library catalog, as stated by Charles C. Cutter in Rules for a Dictionary Catalog (1904), later modified by Bohdan S. Wynar in Introduction to Cataloging and Classification (8th ed., 1992), is to offer the user a variety of approaches or access points to the information contained in the collection:

Objects:
1. To enable a person to find any work, whether issued in print or in nonprint format, when one of the following is known:
a. The author
b. The title
c. The subject
2. To show what the library has
d. By a given author
e. On a given and related subjects
f. In a given kind of literature
3. To assist in the choice of a work
g. As to the bibliographic edition
h. As to its character (literary or topical)

The preparation of entries for a library catalog (called cataloging) is performed by a librarian known as a cataloger. British spelling is catalogue. Abbreviated cat. Compare with bibliography and index. See also: classified catalog, dictionary catalog, divided catalog, and online catalog.

In a more general sense, an enumeration of items systematically arranged for a specific purpose, usually with brief descriptive information included in each entry, for example, an exhibition catalog, auction catalog, catalogue raisonné, course catalog, publisher's catalog, or film rental catalog. Sales catalogs are often heavily illustrated (see these examples, courtesy of the University of Delaware Library).

catalog album
A record album owned by a recording company, which it has previously released but is no longer promoting. Billboard magazine defines a catalog album as one over eighteen months old, which has fallen below position 100 on its Billboard 200 list of highest selling music albums.

catalog card
In manual cataloging systems, a paper card used to make a handwritten, typed, or printed entry in a card catalog, usually of standard size (7.5 centimeters high and 12.5 centimeters wide), plain or ruled. Click here to see examples, courtesy of the Gustavus Adolphus College Library. With the conversion of paper records to machine-readable format and the use of online catalogs, catalog cards have fallen into disuse. British spelling is catalogue card. See also: extension card.

catalog code
A detailed set of rules for preparing bibliographic records to represent items added to a library collection, established to maintain consistency within the catalog and between the catalogs of libraries using the same code. In the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, libraries use the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules developed jointly by the American Library Association, Library Association (UK), and Canadian Library Association. Synonymous with cataloging code.

cataloger
A librarian primarily responsible for preparing bibliographic records to represent the items acquired by a library, including bibliographic description, subject analysis, and classification. Also refers to the librarian responsible for supervising a cataloging department. British spelling is cataloguer. Synonymous with catalog librarian. See also: Association for Library Collections and Technical Services and Cataloger's Desktop.

Cataloger's Desktop
Published on a single CD-ROM, Cataloger's Desktop is a product of the Library of Congress that provides basic cataloging documentation (including MARC formats), the Library of Congress Subject Headings list, Cutter Tables, Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2), Library of Congress Rule Interpretations (LCRI), and more. Click here to learn more about Cataloger's Desktop.

cataloging
The process of creating entries for a catalog. In libraries, this usually includes bibliographic description, subject analysis, assignment of classification notation, and activities involved in physically preparing the item for the shelf, tasks usually performed under the supervision of a librarian trained as a cataloger. British spelling is cataloguing. See also: cataloging agency, Cataloging and Classification Section, cataloging-in-publication, centralized cataloging, cooperative cataloging, copy cataloging, descriptive cataloging, encoding level, and recataloging.

cataloging agency
A library or other institution that provides authoritative cataloging data in the form of new bibliographic records and modifications of existing records, for the use of other libraries. In the United States, the leading source of cataloging data is the Library of Congress. In the MARC record, the identity of the cataloging agency is indicated by its OCLC symbol in the cataloging source field (example: DLC for Library of Congress).

Cataloging and Classification Section (CCS)
The section of the Association for Library Collections and Technical Services (ALCTS) within the American Library Association (ALA) charged with promoting the improvement of cataloging and classification of library materials in all formats and in all types of institutions. Click here to connect to the CCS homepage.

Cataloging Distribution Service (CDS)
An agency within the Library of Congress that develops and markets, on a cost-recovery basis, bibliographic products and services that provide access to its resources for libraries in the United States, the American public, and the international information community. To accomplish its goals, the CDS employs librarians, product developers, systems analysts, programmers, operators, marketers, shippers, customer service representatives, accountants, and production staff. Click here to connect to the CDS homepage.

cataloging-in-publication (CIP)
A prepublication cataloging program in which participating publishers complete a standardized data sheet and submit it with the front matter or entire text of a new book (usually still in galleys) to the Library of Congress for use in assigning an LCCN and preparing a bibliographic record, which is sent back to the publisher within 10 days to be printed on the verso of the title page. The Library of Congress distributes CIP records to large libraries, bibliographic utilities, and book vendors on a weekly basis to facilitate book processing. If incomplete, the initial record may be amended by the Library of Congress after the U.S. Copyright Office receives the deposit copy of the published work. The CIP Program began at the Library of Congress in 1971 and is used throughout the world. Click here to see an example of CIP in the book, and here to connect to the CIP homepage. British spelling is cataloguing-in-publication.

cataloging source
Field (040) of the MARC record, reserved for the three-letter OCLC symbol representing the cataloging agency that created, transcribed, or modified the bibliographic record (example: DLC for Library of Congress). If English is not the language of the cataloging agency, the 040 field may also contain information about the language in which the item is cataloged.

Catalog of U.S. Government Publications (CGP)
The primary index to publications of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the federal government of the United States, published by the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO) since 1994, and since 1895 under these former titles:

  • Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications (MOCAT) (1950-1994)
  • United States Government Publications Monthly Catalog (1940-1950)
  • Monthly Catalog, United States Public Documents (1933-1939)
  • Monthly Catalogue, United States Public Documents (1907-1932)
  • Catalogue of United States Public Documents (March 1895-1907)
  • Catalogue of Publications Issued by the Government of the United States (January-March 1895)

Click here to search the CGP, which is updated daily.

catalog record
In the manual card catalog, all the information given on a library catalog card, including a description of the item, the main entry, any added entries and subject headings, notes, and the call number. In the online catalog, the screen display that represents most fully a specific edition of a work, including elements of description and access points taken from the complete machine-readable bibliographic record, as well as information about the holdings of the local library or library system (copies, location, call number, status, etc.) taken from the item records attached to the bibliographic record. British spelling is catalogue record. Compare with entry.

catalogue raisonné
A book or set of books listing and/or illustrating all the known works 1) of a particular artist (including photographers and architects), 2) of a school of artists or art movement, or 3) in a given medium, usually written by a leading expert and sometimes published as a supplement to another volume (example: Edward Hopper: A Catalogue Raisonné [1995] by Gail Levin, published in three volumes by W. W. Norton). As a general rule, each entry in the list includes date of production, size, condition, provenance, location, exhibition history, and other important information about the work. The images in a catalogue raisonné are often small and may be printed in black and white, the primary purpose being to authoritatively document the body of work rather than to display it for the reader's appreciation and enjoyment. A catalogue raisonné may not be identified as such in library catalogs, but its title often provides a clue ("The Complete Works of..." or "The Paintings of..."). To see other examples, try a keywords search on the term in Google Images.

catch letters
A sequence of letters (usually three) printed at the top of a page in a dictionary, gazetteer, or similar work that duplicates the first few letters of the first or last word on the page. Those printed on the verso indicate the first letters of the first word on the page; those on the recto, the first letters of the last word on the page. In some works, the letters appear in two groups separated by a hyphen, representing the first and last words on the page. Compare with catchword.

catchword
A word or part of a word printed in boldface or uppercase at the top of a column or page in a dictionary or encyclopedia that repeats the first and/or last heading appearing in the column or on the page. Synonymous with guideword. Compare in this sense with catch letters.

In medieval manuscripts and early printed books, a word or part of a word appearing in the lower margin of the last page of a quire that duplicates the first word on the first page of the following quire, enabling the binder to assemble the gatherings in correct sequence. In hand-copied books, the sequence of catchwords is unique to a specific copy. Michelle Brown notes in Understanding Medieval Manuscripts (Getty Museum/British Library, 1994) that the practice was probably introduced into Europe by the Moors. Click here to see an examples in a 14th-century English psalter (British Library, Harley 2888), Columbia University), and here to see a decorated example in a late 14th-century Book of Hours (Syracuse University Library). Click here to see catchwords in a printed book, courtesy of the University of Pittsburgh Libraries.

Also refers to a word or phrase repeated so frequently that it has become a motto or slogan. Compare in this sense with cliché.

catchword title
A partial title composed of an easily remembered word or phrase likely to be used as a heading or keyword in a search of the library catalog, sometimes the same as a subtitle or the alternative title. Synonymous with catch title.

Categories for the Description of Works of Art (CDWA)
A specification developed by the Art Information Task Force (AITF) defining metadata elements to be used in describing works of art and architecture and surrogates of such works (example: digital images), from an art-historical perspective. Click here to learn more about CDWA.

cathedral binding
A cloth or leather binding decorated with architectural motifs of the Gothic period blocked in gold, ink, or blind, sometimes including a rose window, popular in France and England from about 1815 to 1840 when interest in Gothic art underwent a revival. To see examples of the style, try a search on the keyword "cathedral" in the British Library's Database of Bookbindings.

Catholic Library Association (CLA)
Established in 1921, CLA has a membership of librarians, teachers, and booksellers involved with Catholic libraries and the writing, publication, and distribution of Catholic literature. CLA publishes the quarterly Catholic Library World. Click here to connect to the CLA homepage.

caucus
An interest group within a political faction or party, legislative body, or organization formed (sometimes spontaneously) to address an immediate need for action on a given issue or series of related issues, usually by formulating policy, supporting candidates for political office, drafting campaign strategy, lobbying, etc. (example: Black Caucus of the ALA). Compare with task force.

CAV
An abbreviation of constant angular velocity, a disc recording technology in which the disc is spun at constant speed in playback regardless of whether the heads are reading the inside or the outside. Because the tracks on the inside are shorter than those on the perimeter, the constant speed of rotation means that when the heads are reading the outside tracks, they traverse a much longer linear path than when the inside is read, so linear velocity does not remain constant. The main advantage of CAV is that it allows special playback features such as freeze frame, step frame, slow motion, and reverse not possible in CLV (constant linear velocity) format; however, CAV has significantly less data storage capacity than CLV.

Caxton Club
Named after William Caxton, England's first printer, the Caxton Club was founded in 1895 by fifteen Chicago bibliophiles (collectors, publishers, book designers, and librarians) who wished to advance the publication of fine books in the spirit of the prevailing Arts and Crafts Movement. The Club has as its primary objective the publication of books of quality, in content and design. Its founders also established club rooms in which to meet and sponsor exhibitions, and a library of reference material about books. The founders followed the lead of four other newly-formed book clubs: the Grolier Club in New York (1884), the Club of Odd Volumes in Boston (1886), the Rowfant Club in Cleveland (1892), and the Philobiblon Club in Philadelphia (1893). Click here to connect to the homepage of the Caxton Club.

Caxton, William (c. 1422?-1491)
England's first printer, Caxton learned the trade relatively late in life while living in Cologne and Bruges. He brought the first printing press to England and installed it in the Chapter House at Westminster Abbey, issuing the first dated book known to have been printed in England (probably his The Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers) in 1477. By the time he died in 1491, his press had issued approximately 100 works, including folio editions of Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales (1478) and Mallory's Morte D'Arthur (1485), which he sold to English readers in bound copies. He was an expert editor and translated into English many of the works he printed.

Click here to view pages from The Mirror of the Blessed Life of Jesus Christ printed by Caxton (c. 1490), courtesy of Special Collections, Glasgow University Library (Hunterian Bv.2.24). Click here to compare two Caxton editions of The Canterbury Tales, courtesy of the British Library. For a succinct, informative essay on Caxton's life and work, please see the entry under his name in Geoffrey Glaister's Encyclopedia of the Book (Oak Knoll/British Library, 1996). See also: Caxton Club and Gutenberg, Johann.

CD-I
Compact Disc-Interactive, a software and hardware standard developed in 1986 by Philips International and Sony Corporation for storing video, audio, and binary data on compact optical disk. A special stand-alone player that includes a CPU, memory, and an integrated operating system is required, capable of connecting to a television receiver for displaying images and sound or to a stereo system for sound only. CD-I technology allows the user to interact with the system by positioning a cursor to select options via a remote control device. Not widely accepted, CD-I applications are used in education, recreation (music and computer games), etc. Sometimes referred to as the Green Book standard. Also spelled CD-i.

CD-R
Compact Disc-Recordable, a blank compact disc invented by Philips and Sony, on which the user can permanently record audio and other digital data, using a CD burner, and then read the content repeatedly. The entire disc does not have to be written in the same session but once recorded, the information is not erasable. Most CD-R discs have a capacity of 80-90 minutes. The format retains a high degree of compatibility with standard CD and CD-ROM readers. Synonymous with CD-WO (Compact Disc-Write Once) and writable CD. Compare with CD-RW.

CD-ROM
Compact Disc-Read Only Memory (pronounced "see dee rahm"), a small plastic optical disk similar to an audio compact disc, measuring 4.72 inches (12 centimeters) in diameter, used as a publishing medium and for storing information in digital format. Stamped by the producer on the metallic surface, the data encoded on a CD-ROM can be searched and displayed on a computer screen but not changed or erased. The disc is read by a small laser beam inside a device called a CD-ROM drive.

Each disc has the capacity to store 650 megabytes of data, the equivalent of 250,000 to 300,000 pages of text or approximately 1,000 books of average length. CD-ROMs can be used to store sound tracks, still or moving images, and computer files, as well as text. In libraries, CD-ROMs are used primarily as a storage medium for bibliographic databases and full-text resources, mostly dictionaries, encyclopedias, and other reference works. Compare with WORM. See also: CD-ROM drive, CD-ROM network, and CD-ROM tower.

CD-ROM changer
A computer hardware device designed to store a small number of CD-ROMs or disc modules, with carousels and robot arms to move one disc at a time to an optical or magnetic reader and back to its storage location. Colloquially known as a jukebox. Compare with CD-ROM drive and CD-ROM tower.

CD-ROM drive
A hardware component designed to read data recorded on a CD-ROM disc, originally an external device but built into most newer microcomputers. CD-ROM drives can also be used to play audio compact discs when attached to a sound card via cable. Compare with CD-ROM changer and CD-ROM tower.

CD-ROM network
A client-server system that makes multiple CD-ROM discs stored in a CD-ROM tower accessible to users authorized to log on to a computer network. Most bibliographic databases available on CD-ROM require special licensing for network access. Synonymous with CD-ROM LAN.

CD-ROM tower
A computer hardware device designed to store a large number of CD-ROM discs, usually connected to a server programmed to handle network access. Compare with CD-ROM changer and CD-ROM drive.

CD-RW
Compact Disc-ReWritable. A compact disc introduced in 1997 on which the contents (data) may be erased and rerecorded multiple times. Compare with CD-R.

CD-WO
See: CD-R.

ceased publication
Said of a periodical or newspaper no longer published (see this example, courtesy of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek). Publication may eventually resume under the same title or an altered title. Also said of a work published in more than one volume, which was never completed. Library holdings are indicated in a closed entry. Compare with canceled and discontinued. See also: cessation.

cel
A thin sheet of transparent material of standard size (usually acetate) having the same proportions as a frame of motion picture film, on which is drawn or painted a single image in a sequence of animation. Original cels from early animated films may have independent value as works of art. To see examples, try a keywords search on "cel and disney" in Google Images. Also refers to a transparent sheet used as an overlay against an opaque background, as in textbooks on anatomy to show in layers the various systems of the human body.

celestial atlas
A book of charts of the heavens. The "golden age" of the celestial atlas occurred from about 1600 to 1800. The early star atlas was not intended to be a guide to amateur star-gazing, but rather for the use of working astronomers, as a backdrop on which to plot, as accurately as possible, the changing positions of the moon, planets, and comets. The best celestial atlases were produced by notable astronomers, based on their own observations. See Out of This World: The Golden Age of the Celestial Atlas, an online exhibition by the Linda Hall Library in Weston, Missouri, and also The Heavens: Views of the Universe, courtesy of the Library of Congress. To see contemporary examples, try a keywords search for books using the phrase "star* and atlas" in Amazon.com. Synonymous with sky atlas.

celestial chart
A map of the heavens, showing the relative positions of known celestial bodies (planets, moons, stars, etc.) and systems of interest to astronomers and amateur stargazers, usually printed in light tones against a dark background to simulate the night sky. Click here and here to see contemporary examples (Spaceshots.com), then compare this 17th-century chart with an 18th-century example (George Glazer Gallery). Click here and here to browse interactive charts of the solar system (U.S. Geological Survey). Synonymous with astronomical map and star map. See also: celestial atlas and planisphere.

celestial globe
A map of the heavens on the surface of a sphere. Celestial globes were originally used to represent the stars and constellations of the night sky, record their relative positions, and solve astronomical problems. Mounted on a stand that included a broad horizontal band representing the horizon, the globe could be adjusted to make the elevation of the pole above the horizon correspond to the user's latitude. In such a position, the globe's rotation corresponded to the apparent diurnal rotation of the stars at the given latitude. Click here to see an 18th-century example from the collections of the Royal Library of Denmark and here to see a smaller 16th-century example in silver and brass with clockwork (Metropolitan Museum of Art). Click here to explore an interactive example (Harvard Map Collection) and here to learn more about celestial globes, courtesy of the Whipple Museum, University of Cambridge. Modern illuminated models are available for children. In libraries, celestial globes are cataloged as cartographic materials.

cell
See: alcove.

cellocut
An intaglio or relief print made from a plate consisting of a base covered with a layer of celluloid dissolved in acetone (or similar liquid plastic) that is allowed to solidify before the artist begins working the design into its surface. The result often resembles a linocut.

celluloid
Originally a trademark of the Celluloid Manufacturing Company of Newark, New Jersey, established in 1871. The term first applied to an early thermoplastic made from cellulose nitrate and melted camphor, used with dyes and other agents in the manufacture of early photographic and motion picture film and other commercial products, such as knife handles, toys, washable collars and cuffs, etc. Highly flammable and chemically unstable, cellulose nitrate film was replaced by cellulose acetate in the early 1950s, and "celluloid" became a generic term for any motion picture film base. The compound is still used in the manufacture of table tennis balls, for which no material of comparable properties has been found. Click here to learn more about celluloid, courtesy of Wikipedia.

cellulose
A long-chain polymer (C6H10O5) commonly found in fibrous vegetable material, occurring in almost pure form in cotton fiber. When used in papermaking, it is obtained primarily from wood, but was formerly derived from cotton or linen rags. Cellulose in paper and board made from wood pulp is weakened in time by the presence of acid unless lignin is removed and an alkaline buffer added in manufacture.

Also, a family of plastics that includes cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate, and cellulose triacetate, used as the base in photographic and motion picture films.

cellulose acetate
An umbrella term for motion picture film manufactured with a base of slow-burning acetate plastic. Because the cellulose nitrate initially used as a film base is highly combustible, manufacturers found a safe substitute in plastics of the cellulose acetate family, introducing cellulose diacetate in 1909, acetate propionate and acetate butyrate in the 1930s, and cellulose triacetate in the 1940s. Use of cellulose nitrate as a film base was phased out in the United States in the early 1950s. All comparatively nonflammable alternatives to nitrate film are known as safety film. Kodak acetate film has the words SAFETY FILM printed along the edge. Synonymous with acetate base and acetate film. See also: acetate decay and polyester.

cellulose diacetate
An early acetate plastic base for motion picture film, introduced in 1909. See: cellulose acetate.

cellulose nitrate
A flexible base produced by Eastman Kodak from the 1890s until the early 1950s for use in photographic negatives and motion picture film. Its combustibility made handling 35mm film a hazardous occupation until the introduction of safety film. Because nitrate film is also chemically unstable, organizations such as the National Film Preservation Foundation provide grant assistance to film archives to facilitate the copying of moving image collections from cellulose nitrate to a more permanent base, such as cellulose acetate or polyester. Because of the potential fire hazard, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) issues guidelines for the construction of cabinets and vaults used to store nitrate-based motion pictures. Libraries and archives often store nitrate film off-site. Synonymous with nitrate base. See also: nitrate decay.

cellulose triacetate
The strongest acetate plastic base used in the manufacture of motion picture film, introduced in the 1940s. See: cellulose acetate.

censorship
Prohibition of the production, distribution, circulation, or display of a work by a governing authority on grounds that it contains objectionable or dangerous material. The person who decides what is to be prohibited is called a censor. Commonly used methods include decree and confiscation, legislation, repressive taxation, and licensing to grant or restrict the right to publish.

The ALA Code of Ethics places an ethical responsibility on its members to resist censorship of library materials and programs in any form and to support librarians and other staff who put their careers at risk by defending library policies against censorship. The Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) maintains a Web page on Internet Censorship. Compare with suppressed. See also: banned book; book burning; challenge; clandestine publication; Comstock, Anthony; expurgated; filtering; Index Librorum Prohibitorum; intellectual freedom; Motion Picture Production Code; precensorship; and samizdat.

census
An official count and statistical analysis of the living population of a species (human or nonhuman) in a given geographic area (city, county, state, province, country, etc.) taken at a particular point in time. A census is distinct from a sampling in which information obtained about a portion of a population is used as the basis for generalization about the whole. The earliest known census of taxpaying households was recorded in China in the 3rd century B.C. More complete enumerations were conducted for military and tax purposes in ancient Rome by special magistrates called censors. The development of the modern census began in Europe in the 17th century and today includes questions concerning age, gender, ethnicity, income, housing, etc., formulated to generate data used in social planning, political redistricting, business marketing, etc. In most countries, participation in the census is compulsory, but the information collected on individual households and businesses is confidential.

In the United States, the national census, mandated by the federal Constitution, is conducted every ten years by the U.S. Census Bureau, which reports the detailed results in statistical form by state. Census data is used to apportion seats in Congress and to gather demographic and economic information about citizens and other residents, later compiled and analyzed in federal statistical publications. U.S. census data is available in the government documents collections of larger libraries and online at: www.census.gov. Summary tables are published in the Statistical Abstract of the United States, prepared annually since 1879 and available in the reference section of most libraries in the United States. See also: census tract, Domesday Book, and TIGER files.

census tract
One of many small geographic areas into which a state or country is divided for the purpose of gathering and reporting census data. In the United States, the average tract contains 4,000 residents or approximately 1,200 households. Census tract outline maps are available from the U.S. Census Bureau.

center fold
The two innermost facing pages of a section in a book or other bound publication (the verso and recto of conjoint leaves). In sewn bindings, the threads can be seen along the fold. In a saddle-stitched periodical or pamphlet, wire staples can be seen in the fold. Also spelled centerfold. Synonymous with center spread.

In magazines, a gatefolded spread, usually a portrait such as a pin-up or nude, inserted in the middle of the publication--a special feature developed by Hugh Hefner, publisher of Playboy Magazine. In saddle-stitched magazines, the center fold has no blank space, allowing the illustration to be removed for display as a poster.

Center for Book Arts (CBA)
Founded in 1974, CBA is a nonprofit organization with headquarters in New York City, dedicated to preserving the traditional craft of bookmaking and encouraging contemporary interpretations of the book as an art object through exhibitions, lectures, publications, and services to artists, including courses, workshops, and seminars on all aspects of the book arts. Click here to connect to the CBA homepage.

Center for Research Libraries (CRL)
Founded in 1949, CRL's members are large research libraries that seek to improve access to scholarly collections. CRL publishes a bimonthly newsletter and serves as a depository for infrequently used research materials that its members may use cooperatively. Click here to connect to the CRL homepage.

Center for the Book
An educational outreach program established in 1977 by the Library of Congress to stimulate public interest in and awareness of books, reading, and libraries and to encourage the study of books and the printed word, the Center for the Book is a public-private partnership between the Library of Congress, 35 affiliated state centers, and over 50 national and civic groups. The Center publishes Center for the Book News and sponsors the annual National Book Festival. Click here to connect to the homepage of the Center for the Book.

centerpiece
In bookbinding of the late 16th and early 17th centuries, an ornamental design such as a diamond tooled or stamped in the center of the front and/or back cover, sometimes accompanied by matching cornerpieces. Click here to view a 16th-century example (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, BD1-d.3) and here to see a 19th-century example done in gilt red leather inlay (University of Miami, Florida). To see other examples, try a search on the keyword "centrepiece" in the British Library's Database of Bookbindings. Also refers to an embossed or engraved metal ornament attached to the center of the front cover of a book (click here to see a silver centerpiece on a 16th-century Book of Hours). Also spelled centrepiece. See also: cameo binding and mandorla.

centralized cataloging
The preparation of bibliographic records for books and other library materials by a central cataloging agency that distributes them in printed and/or machine-readable form to participating libraries, usually for a modest fee. Also refers to the cataloging of materials for an entire library system at one of its facilities, usually the central library, to achieve uniformity and economies of scale. Also spelled centralized cataloguing.

centralized processing
The practice of concentrating in a single location all the functions involved in preparing materials for library use, as opposed to technical processing carried out at multiple locations within a library or library system. Centralization allows processing methods to be standardized, but increased efficiency may be offset by the cost of distributing materials to the units where they will be used.

central library
The administrative center of a library system where system-wide management decisions are made, centralized technical processing is conducted, and principal collections are located. Synonymous with main library. See also: branch library.

central processing unit (CPU)
The hardware component of a computer that houses the circuitry for storing and processing data according to instructions contained in the programs installed on it, including the operating system, utilities to run peripheral devices, and application software. Generally speaking, the more memory and disk storage a CPU has, the more processing it can handle within a given amount of time, and the faster it can accomplish a task.

central records
The files of more than one unit of an organization, consolidated and maintained in a single location to allow greater efficiency than is possible with decentralized records. Also, the records of several individuals or entities consolidated under a common filing system. In such a system, the files of each unit or individual are usually maintained separately from those of other units, but organized according to a prescribed filing plan, with each file assigned a classification code under which it is filed. Click here to see an example at the level of local government. Synonymous with central files and centralized files.

ceramic photograph
A photographic image made by any one of a variety of processes on a ceramic support, such as porcelain or earthenware. Ceramic photographs, often oval in shape, have been used since the mid-1800's to adorn cemetery headstones and other grave markers with a likeness of the deceased (see this example in Flickr). See also: opalotype.

cerfs
See: kerfs.

certificate
A written or printed statement attesting the validity of a fact, promise, qualification, status, or accomplishment, often in the form of a document of standard format issued in the name of an authorizing body. Click here to see a 19th-century example, courtesy of The Lilly Library at Indiana University. Birth and death certificates are commonly found among family papers (see this example, courtesy of the Delaware Public Archives).

certificate of issue
In a limited edition, the statement in each copy giving the total number of copies printed and the copy number. In an autographed edition, the certificate may also bear the signature of the author, editor, or illustrator.

certification
In archives, the formal act of attesting to the official identity and nature of an original document or its reproduction. Compare with authentication.

Also, the process by which a state agency, or a nongovernmental agency or organization authorized by a state government, evaluates the qualifications of an individual, organization, or institution to perform a specific service or function for the purpose of granting a credential. In June 2007, the Board of Directors of the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) reaffirmed its Statement on Certification & Licensing of Academic Librarians opposing certification or licensing in lieu of the master's degree as the appropriate professional terminal degree for academic librarians. However, National Board Certification of library media specialists is encouraged by the American Association of School Librarians (AASL). Compare with accreditation. See also: approved program.

certified copy
A duplicate copy verified to be an authentic and accurate reproduction of the original by an official authorized to give such assurance, in most cases the person responsible for creating the original or a representative of the organization that has custody and responsibility for maintaining the original. Certified copies are often required of documents that are vital records, such as birth and death certificates and marriage licenses (see this example).

Certified Public Library Administrator (CPLA)
Jointly sponsored by the Public Library Association (PLA), Library Leadership and Management Association (LLAMA), and Association of Specialized and Cooperative Library Agencies (ASCLA), the ALA-APA's Certified Public Library Administrator Program, approved in 1996, is a voluntary post-MLS certification program for public librarians with three years or more of supervisory experience, designed to enable public library administrators to further their professional education and development; improve career opportunities through professional expertise; demonstrate to colleagues, trustees and boards of directors, patrons, and the wider community the acquisition of a nationally and professionally recognized body of knowledge and expertise in public library administration; and improve the quality of library service through the provision of practical knowledge and skills essential to successful library management. The Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is one of the providers of the CPLA Program. Click here to learn more about the program.

certified records manager (CRM)
An information professional who has significant experience in the management of active and inactive records systems and in related areas (archives, computer systems, micrographics, optical disk technology, etc.), and who has been certified by the international Institute of Certified Records Managers (ICRM) as meeting established standards of education, training, and work experience after passing required examinations. ICRM certification must be maintained by completing a prescribed number of hours of approved educational activity during each five-year period following initial certification.

cessation
A serial or annual for which publication has ceased. Cessations are listed alphabetically by title in a separate section of Ulrich's International Periodicals Directory published annually by Serials Solutions, a division of ProQuest. A serials vendor should notify its customers of the demise of a publication to enable libraries to adjust their records accordingly. In the library catalog, the holdings of a serial that has ceased publication are indicated in a closed entry (example: v. 1-26, 1950-76).

cf.
An abbreviation of the Latin confer, meaning "compare."

chained book
A book with a strong metal chain firmly attached to the binding, usually at its head, to secure the volume to the shelf on which it is stored, or to the desk or lectern where it is to be read, as a means of preventing unauthorized removal. In medieval Europe, the practice was common in ecclesiastical and educational institutions because the amount of labor required to produce manuscript books made them valuable. The chain could be up to five feet long, often fitted with a swivel to prevent twisting. A chained library survives in England at Hereford Cathedral. Click here to view a shelf of chained books (Schøyen Collection, Oslo and London), and here for a closer view of the metal fittings (Cornell University Library). Synonymous with catenati.

chain stitch
In bookbinding, a sewing stitch linked to previous sewing threads but not sewn to a support (tape, cord, thong, etc.). In Islamic binding, chain stitching was in multiples of two or four chains. Jane Greenfield notes in ABC of Bookbinding (Oak Knoll/Lyons Press, 1998) that it was also used in Coptic binding and in France during the 16th century and that modern machine stitching is a form of chain stitch. Synonymous with unsupported sewing.

challenge
A complaint lodged by a library user acting as an individual or representing a group, concerning the inclusion of a specific item (or items) in a library collection, usually followed by a demand that the material be removed. Library programs may also be targeted. Public libraries are challenged far more frequently than other types of libraries because they are supported by public funds and must provide resources and services for a highly diverse clientele ("This library has something to offend everyone"). An unambiguously worded collection development policy is a library's best defense against such objections. See also: banned book, censorship, frequently challenged book, and intellectual freedom.

champie initial
In medieval manuscripts, a style of decorated initial letter in which the body of the letter is usually in plain gold set against a parti-colored background, often of blue and red highlighted with delicate white lines. Common in Gothic manuscripts, champie initials sometimes have small extenders, as in these four examples in a 14th-century French Apocalypse (British Library, Yates Thompson 10).

champlevé binding
A style of book cover, produced in Europe from the 11th to the 13th century, consisting of a thin sheet of gold or copper in which designs were cut and the cavities filled with colored enamel (see this example made in Limoges, France). On some bindings, the enamel is limited to border and corner decoration. According to Matt Roberts and Don Etherington (Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books: A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology), champlevé can be distinguished from cloisonné bindings by the irregular widths of the metal separating the enameled areas.

chancery
Historically, a court of record or office of public archives (see this modern example). In law, a court of equity and its laws, practices, and proceedings (example). See also: Chancery rolls and chancery script.

Chancery rolls
From the end of the 12th century, the Chancery of England, in its original role as the royal secretariat, began to transcribe onto parchment important documents it produced. The copies were "enrolled" (sewn together and rolled up) to facilitate handling. The National Archives of England, Wales, and the UK maintains a great variety of such records preserved in the original format, including charter rolls, close rolls, fine rolls, liberate rolls, parliament rolls, patent rolls, pipe rolls, scutage rolls, and more. Of great interest to historians, they are listed by series in calendars, some of which have been published. Click here to learn more about Chancery rolls.

chancery script
A cursive script used from the 14th to the 16th century in the offices (chanceries) of royal, noble, and ecclesiastical houses for writing letters and less formal documents, adapted in 1501 as the basis of a typeface commissioned by the publisher Aldus Manutius and executed by the lettercutter Francesco Griffo. Click here to see an example of 14th-century Papal chancery script (Schøyen Collection, MS 590/41).

change-over cue
A small dot, oval, slash, or other mark in the frame of a feature-length motion picture, made by scraping a small hole in the emulsion layer, usually in the upper right-hand corner, as a signal to the projectionist to be prepared to change to the second projector with the next reel of film about every 15-20 minutes (see this example). The first cue appears 12 feet (eight seconds at 24 frames per second) before the end of the reel, alerting the projectionist to start the motor of the projector on which the next reel is mounted. After another 10 1/2 feet (seven seconds at 24 fps), the change-over cue appears, signaling the projectionist to make the change. When this second cue appears, the projectionist has 1 1/2 feet (one second at 24 fps) to switch projectors before the black leader at the tail of the exhausted reel is projected on the screen. Also known as "cigarette burns," the marks are sometimes visible on videorecordings of older motion pictures. Today, most movie theaters use a single projector. The reels of film are spliced together, forming one large roll fed into the projector from a horizontal revolving turntable called a platter. Also spelled changeover cue. Synonymous with cue mark, reel change marker, and reel marker.

channel
A pathway along which data is transmitted electronically from one computer, terminal, or device to another. The term also refers to the physical medium carrying the signal (optical fiber, coaxial cable, etc.) and to the properties that distinguish a specific channel from others. In data storage, a track on a specific storage medium (magnetic tape, magnetic disk, CD-ROM, DVD, etc.) on which electrical signals are recorded.

In communications, a band of frequencies assigned by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to a radio or television transmitting station for its exclusive use. In a more general sense, a one-way communications link.

Also refers to the blank space dividing columns of text written or printed on a page.

channeling
In film conservation, a pattern of irregular veins (called channels) formed in photographic negatives by the separation of the emulsion from the base, a sign of advanced deterioration characteristic of acetate-base films. With the passage of time, the base shrinks but the emulsion does not, producing stress that eventually breaks the bond between emulsion and base, causing the emulsion layer to buckle and separate from the base (see these examples, courtesy of the Library of Congress). In some cases, the emulsion tears as it buckles (see this example).

chanson de geste
French for "song of deeds." A group of approximately 80 Old French epic poems produced from the 11th to 14th century relating historical and legendary events that occurred in the 8th and 9th centuries during the reigns of the Frankish King Charlemagne and his successors (example: La Chanson de Roland). Largely anonymous, they typically recount deeds of valor in struggles of the nobility among themselves and against Muslim invaders, emphasizing the heroic ideals of knighthood and chivalry and affirming the triumph of Christianity. Whether they evolved from a continuous oral tradition sustained by wandering trouvères (minstrels) or are the work of individual poets remains a subject of debate, but in any case, they are not historically accurate. Click here to learn more about the chanson de geste, courtesy of Wikipedia.

chapbook
From the Anglo-Saxon root ceap. A pamphlet containing a popular legend, tale, poem, or ballad, or a collection of prose or verse, hawked for about a penny a copy in the streets of England from the late 17th through the 19th century, and in the United States, by traveling peddlers called chapmen or colporteurs. The content was usually sensational (abduction, murder, witchcraft, etc.), educational (travel), or moral. Chapbooks were typically of small size (6 x 4 inches), containing up to 24 pages illustrated with woodcuts, bound in paper or canvas, usually with a decorated cover title. Click here to see an example, courtesy of the Cornell University Library, and see The Scottish Chapbook Project, courtesy of the University of South Carolina Libraries. The Lilly Library at Indiana University provides an online index to its collection of chapbooks. Also refers to a modern pamphlet of the same type. Also spelled chap-book.

chapter
One of two ore more major divisions of a book or other work, each complete in itself but related in theme or plot to the division preceding and/or following it. In works of nonfiction, chapters are usually given a chapter title, but in works of fiction they may simply be numbered, usually in roman numerals. Chapters are listed in order of appearance by title and/or number in the table of contents in the front matter of a book. Abbreviated ch. Compare with canto. See also: chapter drop, chapter heading, and run-on chapter.

Also, a local division of an organization. Over 50 independent state and regional library associations are closely affiliated with the American Library Association. Each has a separate budget and dues structure, elects its own officers, and sponsors an annual conference. Each of the state chapters is represented in the ALA's governing assembly by an elected chapter councilor. The ALA also has student chapters in over 25 states. Within the ALA, chapter interests are represented by the Chapter Relations Committee and the Chapter Relations Office.

chapter drop
The position below the chapter heading at which the text of a chapter begins--lower than on succeeding pages of the text and, in most books, the same for all chapters.

chapter heading
A display heading in a book or manuscript usually consisting of a roman numeral indicating the chapter number, followed by the chapter title, written or printed on the first page of the chapter in uniform style and position above the first paragraph of the text. Set in a type size larger than the text and running heads, chapter heads are sometimes embellished with an illustration or head-piece in older editions. See also: chapter drop and dropped heads.

chapter title
The title that appears at the beginning of a chapter in a book, usually bearing some relation to the content of the division of the work. Chapters may simply be numbered (usually in roman numerals) or given a number and a title. They are listed in order of appearance by number and/or title in the table of contents in the front matter. See also: chapter heading.

character
Any mark, sign, or symbol conventionally used in writing or printing, including letters of the alphabet, numerals, punctuation marks, and reference marks. In indexing, the smallest unit used in the arrangement of headings. See also: loan character and nonfiling character.

In data processing, a sequence of eight binary digits (one byte) representing a letter of the alphabet, numeral, punctuation mark, or other symbol. See also: character set.

Also, a fictional person in a novel, play, short story, or other literary work. A character study is a work in which the primary theme is the inner development of a person or group of persons (example: Hamlet). In Library of Congress subject headings, "Characters" is a standard subdivision used in personal name headings for writers of fiction, particularly playwrights (example: Shakespeare, William, 1546-1616--Characters--Falstaff). Well-known characters may be given a separate heading, followed by a parenthetical qualifier, as in Jeeves (Fictitious character). See also: stock character.

characteristic
An attribute, property, or quality that forms the basis for dividing a class into clearly differentiated subclasses, for example, the characteristic "period" dividing the class "European literature" into the subclasses "classical," "medieval," "renaissance," "modern," and "contemporary," as opposed to the characteristic "form" dividing the same class into "drama," "essay," "novel," "poetry," "short story," etc.

character set
A group of symbols used in computing to print and display text electronically. In alphabetic writing systems, character sets include letters, numerals, punctuation marks, signs and symbols, and control codes. The character sets of languages written in the Latin alphabet normally contain 256 symbols, the maximum number of combinations that can be contained in a single byte of data, the first 128 of which are the same for all fonts. Each character is associated with a unique binary number recognized by the computer as representing the symbol. The original IBM PC used the ASCII character set. A double-byte character set, such as the Unicode Standard, uses 16-bit (two-byte) codes, expanding the maximum number of combinations from 256 to 65,536 (256 X 256), necessary for the Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages in which thousands of characters are used. See also: ALA character set and ANSEL.

charge
To record the loan of a book or other item from the circulating collection of a library to a borrower. In modern libraries, this task involves the use of a computer. Also refers to the library's record of such a transaction, including the identity of the borrower, the title and call number of the item, and its due date. Compare with discharge. See also: item record and patron record.

Also refers to a fee or payment required of a library patron, usually for the use of nontraditional services, such as rental collections and certain methods of document delivery.

chargeout
A record of materials removed from archival storage for use, identifying the materials loaned, the date on which they were removed, and the individual receiving them or the place to which they have been moved, to allow them to be located if needed. Chargeout records can also be used to identify those who have used specific materials in the past. Periodic checks of such records are typically made to ensure that no documents have been out for an unreasonable amount of time. Also refers the process of removing archival materials for use, which may involve filling out a chargeout form or card (see this example). Also spelled charge-out.

Charleston Conference
An informal, collegial gathering of librarians and library administrators, publishers and vendors of library materials, and other interested persons, held annually since 1980 (usually in November) in Charleston, South Carolina, to discuss issues of mutual interest. Conceived by Katina Strauch, head of collection development at the College of Charleston Libraries and editor of Against the Grain, the Charleston Conference does not include exhibits and is not associated with any professional organization.

Discussions at past Conferences have focused on the escalating cost of materials (particularly serials subscriptions), the effects of electronic publishing on libraries and vendors, licensing and access to digital content, the impact of journal aggregators on institutional subscriptions, e-journal archiving, the need for reliable and consistent usage statistics for digital resources, and the impact of market forces on scholarly communication. Attendance has grown to over 500, with librarians accounting for about one-half of the attendees. Most of the librarians represent academic libraries, many at large research institutions. Click here to learn more about the Charleston Conference.

Charlotte Zolotow Award
A literary award given annually in recognition of the author of the best picture book text written in English and published in the United States in the preceding year. The book may be fiction, nonfiction, or folklore, so long as it is presented in picture book format for children up to 7 years of age (easy books are not eligible). Established in 1998, the award is named in honor of the work of Charlotte Zolotow, distinguished children's book editor with Harper Junior Books for 38 years and author of more than 70 picture books. The award, consisting of a $1,000 cash prize and medallion, is administered by the Cooperative Children's Book Center (CCBC), the children's literature library of the School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison, where Ms. Zolotow studied on a writing scholarship from 1933-1936. Click here to learn more about the Charlotte Zolotow Award. See also: Amelia Frances Howard-Gibbon Illustrator's Award, Caldecott Medal, and Greenaway Medal.

chart
A special-purpose map designed primarily to meet the requirements of navigation or one showing meteorological phenomena or heavenly bodies. A nautical chart indicates soundings, currents, coastlines, and other important maritime features. Click here to see an 18th-century chart of the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina, courtesy of the Library of Congress, and here to see charts of the Gulf Stream in an online exhibition provided by the Osher Map Library, University of Southern Maine. An aeronautical chart shows features of interest to aircraft pilots (see this example, courtesy of the Washington State Department of Transportation). A celestial chart shows celestial bodies and systems of interest to astronomers and amateur stargazers (see these historical examples, courtesy of the George Glazer Gallery). The National Maritime Museum in Greenwich, England, also provides an extensive online exhibition of historic charts. See also: portolan and synoptic chart.

Also, an opaque sheet on which data is displayed in graphic or tabular form, for example, a calendar. See also: flip chart.

charter
A legal document recording the franchise or granting of specific rights to an individual or corporate body by a governmental authority such as a legislature or sovereign, for example, the Charter of the United Nations. The texts of important charters are usually available in the government documents or reference section of large libraries. The originals are preserved by the institutions and individuals that own them, usually in archives. Click here to see one of the originals of the Magna Carta (British Library) and here to see early copies (Schøyen Collection, Oslo and London). Click here to see a 17th-century Spanish charter of nobility (Cornell University Library) and here to see the charter granted to William Penn by Charles II on March 4, 1681 (Library of Congress). Click here to see a charter granted in 1775 by Catherine the Great of Russia, decorated with a portrait miniature of the Empress (New York Public Library). See also: chartulary.

Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP)
A new professional association formed in April 2002 by the union of the Institute of Information Scientists (IIS) and the Library Association (UK), CILIP is now is the leading professional body for librarians, information specialists, and knowledge managers in the UK, with nearly 23,000 members working in all sectors, including business and industry, science and technology, education, local and central government, health services, national and public libraries, and the voluntary sector. Click here to connect to the CILIP homepage which includes information about the charter, mission, and goals of the new organization. See also: chartered librarian.

chartered librarian
In the UK, a librarian who has obtained a qualification from the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP) in addition to a degree or diploma in librarianship, upon presentation of sufficient evidence of professional development. Click here to learn more about the CILIP chartership process.

chartulary
A list or register of charters. Also, a collection or set of charters or copies of charters, especially when bound into one or more volumes for the use of the monastery, landowner, corporation, etc., to which they belong, synonymous in this sense with cartulary. Click here to view pages from the 15th-century illuminated Aldgate Cartulary (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, MS Hunter 215 U.2.6).

chase
In letterpress, the portable rectangular metal frame in which assembled type and display matter, composed into pages, is firmly locked into position (see this example). The resulting forme is then ready to be transferred to the bed of the press for printing. The expression in chase means "ready for printing."

chat
Synchronous (real time) computer conferencing capability between two or more users of a network (LAN, WAN, Internet) by keyboard rather than voice transmission, in which everyone who is logged on can see the messages others are typing. Chat rooms are often devoted to a particular theme or topic. Most Internet service providers offer such online discussion forums to their subscribers. See also: instant messaging.

CHC paper
Paper impregnated with cyclohexylamine carbonate (CHC), a chemical used to deacidify the pages of old books.

check digit
A character added to a sequence of digits, related arithmetically to the sequence in such a way that input errors can be automatically detected whenever the sequence is entered as data into a computer, for example, the last character of the ISBN. When a calculated check digit is the number 10, it is represented as the character X. Synonymous with checksum.

checked out
The circulation status of an item that has been charged to a borrower account and is not due back in the library until the end of the loan period. In the online catalog, the due date is usually displayed as a status code in the catalog record to indicate that the item is currently unavailable for circulation. Synonymous with on loan. See also: overdue, recall, and renew.

check-in
The ongoing process of recording the receipt of each issue of a newspaper or periodical, a routine task accomplished by the serials department of a library, manually or with the aid of an automated serials control system. Some automated systems allow the patron to view the check-in record for a given title. See also: claim.

check-in record
A separate record attached to the bibliographic record for a serial title in which the receipt of individual issues or parts is entered on an ongoing basis, usually by an assistant working in the serials department. Most online catalogs allow users to view the check-in record to determine if a specific issue or part has been received. The check-in record may also indicate whether an issue is missing, claimed, or at the bindery. In most library management systems, the check-in record is separate from the holdings record.

checklist
A comprehensive list of books, periodicals, or other documents that provides the minimum amount of description or annotation necessary to identify each work--briefer than a bibliography. Also, the log kept by a library to record the receipt of each number of a serial publication or part of a work in progress. Also refers to a list of items required, or procedures to be followed, such as the steps in a library's opening or closing routine. Also spelled check-list.

checkout slip
Instead of stamping the date due slip in each item at checkout, many libraries now print a computer-generated slip listing the items a patron has checked out. A good checkout slip should facilitate return of materials by reminding the patron of the date on which the borrowed items are due back at the library. Checkout slips should also give the library's name and phone number, respect the user's privacy, include item type for clarity, and be easy to read. Some libraries also use checkout slips to facilitate renewal, promote library events, broadcast library policy changes, and alert users to special hours. For design suggestions, see the brief article Consider the Checkout Slip by Aaron Schmidt in the February 1, 2012 issue of Library Journal. Also spelled check-out slip.

chemise
A thin sleeve designed to wrap around the covers and spine of a book to protect the binding from abrasion as it is removed from and reinserted in its slipcase. See also: chemise binding.

chemise binding
A slip-on cover of soft leather or cloth designed with pockets to fit over the boards of a hand-bound book, sometimes secured to the boards with bosses, used in Europe from the 12th to the 15th century as a substitute for full binding or to protect a permanent leather binding from wear. Click here to view a 15th-century Italian Book of Hours covered in red velvet over brown morocco, courtesy of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek.

chewed
See: gnawed.

chiaroscuro woodcut
A woodcut printed from two or more blocks: the line block, cut to print contours and crosshatching, usually in black, and one or more tone blocks to print neutral or background colors, creating differences in tonal value--a technique developed in Europe in the 1500s to imitate the appearance of a type of drawing on colored paper known as chiaroscuro. In areas cut away on all the blocks, the unprinted surface of the paper serves as highlighting (see this example, courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum).

chick lit
A fiction genre of the 1990s and 2000s that appeals primarily to young women, featuring stylish educated, career-motivated protagonists in their twenties and thirties, who confront issues of modern womanhood with humor and panache (example: Bridget Jones's Diary [1996] by Helen Fielding). Also spelled chicklit.

chief academic officer (CAO)
The senior academic officer at an institution of higher learning in the United States, to whom the library director usually reports. Because a CAO's influence on the library can be decisive, particularly in matters of budget, his or her working relationship with the library director is very important. Some institutions use the title provost, dean of faculty, or vice-president of academic affairs.

chief information officer (CIO)
The title of the person in a commercial company or nonprofit organization who is responsible for managing the flow of official information, including computing and any library services--a relatively new position in companies and organizations that recognize the need for such a management function.

chief knowledge officer (CKO)
A senior executive responsible for ensuring that a company maximizes its efficiency by managing its intellectual capital effectively. The CKO is responsible for providing appropriate and timely information about processes, customer relations, and the marketplace; overseeing the company's knowledge infrastructure; and facilitating coordination and communication.

Chief Officers of State Library Agencies (COSLA)
An independent organization of the chief officers of state and territorial agencies designated as the state library administrative agency and responsible for statewide library development, COSLA is dedicated to identifying and addressing issues of common concern and national interest, furthering state library agency relationships with federal government and national organizations, and initiating cooperative action for the improvement of library services to the people of the United States. Click here to connect to the COSLA homepage. See also: State Library Agency Section.

chief source of information
The source of bibliographic data prescribed by AACR2 as having precedence over all others in the preparation of the bibliographic description of an item, usually the title page or a substitute, for example, the title frame at the beginning of a filmstrip or motion picture, or the title screen of a Web page. See also: supplied title.

chiffon silk
A layer of extra-thin but strong silk tissue applied to mend or strengthen a leaf in a book or other document printed on paper.

Child Online Protection Act (COPA)
Federal legislation passed in 1998 imposing civil and criminal penalties on commercial Web publishers who allow persons under the age of 18 to access material deemed "harmful to minors" under prevailing community standards. An injunction won by free speech advocates prevented enforcement of COPA. In September 1999, the Freedom to Read Foundation of the American Library Association (ALA) filed an amicus curiae brief in support of 17 online content providers, plaintiffs in a successful challenge (American Civil Liberties Union v. Ashcroft) in which the Third U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals found the community standards clause in the law overly broad.

In May 2002, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the application of community standards to the Internet but remanded the case to the lower court for examination of unresolved free speech issues. On March 6, 2003, the federal appeals court in Philadelphia again ruled COPA unconstitutional on grounds that the law deters adults from accessing materials protected under the First Amendment. On August 11, 2003, on the heels of the U.S. Supreme Court decision upholding the Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA), the Bush administration filed a new appeal asking the Supreme Court to reconsider COPA on grounds that other methods of protecting children from exposure to sexually explicit materials, such as filtering software, are inadequate. In June 2004 in a 5-4 decision the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed the decision of the Philadelphia court, blocking enforcement of COPA, but stopped short of declaring the law unconstitutional and, for a second time, sent Ashcroft v. American Civil Liberties Union back for a new trial, which began on October 25, 2006.

On March 22, 2007, U.S. District Judge Lowell A. Reed, Jr. struck down COPA, finding it in violation of the First and Fifth Amendments of the U.S. Constitution. On July 22, 2008, the 3rd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the 2007 decision, and on January 21, 2009, the U.S. Supreme Court refused to hear appeals of the lower court decision, effectively killing COPA. See also: Communications Decency Act.

children's book
A book written and illustrated specifically for children up to the age of 12-13. Included in this category are juvenile fiction and nonfiction, board books, nursery rhymes, alphabet books, counting books, picture books, easy books, beginning readers, picture storybooks, and storybooks. Children's books are shelved in the juvenile collection of most public libraries and in the curriculum room in most academic libraries. Currently available children's titles are listed in Children's Books in Print published by Bowker. Click here and here to sample 19th-century children's books. See also Children's Books of the Early Soviet Era, courtesy of McGill University Libraries. See also: children's book award, Children's Book Council, and children's literature.

Children's Book Council (CBC)
Established in 1945, the CBC is a nonprofit trade association dedicated to encouraging literacy and the use and enjoyment of children's books. Its membership includes publishers and packagers of children's trade books and producers of book-related multimedia for children. The CBC sponsors Children's Book Week, celebrated in schools, libraries, and bookstores throughout the United States each November, and Young People's Poetry Week, celebrated in April in conjunction with National Poetry Month. Click here to connect to the CBC homepage.

Children's Books in Print (CBIP)
An author, title, and illustrator index of currently available books for children and young adults, published annually by Bowker since 1962 (ISSN: 0069-3480). Each volume includes an index of major book awards for the past 10 years. The separately published Subject Guide to Children's Books in Print (ISSN: 0000-0167) includes indexes by publisher, wholesaler, and distributor. Former title: Children's Books for Schools and Libraries. See also: El-Hi Textbooks & Serials in Print.

Children's Book Week
Sponsored since 1919 by the Children's Book Council, Children's Book Week is a local and national celebration held each November in which librarians, booksellers, publishers, and educators schedule book exhibits, read-a-thons, story hours, swap sessions, contests, book raffles, and other activities to stimulate interest in books and reading among young people. Synonymous with Book Week. Click here to connect to the Children's Book Week homepage.

Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA)
Legislation passed by Congress in 2000 that makes the E-rate discount on Internet access and internal connection services provided to schools and libraries under the Telecommunications Reform Act of 1996 and eligibility for Library Services and Technology Act funds contingent on certification that certain "Internet safety policies" have been put in place, most notably technology designed to block all users from accessing visual materials that depict child pornography or are considered obscene or harmful to minors. Filtering of text is not required. In March 2001, the American Library Association (ALA) and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) filed separate suits challenging CIPA on grounds that filtering restricts access to constitutionally protected information.

In May 2002, a three-judge panel in federal district court unanimously ruled CIPA unconstitutional, agreeing that current Internet filtering software blocks speech protected under the First Amendment. In June 2002, the U.S. Department of Justice appealed the decision to the U.S. Supreme Court and on June 23, 2003, by a 6-3 vote, the Supreme Court reversed the lower court decision, ruling that First Amendment protections are met by the law's provision that filtering software is to be disabled by the library without significant delay at the request of an adult user. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) announced that public libraries and schools wishing to retain federal technology funding must certify by July 1, 2004 that filtering software is installed and in use on all computers providing Internet access, including those used only by staff. CIPA provides no funds for libraries to implement filtering. Some libraries and library systems have decided to forgo federal library funds in order to maintain local control over Internet access.

In a statement of objectives regarding CIPA issued on July 25, 2003 by ALA president Carla Hayden and the ALA executive board, the ALA pledged to identify technological options that minimize the burden on libraries, continue to develop and promote viable alternatives to filtering, and gather and disseminate authoritative information and research on the effects of CIPA and filtering on libraries and library users, including evaluative information for use in selecting filtering software. Click here to connect to the ALA's CIPA Web site. See also: Child Online Protection Act and Communications Decency Act.

children's librarian
A librarian who specializes in services and collections for children up to the age of 12-13. Most children's librarians have extensive knowledge of children's literature and are trained in the art of storytelling. See also: children's room.

children's literature
Literary works created specifically for children, as distinct from works written for adults and young adults, including drama, poetry and prose, fiction and nonfiction. Children's literature began with the oral transmission of nursery rhymes, songs, poems, fairy tales, and stories. During the early 17th century, the horn book came into widespread use in Britain and the American colonies, but it was not until the late 17th century with the publication of the popular Tales of Mother Goose by Charles Perrault (1628-1703) that written literature for children emerged as a separate genre.

By the mid-18th century, the British writer, printer, and publisher John Newbery (1713-67) perceived that a market existed for children's books and began publishing illustrated works intended to be morally instructional (Little Goody Two-Shoes). Not until the 19th century did children's literature break away from didacticism, first with the publication of the fairy tales of Hans Christian Anderson (1805-75) and the brothers Grimm, and later with Edward Lear's Book of Nonsense (1846) and Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and the sequel Through the Looking Glass (1871).

The illustrations in most early children's books were printed in black and white, but by the 1860s the English printer Edmund Evans (1826-1905) began issuing picture books in color, illustrated by artists such as Walter Crane (1845-1915), Kate Greenaway (1846-1901), and Randolph Caldecott (1846-86). The publication of the children's classics Little Women by Louisa May Alcott in 1868 and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain in 1876 marked the beginning of realism in juvenile fiction. Today, children's literature has earned a place in the hearts of millions of readers, and a worldwide market exists for books and periodicals for children of all ages.

Recently published children's books are reviewed in Bookbird, Booklist, The Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books, The Horn Book Magazine, The Lion and the Unicorn, and School Library Journal (SLJ), and reviews are excerpted in Children's Literature Review, a reference serial published by Gale. Click here to view a sample of 19th century children's literature, courtesy of the Thomas Cooper Library, University of South Carolina, and here to connect to the de Grummond Children's Literature Collection site maintained by the University of Southern Mississippi Libraries. See also Kay Vandergrift's Social History of Children's Literature. Synonymous with juvenile literature. See also: children's book award and juvenile collection.

Children's Literature Review (CLR)
An annual reference serial published since 1976 by Gale, providing excerpts from reviews, criticism, and commentary on books for children and young adults, arranged alphabetically by name of author, with cumulative author and title indexes at the end of each volume. ISSN: 0362-4145.

children's magazine
A periodical published specifically for young people, usually geared to a specific reading level. Some children's magazines focus on a particular subject or interest (click here to see a 19th-century example, courtesy of the British Library). Modern examples include Your Big Backyard for preschoolers (ages 3-5) and Ranger Rick (ages 6-12) in natural history. A selection of magazines for children is provided in the reference serial Magazines for Libraries. Yahoo! also provides a list of magazines for kids.

children's room
The area in a public library, or one of its branches, reserved for collections and services intended specifically for children up to the age of 12-13, usually staffed by at least one children's librarian and furnished to accommodate persons of small stature (see this example). Some children's rooms include a comfortable corner or alcove designed for group storytelling, puppetry, etc.

children's services
Library services intended for children up to the age of 12-13, including juvenile collection development, lapsit services, storytelling, assistance with homework assignments, and summer reading programs, usually provided by a children's librarian in the children's room of a public library. Compare with adult services and young adult services. See also: Association for Library Service to Children.

chine-collé print
French for "Chinese tissue paper" (chine) and "attached" (collé). A print made on a thin surface, such as Japanese paper or linen, cut or torn to the desired shape, and adhered permanently to a heavier backing sheet in a single run through the printing press, using either the intaglio or lithographic method, a technique first used in the 1800's for fine quality book illustration and individual works of art (click here to see a contemporary example, courtesy of the Library of Congress).

Chinese American Librarians Association (CALA)
Established in 1983, CALA seeks to promote better communication between Chinese American librarians employed in the United States and serves as a forum for discussion of the problems of its members. An affiliate of the American Library Association, CALA publishes the semiannual Journal of Library and Information Science in English and Chinese, the CALA Newsletter in three issues per year, and the semiannual CALA E-Journal. Click here to connect to the CALA homepage.

Chinese style
In China and Japan, the evolution of the book proceeded as in the West, from scroll to leaves enclosed in a cover, but by a different route. Instead of binding separately cut leaves in codex form, a continuous roll of writing material was accordion-pleated, creating a series of folded leaves left uncut at the fore-edge with writing (and later printing) on one side only. Also known as Japanese style. See also: double leaf.

chip
A shortened form of microchip, a high-speed miniaturized integrated circuit, etched in a semiconducting material (usually silicon) on the surface of a tiny, wafer-thin piece of metal, for use as microprocessor and memory in computers and other electronic equipment (see this example). The design of increasingly powerful microchips has been the driving force behind the information technology revolution that began in the second half of the 20th century. See also: random access memory and read-only memory.

chip board
A thin, cheap, low-density board manufactured from recycled paper and other cellulose fibers. Although chip board is sometimes used in case binding, binder's board is preferred in hardcover trade editions. Also spelled chipboard.

chipped
The condition of a book that has small pieces missing from the edges of its cover, dust jacket, or pages, not as prized in the market for antiquarian books as a copy in mint condition (click here to see examples, courtesy of My Wings Books).

chi-rho
A monogram consisting of the letters XP, the first two characters of the name of Jesus Christ (chi and rho) in Greek, often used as a symbol in early Christian art, including manuscript decoration in Gospel books, as in this example from the Book of Kells.

chirograph
A handwritten document, usually a deed or other public instrument. Also, an early method of preventing counterfeiting in which a written record, usually of an agreement or transaction, was made in two copies (or in part and counterpart) on the same sheet, often with writing across the space separating the copies, then cut or torn down the middle in serrated fashion, each of the parties receiving one of the two pieces, which served to authenticate the other (see this example, courtesy of the New York State Archives).

chiro-xylographic
A type of blockbook produced during the 15th and 16th centuries, combining woodcut illustrations with manuscript text, an early method of producing multiple copies of illustrated books (see this 15th-century German example). See also: xylography.

CHOICE: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries
A review publication founded in 1964 by the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) and published in 11 issues/year, CHOICE provides reviews of 6,000 to 7,000 English-language books, Web sites, and other resources per year, focusing on titles of interest to the librarians and teaching faculty responsible for collection development in college and university libraries (ISSN: 0009-4978). Arranged by discipline, CHOICE reviews are prepared by academic reviewers from completed books, not galley proofs. Each issue also includes an editorial, a bibliographic essay, and at least one feature article, with separate author, title, and topic indexes at the end. Reviews on Cards (ROC) contains the same set of reviews as the printed magazine, each printed on heavy-duty 4 1/4 x 5 1/2 inch paper stock to facilitate routing to individual selectors. CHOICE is also available online by subscription under the title Choice Reviews.online. Click here to connect to the CHOICE homepage.

choir book
A book containing music sung or chanted by the choir in religious services. Medieval choir books used in services of the Catholic Church were of large size in order to be visible to the entire choir, often beautifully illuminated for display on a lectern in the sanctuary. The category includes the antiphonal, gradual, and missal. Click here to view a selection of medieval choir books (Getty Museum, Los Angeles) and here to page through the San Diego Choir Book held by Connecticut College. Compare with hymnal.

choropleth map
From the Greek choros ("place") and plethos ("magnitude" or "fullness"). A thematic map on which color, shading, hatching, or some other graphic technique is used to show the density or frequency of a quantifiable variable (e.g., population, mortality, precipitation, etc.) in each of several administrative or enumerative areas, based on average number of occurrences per unit of area, usually divided into classes. On these maps of the United States, color is used to indicate the topography of poverty (Centers for Disease Control). This example shows transit collisions by state in the United States for the year 2000 (Federal Transit Administration). To see other examples, try a keywords search on the term "choropleth map" in Google Images. Compare with dasymetric map.

chorus score
The score of a musical work originally written for solo voice and chorus, which shows only the choral parts and any accompaniment arranged for keyboard instrument. See also: vocal score.

chrestomathy
A collection of choice passages from the literary works of an author (or authors), especially one compiled as a sample of literary specimens or as an aid in the study of a language.

Christian fiction (CF)
Novels and stories in which the author uses Christian belief as a major (sometimes predominant) theme in the development of character and plot, to promote Christian teachings or exemplify a Christian way of life. New titles are regularly reviewed in Booklist and Library Journal, and by Christian Fiction Review. See also: bible fiction and religious book.

chromolithograph
A color lithograph produced by preparing a separate stone for each color of ink and printing one color in register over another, as opposed to applying tints by hand after printing to produce a colored lithograph. For some prints, as many as 30 stones were used to create the desired effect. Introduced in the 1830s, the technique did not come into widespread commercial use until the 1860s and remained the most popular method of color printing until the end of the 19th century when less expensive photographic processes were developed for reproducing color. Click here to view a selection of chromolithographs in the Beautiful Birds exhibit, courtesy of the Cornell University Library, and here to see two examples by 19th-century American artist George Catlin (Yale University Library). See also: oleograph.

chronicle
Originally, a detailed chronological record of contemporary events, usually recorded year by year over an extended period of time, with little or no interpretation or analysis and no pretense of literary style. The first examples, world histories beginning with Creation, relied largely on biblical sources. Local chronicles began in the 9th century during the reign of King Alfred with the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, eventually covering the history of England from 60 B.C. to the 12th century. In the 13th century, vernacular chronicles began to emerge.

Two later examples are the 14th-century Grandes Chroniques de France and Jean Froissart's 15th-century Chroniques, the latter representing a fusion of the traditional chronicle with medieval romance (both are in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France). The Royal Library of Denmark provides images from the manuscript Chronique Martinienne ("Martian Chronicle"), a French translation of a Latin world chronicle written at the end of the 13th century, and from the Book of Chronicles published in 1493. Also known as The Nuremberg Chronicle, the latter work was edited by the humanist historiographer Hartmann Schedel.

In modern usage, a list of events described and recorded in the order in which they occurred. The treatment is fuller and more connected than annals.

chronicle play
A drama based on material from the chronicle histories of England, for example, those written by Hall and Holinshead. Popular during the Elizabethan period, chronicle plays were at first loosely structured but evolved into sophisticated character studies, exemplified by the history plays of William Shakespeare. A more recent example of a history play is A Man for All Seasons by Robert Bolt (1960).

chronogram
An inscription in which certain letters, made conspicuous, when read as roman numerals, indicate a specific date, for example, the motto ChrIstVs DVX; ergo trIVMphVs on a medal struck in 1632 by the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus, the capitals of which when added produce the sum 1632. Also, the record made by a chronograph. See this example from the Czech Republic.

chronological
The arrangement of data, records, items, headings, entries, etc., according to their relation in time, from earliest to latest. In library classification systems, the period subdivisions added to subject headings are listed in chronological order (example: --Antiquity, --Medieval, --Renaissance, then by century from the 15th to 20th). The opposite of reverse chronological.

chronological file
In archives, a file containing materials arranged by date or some other time sequence (see this example, courtesy of the University of Rhode Island). When circulated for reference, such a file is called a reading file. Abbreviated chron file and chrono file. Synonymous with continuity file and day file.

chronological subdivision
In library cataloging, a subdivision added to a class or subject heading to indicate the period of time covered by the work. Generally associated with historical treatment of a topic, chronological subdivisions are often used after the subdivision --History, as in the heading France--History--1789-1815. They are also used under artistic, literary, and music form/genre headings to modify the main heading, as in American poetry--20th century. Synonymous with period subdivision.

chronology
A book or section of a book that lists events and their dates in the order of their occurrence. Most chronologies are limited to a specific period (example: Roman Empire), event (World War II), or theme (women's history). Book-length chronologies are usually shelved in the reference section of a library (example: Day by Day: The Sixties, Facts on File, 1983). Click here to see an example of an online chronology of book history. In a more general sense, a document that describes events or other information in order of their occurrence, to allow the reader to follow their development in time. Compare with calendar.

In serials control, the date of publication associated with the volume enumeration.

chrysography
From the Greek chrys ("gold") and graphia ("writing"). The art and craft of writing in ink made from powdered gold, as practiced by the medieval scribes who produced illuminated manuscripts from the early Christian period through the 16th century. Click here to see examples in an 11th-century Ottonian sacramentary (Getty Museum, MS Ludwig V 2). Beginning in the 6th century, the vellum leaves of some Byzantine books were dyed or painted purple to provide a luxurious, high-contrast background for text written in gold (see this example, courtesy of the Library of Congress). Also refers to writing done in gold letters. See also: gilding.

Church and Synagogue Library Association (CSLA)
Founded in 1967, CSLA provides a forum for church and synagogue libraries to share practices and find solutions to common problems, inspire a sense of purpose among church and synagogue librarians, and guide the development of church and synagogue librarianship toward recognition as a formal branch of the profession. CSLA publishes the bimonthly publication Church & Synagogue Libraries. Click here to connect to the CSLA homepage. See also: Association of Christian Librarians, Association of Jewish Libraries, and Catholic Library Association.

church library
A library maintained on the premises of a house of worship, containing books, pamphlets, and other materials related to its faith and to the history of the institution. Very old church libraries often have rare books and manuscripts in their collections, for example, the Hereford Cathedral Library in England which owns a historical collection of chained books. Cathedral libraries may restrict the use of all or a portion of their holdings to readers who have a research interest in their collections (example: Canterbury Cathedral Library in England). Most synagogues also have a library, with some materials in Hebrew. See also: Association of Jewish Libraries and Church and Synagogue Library Association.

cinching
A condition that results when loosely wound film is rewound too tightly on a reel, causing the film to move against itself on the roll. As the film tightens, any dirt or other irregularities on its surface will cause fine scratches, called cinch marks, angled in the direction of movement. Also, the wrinkling or folding over of magnetic tape on itself, caused when a loose tape pack is stopped suddenly.

cinderella stamp
A small label, resembling a postage stamp, often printed in series on perforated sheets, not issued by a government postal administration for postal purposes. Examples include charity labels such as Christmas and Easter seals, local stamps, poster stamps, and wildlife conservation stamps.

cinema
A broad term encompassing the motion picture industry and distribution system, the films produced, and the art form they represent. It is also used in Europe and the UK to refer to the theater in which motion pictures are publicly shown.

cinematography
Derived from the name of the Cinematographe apparatus invented in 1895 by Auguste and Louis Lumière, the term is applied both to the art and scientific methods of motion picture photography and to the entire process of making motion pictures, including photography, processing, editing, printing, and projection. The cinematographer (also known as the "director of photography") is typically in charge of the camera crew and provides advice to the film director as needed concerning the camera angles and shots that are possible in each scene and their technical requirements. Also refers to the act of making a motion picture. In the United States, an Academy Award is given each year for best cinematography.

cinema verité
A French term meaning "film truth" applied to a style of documentary filmmaking that began in the early 1960s in which the director strives for spontaneity and candor by avoiding preconceived notions about the subject and by the use of unobtrusive, portable equipment (example: Chronicle of a Summer [1961] by Jean Rouch). Instead of following a predetermined narrative line, the filmmaker poses questions interview-style to elicit self-revelation from the subjects, who are ordinary people (not actors) filmed in real locations in unrehearsed situations. Part of the broader tradition of realism, cinema verité aims to show the mundane truth and social context of everyday life. In the United States, the films of Frederick Wiseman are in this tradition. Not to be confused with direct cinema in which the subjects are photographed without any outside intervention.

ciné mode
The arrangement of successive images on roll film with the frames (portrait or landscape) oriented vertically, parallel with the edges of the film. Synonymous with motion picture mode and vertical mode. In microfiche, the arrangement of images with the frames filling the rows in a column, from top to bottom, before proceeding to the next column. Compare with comic mode.

cipher
The initials of a personal name, written or arranged in ornamental form of such complexity and/or artistry as to form a private mark or symbol. Click here to view the cipher of William III of England, tooled in gilt on the leather binding of a 17th-century Bible (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, Ds-c.2) and here to see the calligraphic cipher of Ottoman Emperor Suleyman the Magnificent (Metropolitan Museum of Art). Compare with cryptonym.

In a more general sense, secret writing or code intended to be understood (deciphered) only by those who know the key to it. In data processing, an encrypted character that can only be decrypted with a key.

ciphertext
In cryptography, encrypted information that cannot be read without knowledge of the secret "key" or rules for converting it back into its original plaintext form, except through the process of cryptanalysis.

circa
A Latin word meaning "about," used to indicate lack of certainty but reasonable probability concerning a date, for example, the approximate birth and/or death date(s) of a person for whom official records are lacking. Abbreviated c. or ca.

Example: c. 1922 (about 1922)

circuit edges
A style of flexible leather binding with projecting covers that fold over at the head, tail, and fore-edge, completely covering the edges of the sections like a box, used mainly on Bibles and prayer books carried by clergymen who traveled a regular circuit of rural parishes, presumably to protect the text from exposure to the elements. Synonymous with divinity circuit and divinity edges. Compare with Yapp binding.

circular
A promotional piece (advertisement, announcement, directive, etc.), usually in the form of a printed letter or leaflet distributed to a large circle of people at the same time via the mail, as a newspaper insert, door-to-door, or at a commercial establishment and intended to be passed on to others interested in its content (see this 19th-century example). Compare with circular letter.

circular letter
Correspondence intended to be distributed throughout an organization or group to ensure that important information is disseminated systematically and consistently. In the 18th century, this form of communication was used by politicians to make their views on public issues widely known. One of the most famous examples is a letter issued in 1767 by the Massachusetts legislature to other colonial assemblies in response to the Townshend Acts, urging American colonists to unite in resisting taxation without representation in the British Parliament. Click here to see an example circulated in 1779 by the Boston Committee of Correspondence (Massachusetts Historical Society). Beginning in 1813, circular letters issued in printed form allowed a military commander in the U.S. Army to announce changes in the chain of command, give orders, or establish procedures to be followed by the men under his command. Click here to see contemporary use of circular letters by departments of the New Jersey state government. A circular letter differs from an advertising circular in being a form of internal rather than external communication.

circulating book
A book that can be charged to a borrower account for use inside or outside the library facility, as opposed to one restricted to library use only. Compare with noncirculating.

circulating collection
Books and other materials that may be checked out by registered borrowers for use inside or outside the library. In most academic and public libraries in the United States, circulating materials are shelved in open stacks to facilitate browsing. Compare with noncirculating.

circulating library
A type of library established by booksellers and other businessmen in Britain in the early 18th century that provided popular reading material to the general public for a limited period of time in exchange for payment of a modest fee (usually no more than a shilling per month), comparable to a modern rental collection. Michael H. Harris states in History of Libraries in the Western World (Scarecrow Press, 1995) that by 1800, most of the larger towns in Britain had such libraries, some remaining profitable into the 20th century. According to Harris, William Lane of London was one of the most successful founders, establishing chains of bookstores that included circulating collections, and even publishing fiction and popular nonfiction to fill the shelves. Mudie's Circulating Libraries, established in the 19th century by Charles E. Mudie, had over 25,000 subscribers in the London area alone. With the introduction of inexpensive paperback editions and the growth of public libraries in the early 20th century, interest in circulating libraries declined. Synonymous with two-penny library. Compare with subscription library.

circulation
The process of checking books and other materials in and out of a library. Also refers to the total number of items checked out by library borrowers over a designated period of time and to the number of times a given item is checked out during a fixed period of time, usually one year. In public libraries, low circulation is an important criterion for weeding items from the collection. Books for which circulation is anticipated to be high may be ordered in multiple copies to satisfy demand or given a more durable binding to withstand heavy use. Some online circulation systems provide circulation statistics by classification and material type for use in collection development. Circulation is a fundamental to access services. Abbreviated circ.

In publishing, the number of copies distributed of each issue of a serial publication, including complimentary copies, single-copy retail sales, and copies sent to paid subscribers. Compare with total circulation.

circulation analysis
Close examination of statistics compiled on the circulation of library materials, usually broken down by classification, material type, category of borrower, time of year, etc., to determine patterns of usage, an important tool in budgeting, collection development, staffing, etc.

circulation desk
The service point at which books and other materials are checked in and out of a library, usually a long counter located near the entrance or exit, which may include a built-in book drop for returning borrowed materials. In small and medium-sized libraries, items on hold or reserve are usually available at the circulation desk, which is normally staffed by one or more persons trained to operate the circulation system and handle patron accounts. To see modern examples, try a keywords search on the term in Google Images. Synonymous with loan desk. Compare with reference desk.

circulation history
A record that a patron borrowed a specific item, retained (with or without the borrower's consent) for a significant length of time after the item is returned to the library. Most online circulation systems are designed to automatically delete all indication that a lending transaction has occurred, once the item has been checked in, and in the United States retaining such records may be a violation of state law. Although it has been argued that circulation histories are useful in demographic studies, and would enable libraries to offer patron-friendly services, retention of such information raises serious concerns about privacy, especially in the light of recent federal legislation intended to facilitate investigation of terrorist activities (see USA Patriot Act).

circulation statistics
A count maintained of the number of items checked out from a library during a given period (usually a year), or the number of times a specific item is checked out during a given period, usually broken down by type of material and/or classification. Circulation statistics can be kept by hand, but most automated circulation systems provide detailed statistical reports by day, week, month, and year, which can be analyzed to determine usage patterns, an important aid in budgeting, collection development, staffing, etc. Compare with circulation history. See also: in-house use.

circulation status
The conditions under which a specific item in a library collection is available for use. An item may be on order, in process, at the bindery, for library use only, available to be checked out, on loan until a certain due date, recently returned, missing, lost, or billed. Compare with loan status.

circulation system
The methods used to record the loan of items from a library collection by linking data in the patron record to the item record for each item loaned. An effective circulation system provides means of identifying items on loan to a specific patron (including those that are overdue) and enables circulation staff to place holds, recall items needed before the due date, and notify borrowers when items are overdue. An automated circulation system is capable of generating circulation statistics for planning and reporting purposes. Abbreviated circ system. Synonymous with charging system. See also: barcode, library card, and self-checkout.

citation
In the literary sense, any written or spoken reference to an authority or precedent or to the verbatim words of another speaker or writer. In library usage, a written reference to a specific work or portion of a work (book, article, dissertation, report, musical composition, etc.) produced by a particular author, editor, composer, etc., clearly identifying the document in which the work is to be found. The frequency with which a work is cited is sometimes considered a measure of its importance in the literature of the field. Citation format varies from one field of study to another but includes at a minimum author, title, and publication date. An incomplete citation can make a source difficult, if not impossible, to locate. Abbreviated cite. See also: citation analysis, citation index, preferred citation, and self-citation.

Examples:
Book:
Chappell, Warren. A Short History of the Printed Word. Boston: Nonpareil Books, 1970.
Periodical article:
Dow, Ronald F. "Editorial Gatekeepers Confronted by the Electronic Journal." College & Research Libraries 61 (2000): 146-154.

Citation style manuals are available in the reference section of most academic libraries or try the Yahoo! list of online style guides. See also Diana Hacker's Research and Documentation Online courtesy of Bedford/St. Martins. See also: APA style, electronic style, and MLA style.

citation analysis
A bibliometric technique in which works cited in publications are examined to determine patterns of scholarly communication, for example, the comparative importance of books versus journals, or of current versus retrospective sources, in one or more academic disciplines. The citations in student research papers, theses, and dissertations are also examined by librarians for purposes of collection evaluation and development. Synonymous with citation checking.

citation chasing
A legitimate research technique in which the bibliographies of works already located in a literature search are examined ("mined") for additional sources containing further information on the topic. The process can be facilitated by using a citation index.

citation index
A three-part index in which works cited during a given year are listed alphabetically by name of author cited, followed by the names of the citing authors (sources) in a "Citation Index." Full bibliographic information for the citing author is given in a "Source Index." Also provided is a "Subject Index," usually listing articles by significant words in the title. Researchers can use this tool to trace interconnections among authors citing papers on the same topic and to determine the frequency with which a specific work is cited by others, an indication of its significance in the literature of the field.

Citation indexing originated in 1961 when Eugene Garfield, Columbia University graduate in chemistry and library science and founder of the fledgling Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), received an NIH grant to produce the experimental Genetics Citation Index, which evolved into the reference serial Science Citation Index. ISI subsequently published Social Sciences Citation Index beginning in 1972 and Arts & Humanities Citation Index from 1978. See also: bibliographic coupling and citation chasing.

citation order
In Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), the order in which the facets or characteristics of a class are to be combined in number building. For example, the subject "juvenile court procedure in the United States" is expressed in a notation built or synthesized from four facets: 345/.73/081/0269. The citation order for the discipline of law (34) is: branch of the law (criminal 5), jurisdiction (United States 73), topic in branch of law (juvenile court 081), and standard subdivision (procedure 0269). Instructions for citation order are provided in the Schedules. When number building is not permitted or possible, instructions are provided with respect to preference order in the choice of facets (DDC).

cite
To quote or refer to an authority outside oneself, usually in support of a point or conclusion or by way of explanation or example. In scholarly publication, the source of such a reference is indicated in a footnote or endnote. Also used as a shortened form of the term citation.

cited half-life
A measure developed by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) of the number of publication years from the current year which account for 50% of the current citations received by a journal. For example, a journal would have had an ISI cited half-life of 2.7 years in 2004 if, of the total number of citations referring to it from all other journals tracked by ISI, 5.08% were to articles published in 2004, 28.84% were to articles published in 2003 or 2004, and 57.62% were to articles published in 2002, 2003, or 2004. A higher or lower cited half-life does not imply any particular value for the publication. Journals that provide rapid communication of current information are more likely to have a lower cited half-life than primary research journals. Dramatic changes in cited half-life over time may be the result of changes in the journal's format. Cited half-life can be useful to librarians in collection management and archiving decisions.

city directory
A three-way directory that lists the residents and businesses located in a specific town or city alphabetically by name, with street address and telephone number included in each entry. In a second section, name(s) and addresses are listed by phone number, and in a third section, names and phone numbers are listed by street address. Published annually and sold by subscription, current city directories often include zip code and census tract locators for use in marketing. In libraries, they are usually shelved in ready reference or in the reference stacks. Click here to search the Shaw's Dublin City Directory published in 1850. Synonymous with cross-reference directory.

city map
A map, larger in scale than a road map, showing in considerable detail the streets, public transportation lines, hospitals, schools, libraries, museums, parks, and other major institutions and landmarks within the boundaries of a city. Click here to see a 16th-century city map of London (Folger Shakespeare Library). Online access to World City Maps and U.S. Historical City Maps is provided by the Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection.

cityscape
A general or broad view of a city or town (or portion of it), made by photographic or artistic means, usually from a distant and/or elevated point of view, often showing the skyline; the urban equivalent of a landscape. To see examples, try a keyword search on the term in Google Images. See also: bird's-eye view. Also, a genre of art in which the principal subject is the urban environment (click here to see examples by the American impressionist Childe Hassam, courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art). Synonymous with city view.

city symphony
In moving images, a semi-documentary work intended to present a city's man-made landscapes, monuments, and activities in an abstract or impressionistic style, often to the accompaniment of a specially-composed musical score (example: Berlin: Symphony of a Metropolis [1927] by Walter Ruttmann).

civil register
An official record of births, marriages, deaths, and other major events in the lives of the citizens of a governmental unit. Some countries have a national civil register, for example, the UK. Its General Register Office is part of the Identity and Passport Service. See also: vital records. Also refers to a record of cases tried in a civil court (see this example).

CJK
An abbreviation used for materials published in the Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages and for the Chinese, Japanese, and Korean character sets.

CLA Book of the Year for Children
A literary award established in 1947 and presented annually under the auspices of the Canadian Library Association to the author of the most outstanding children's book of creative writing (fiction, poetry, retelling of traditional literature, etc.) published in Canada during the preceding year. The author must be a citizen or permanent resident of Canada. Click here to see a list of past award winners. Compare with Amelia Frances Howard-Gibbon Illustrator's Award. See also: Carnegie Medal and Newbery Medal.

claim
A notice from a library informing the publisher or subscription agent that a specific issue of a newspaper or periodical on subscription, or item on continuation order, has not been received within a reasonable time, with a request that a replacement copy be sent. Claimed items are noted in the check-in record attached to the bibliographic record that represents the publication in the library catalog. See also: claim report.

Also refers to the process used by a depository library in the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) to inform the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO) that an item number on its list of selections was included on a shipping list, but the document was not received. Claims must be filed by the depository within 60 days of receipt of the shipping list, except when a raincheck was issued. Claims can be filed online using the Web Claim form available on the FDLP Desktop.

claim report
The publisher's or vendor's response regarding the status of a claim made by a library for material not received as expected on subscription or continuation order. Synonymous with claim check.

clamshell box
A protective container, often fitted to the dimensions of the enclosed object, hinged along one side to open like a book, allowing the contents to be inspected without removal (click here to see an example). Libraries typically store videocassettes intended for circulation in hard plastic clamshell boxes. Those used in archival storage are usually buffered and may be designed to pass the Photographic Activity Test (PAT). To see examples, try a keywords search on the phrase "clamshell and archival" in Google Images. Synonymous with clam shell case. Compare with solander.

clandestine publication
A book, pamphlet, newspaper, broadsheet, speech, song, etc., published and distributed in secrecy, without official knowledge or sanction, usually expressing controversial views during a time of political unrest and censorship (click here to see a 16th-century Dutch example, courtesy of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek).

clasp
A hinged fitting made of ornamented metal, ivory, or bone attached to the fore-edge of the boards of a book, used from the 14th to the early 17th century to keep the leaves pressed firmly together and to prevent the covers from warping. Prior to 1200, leather strap fastenings were used for this purpose. Greek-style bindings sometimes had a clasp at the head and tail and two on the fore-edge. Michelle Brown notes in Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts (Getty Museum/British Library, 1994) that in English bindings the catch or pin was attached to the lower board, and in most Continental bindings to the upper board.

Click here to view a 16th-century leather binding with two plain brass fore-edge clasps, tastefully aligned with bands of blind tooling across the back cover (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, Ah-y.11). On luxury bindings, clasps of precious metal were sometimes engraved with a name, date, motto, or religious phrase, as on this example of a late-15th-century panel-stamped binding (Koninklijke Bibliotheek). Ornate clasps might feature cameo portraits, sometimes added later (Wellesley College Library). To see other examples, try a keywords search on the term "clasps" in the British Library's Database of Bookbindings. Today, clasps are used mainly on personal diaries and albums, sometimes with lock and key.

class
A grouping of objects or concepts based on one or more characteristics, attributes, properties, qualities, etc., that they have in common, for the purpose of classifying them according to an established system, represented in library classification systems by a symbolic notation. In hierarchical classification systems, the members of a class (example: books) are divided into subclasses (children's books), which are in turn subdivided into more specific subclasses (picture books), and so on.

In Dewey Decimal Classification, a subdivision of any degree of specificity, for example, the class "Library and information sciences" represented by the notation 020. The 10 highest-level divisions of DDC (numbered 0-9 in the first-digit position) are its main classes.

In human resources management, a group of positions within an organization for which the qualifications, duties, responsibilities, evaluation procedures, etc., are comparable and which share the same scale of rank and pay. In library employment, positions are typically classified as follows: library director, librarian, library technician, library technical assistant, and clerical assistant.

classic
A widely read work recognized as outstanding in its field. Such a work remains in print long after initial publication; is translated, adapted, and issued in multiple editions; and continues to be the subject of criticism, commentary, study, and analysis (example: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain). Also refers to a feature film (Chaplin's The Gold Rush) or documentary (Robert Flaherty's Nanook of the North) that has withstood the test of time. Compare with classics. See also: cult classic.

classical border
An ornamental band around text and/or miniature in a medieval manuscript, containing motifs derived from the art of ancient Rome (acanthus scrolls, garlands, cornucopia, vases, candelabra, medallions, cameos, masks, portrait busts, putti, etc.), a style of manuscript decoration that flourished in Italy during the Renaissance (15th and 16th centuries). Click here to see a late 15th-century Florentine example and here to see an example from Rome (British Library, Burney 333 and 175), or browse the classical borders in this late 15th-century Florentine Book of Hours (Morgan Library, MS M.14). Click here to see a less ornate example in a 16th-century French Book of Hours (Morgan, MS M.85).

classics
All the non-Christian works written in the Greek and Latin languages prior to A.D. 600 (example: The Republic of Plato). In a broader sense, outstanding books on any subject, whether fiction or nonfiction, written for adults or children. Compare with classic.

classification
The process of dividing objects or concepts into logically hierarchical classes, subclasses, and sub-subclasses based on the characteristics they have in common and those that distinguish them. Also used as a shortened form of the term classification system or classification scheme. See also: Cataloging and Classification Section and cross-classification.

classification schedule
The names assigned to the classes and subdivisions of a classification system, listed in the order of their symbolic notation. In a hierarchical classification system, the arrangement of the schedule(s) indicates logical subordination. For example, in Dewey Decimal Classification the schedules consist of the class numbers 000-999, the associated headings, and notes concerning use, with logical hierarchy indicated by indention and length of notation. See also: auxiliary schedule, main schedule, relative index, and schedule reduction.

Classification Society of North America (CSNA)
A nonprofit interdisciplinary organization devoted to promoting the scientific study of classification and clustering and to the dissemination of scientific and educational information related to its fields of interest. CSNA publishes the biannual Journal of Classification and the CSNA Newsletter. Click here to connect to the CSNA homepage. See also: International Federation of Classification Societies.

classification system
A list of classes arranged according to a set of pre-established principles for the purpose of organizing items in a collection, or entries in an index, bibliography, or catalog, into groups based on their similarities and differences, to facilitate access and retrieval. In the United States, most library collections are classified by subject. Classification systems can be enumerative or hierarchical, broad or close. In the United States, most public libraries use Dewey Decimal Classification, but academic and research libraries prefer Library of Congress Classification. See also: Classification Society of North America, Colon Classification, and notation.

Classification Web
A Web-based cataloging and reference product released in 2002 by the Cataloging Distribution Service of the Library of Congress that enables users to search and browse the complete LC Classification Schedules and LC Subject Headings. Correlations are provided between LC class numbers and subject headings. Updated weekly, the product also provides automatic calculation of classification table numbers, a permanent institutional or personal notes file, and the ability to link to local Web-based online catalogs for most of the major vendors. Click here to learn more about Classification Web.

classified
The status of a document to which access is restricted to a few authorized individuals within a military or government agency, research institution, private corporation, or other organization, usually because it contains highly sensitive information that might be misused by unauthorized persons. When secrecy is no longer required, the document may be declassified. See also: Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), intelligence, need to know, overclassified, reclassification, and sensitive but unclassified.

Also refers to a reference tool (catalog, index, dictionary, encyclopedia, etc.) organized according to a classification system, usually by subject or some other arrangement based on content, as opposed to a strictly alphabetical or numerical listing of entries.

classified catalog
A subject catalog in which entries are filed in the notational order of a pre-established classification system, with bibliographic records under as many subject headings as apply to the content of each item. An alphabetical subject index facilitates the use of a classified catalog, which is usually maintained alongside an author and/or title catalog. Synonymous with classed catalog and class catalog. Compare with dictionary catalog and divided catalog.

classified index
An index in which entries are arranged under headings and subheadings indicating hierarchical divisions and subdivisions within classes based on the subject matter indexed, rather than in alphabetical or numerical sequence. To use such an index effectively, a subject index is required.

classify
To arrange a collection of items (books, pamphlets, maps, videocassettes, sound recordings, etc.) according to a system of classification, based on the characteristics (facets) of each item. Also, to assign a class number to an individual item in a collection, based on its characteristics.

class number
The specific notation used in Dewey Decimal Classification to designate a class, for example, 943.085 assigned to works on the history of the Weimar Republic in Germany. In Library of Congress Classification, the corresponding notation is DD237. See also: base number, discontinued number, interdisciplinary number, and number building.

classroom collection
A small semi-permanent collection of library materials selected by a school library or academic library for the general classroom use use of an instructor and the students enrolled in a course (or courses). Compare with classroom library and classroom loan.

classroom library
A small collection of library materials located permanently in a school classroom for the use of instructor and students in support of the general curriculum (see this example). Such a collection may include reference materials such as a dictionary, thesaurus, atlas, general encyclopedia, etc. Compare with classroom collection and classroom loan.

classroom loan
A small collection of library materials on temporary loan from a school library or academic library to a classroom, for the use of instructor and students, usually in support of a specific project or curriculum unit. Compare with classroom collection and classroom library.

clay animation
Stop-motion film animation in which the subjects are modeled in a malleable substance, such as plasticine or silicone rubber, usually against a background which may also be deformable (see this example). For each frame, the position of at least one of the subjects is altered incrementally, creating the illusion of continuous movement when the footage is played back at the usual 24 frames per second. Clay animation is very labor-intensive because twelve changes are generally required for each second of film. Synonymous with claymation.

clay tablet
The earliest known books were inscribed on small, thin, wet slabs of clay, using a thin, sharp instrument called a stylus to incise the wedge-shaped cuneiform characters of the written languages of ancient Mesopotamia. The finished tablets were sun-dried or kiln-fired, then enclosed in a protective outer shell of dried or fired clay inscribed with a title or abstract of the contents. Click here to see Sumerian examples, courtesy of the Schøyen Collection (Oslo, Norway). Although clay tablets were too heavy to be portable in large numbers and too small to record long texts effectively, they were much more durable than the papyrus scrolls that superseded them. Click here to learn more about clay tablets, courtesy of the University of Minnesota Libraries.

clearinghouse
An organization or unit within an organization that functions as a central agency for collecting, organizing, storing, and disseminating documents, usually within a specific academic discipline or field. A clearinghouse may also assist the research process by maintaining records of information resources for referral (examples: ERIC and LOEX). Also spelled clearing house.

cliché
From the French word clicher, meaning "to stereotype." A word, phrase, or expression so overused that it has lost its impact and, to some degree, its original meaning. Considered unimaginative, clichés are avoided by serious writers and speakers, except in dialogue when the author wishes to make a point about the mentality of the speaker. Dictionaries of clichés are available in the reference section of larger libraries.

In literature, an overused plot element or character type whose lack of originality detracts from the overall quality of the work.

cliché-verre
A photomechanical method of printmaking, popular with French painters in the 1850s, in which the image is created by exposing photographic paper to light through an image scratched with a sharp instrument in an opaque ground-coating on a smooth, transparent surface, such as glass or film, a technique permitting fluidity of line similar to that achieved with etching. To see examples, try a keywords search on the term in Google Images. Synonymous with glass print and hyalography.

click-and-drag
To change the position of an icon, filename, window, or other movable element on a computer screen by clicking on it with a pointing device, such as a mouse, and then holding down the button to shift the element to another location on the screen. The technique can be used to reposition windows on a microcomputer desktop, move computer files from one directory or subdirectory to another in storage, and organize bookmarked Web sites in folders in most Web browsers.

click-on license
Licensing terms stated in a notice appearing on the installation or opening screen of a software or electronic information product, which the manufacturer considers the user to have accepted by the act of selecting an icon or link to continue. Such agreements often include provisions and restrictions that have not been uniformly enforced in the courts, because they give software publishers more rights than are permitted under federal copyright or patent law. The controversial Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act (UCITA) would allow software publishers to embed non-negotiable, enforceable contract terms in this type of mass-market license. Synonymous with click-through license and click-wrap license. See also: shrink-wrap license.

client
A person who uses the services of a professionally trained expert, or of a professional organization or institution, usually in exchange for payment of a fee. Librarians employed in academic and public libraries usually refer to the people they serve as users or patrons because libraries have traditionally provided most services without charge. Information brokers who operate on a fee-for-service basis can be more appropriately said to serve "clients."

Also refers to a computer connected to a network such as the Internet, equipped with software enabling the user to access resources available on another computer, called a server, connected to the same network. See also: client-server.

clientele
All the people who use a library's services and collections on a regular or irregular basis, usually those living in the district that fundss its operations or who are members of the institution it serves. Successful collection development depends on the librarian's knowledge of the information needs and preferences of the library's users. The primary clientele consists of the largest or most important category of person using a library's services and collections on a regular basis, for example, undergraduate students at a college library. The hours that a library is open may be established to accommodate the needs of its primary clientele. See also: user survey.

client-server
Wide area (WAN) or local area network (LAN) architecture that makes it possible for a client computer (usually a PC workstation) to download information or processing from a server machine, as opposed to a system that uses dedicated terminals connected to a minicomputer or mainframe. The size and speed of computer required as a server (microcomputer, minicomputer, or mainframe) depend on the nature of the applications to be installed and the amount of anticipated use. Also refers to the software used to establish the connection between a client and server. See also: Open Systems Interconnection.

clinical trial
A research study conducted at a hospital, university, physician's office, community clinic, or other medical facility in which human subjects answer specific health questions, usually about prevention options, new treatments (or new ways to use existing treatments), new screening and diagnostic techniques, or options for improving the quality of life of people with serious medical conditions. A clinical trial is conducted according to a plan called a protocol specifying what types of patients may participate in the study, schedules of tests and procedures, drugs and dosages to be used, length of study, and outcomes to be measured. Each participant must agree in advance to observe the rules stated in the protocol. Participants are usually volunteers, but may in some cases be paid. Although some risk may be involved in participation, a clinical trial that is well-designed and properly executed gives patients a participatory role in their own health care and may provide access to new research treatments and therapies before they become widely available. In the United States, clinical trials are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In MEDLINE and other health-related bibliographic databases, search results can be limited to the publication type "clinical trial." Synonymous with clinical study.

clip art
Ready-made print or digital graphic art (illustrations, borders, backgrounds), which can be cut or copied for insertion in a print or electronic document. Most clip art is copyright-free. Also spelled clipart.

clipboard
A small amount of computer memory reserved as a temporary storage place in the exchange of data between software applications. In word processing, this is normally accomplished by selecting the option to "cut" or "copy" from one document and "paste" into another. Data transferred to the clipboard is lost when another cut/copy operation commences, unless saved as a separate file. The term originally referred to a thin, rectangular piece of rigid material, a little larger than an 8 1/2 x 11-inch sheet of paper, equipped with a spring clamp at the top for holding down paper, designed as a portable writing surface (see this example).

clipping
A page, piece of a page, or pages cut or torn from a printed publication, usually from a newspaper or magazine, by a person who wishes to save an article, editorial, letter to the editor, photograph, cartoon, etc. (see this example from a Texas newspaper). Large collections of clippings are usually stored in a clipping file, arranged by subject or some other method of classification. Compare with cutting and tear sheet. See also: clipping service.

clipping service
A service, usually performed in a special library, in which news announcements, articles, photographs, and other items of interest to the host organization are clipped from current periodicals and news services on a daily or weekly basis to be forwarded to appropriate personnel within the organization, based on pre-established interest profiles (example: BurrellesLuce). Directory information for commercial clipping services is available in the reference serial Literary Market Place. Synonymous with clipping bureau.

cloisonné
From the French cloison meaning "partition" or "compartment." An elegant style of book cover produced by Italian and Greek craftsmen of the 11th century in which an ornamental design in narrow metal strips was soldered onto a metal plate, and the open spaces between the strips filled with enamel in various colors, to form the outer surface of the cover. Books bound in this style are usually very valuable, especially when in good condition. Click here to see a 12th-century book cover plaque in champlevé enamel, courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The technique of cloisonné originated in ancient China (click here to view a collection of examples). Compare with champlevé binding. See also: rare book.

close classification
A classification system in which the main classes and divisions are minutely subdivided, allowing very specific characteristics of each subject to be differentiated. Also, the classification of works to the fullest extent permitted by the notation of a classification system (DDC). The opposite of broad classification.

closed caption (CC)
A continuous moving line of text (called a crawl) along the bottom of the screen in a television broadcast giving the narration or dialogue and noting any non-speech vocalizations (laughter, screams, dogs barking, etc.) or sound effects (music, applause, doorbells, etc.). Used mainly for the hearing-impaired and in bilingual programming, closed captioning is visible only with the aid of a special decoder. In library cataloging, the phrase closed captioned is entered in the note area of the bibliographic description to indicate that an item includes the feature.

closed catalog
A library catalog to which new bibliographic records are no longer added or in which additions are restricted to certain categories, although existing records continue to be removed as they are revised, corrected, and/or converted to machine-readable format. After retrospective conversion is completed, a closed catalog is usually removed from public access and eventually discarded. Compare with frozen catalog and open catalog.

closed circuit television (CCTV)
A video system used internally in some large libraries for conferencing and to monitor traffic for security purposes.

closed-end index
An index covering one or more documents or publications compiled all at one time (example: Canadian Feature Film Index, 1913-1985). Compare with open-end index. See also: single index.

closed entry
A note in the bibliographic record for a serial or continuation giving the complete information for all the parts or volumes published, or in the holdings statement in the catalog record for such a title, indicating all the parts or volumes held by the library (example: v.1-10 1936-1945), as distinct from the open entry for an ongoing serial subscription or continuation order (example: v.1- 1936- ). For newspapers and periodicals, a closed entry usually indicates that the subscription was canceled or the publication ceased.

closed file
In archives, a collection of documents in which additions or changes are unlikely to occur. Synonymous in this sense with cut-off file. Also, a file of records to which access is restricted or denied, except under special circumstances.

closed reserve
An item on reserve that may be checked out by a registered borrower but may not be removed from library premises. Also, a reserve collection shelved in a closed stack from which requested items must be retrieved by a member of the library staff. Compare with open reserve.

closed stacks
A shelving area in a library to which only members of the library staff have access, established to protect the collection or conserve space by using aisles narrower than the width that is standard in open stacks. Materials are retrieved from closed stacks by staff members upon request. Click here to see closed stacks at the New York Public Library. See also: call slip.

closed tear
A tear in a book or other printed publication with no material missing. Compare with open tear.

closeout
A book title offered for retail sale at a significantly reduced price because the publisher is allowing it to go out of print. A rebate may be offered by the publisher to the bookseller for copies that do not sell.

close score
A vocal music score in which all the parts are given on a minimum number of staves, usually two, as in a hymn (AACR2).

closet drama
A play written to be read rather than performed on the stage, for example, the dramatic works of the French poet Alfred de Musset. Also refers to a drama originally intended for performance, which survives as a work of literature but is rarely if ever performed (example: Byron's Manfred).

close-up
A still photograph or shot in a motion picture made with the camera positioned near the subject, generally closer than normal viewing distance, filling the frame with the image. The technique is often used to bring out the detail in small objects (see these examples) or to highlight a portion of a larger subject, for example, the face (see this example). As a general rule, the closer the photographer can get to the subject, the larger it will appear in the final image, with the minimum focusing distance of the camera determining how close the photographer can get. Special camera attachments and macro lenses are often used to increase magnification in macro photography. Also refers to a portrait photograph showing only the face (example). Also spelled close up.

closing
All the procedures followed by the staff of a library when the facility closes at the end of a day, such as informing patrons that it is time to leave, checking the premises to be certain all users have vacated, logging off computer systems, turning off lights and equipment, locking doors, switching on pre-recorded phone messages, activating security alarms, etc. Size and design of facility determine the length of time and number of staff required to close. In very large facilities, a checklist may be followed for each floor, and one or more security guards may assist in clearing the building. Compare with opening. See also: library closure.

cloth
A generic term for any woven material used since the early 19th century to cover the boards of a book, as opposed to the leather, parchment, or vellum used in earlier bookbinding or the paper covers used today. Dyed book cloth used in edition binding is woven from cotton or linen, filled with starch sizing, or coated or impregnated with some other compound to prevent adhesives from penetrating, then pressed under heat. Because the covers of cloth-bound trade editions are not designed to withstand heavy use, publishers add an attractively designed paper dust jacket for protection (and marketing purposes). Volumes that must withstand heavy use are often given a library binding in a heavier, more durable material such as buckram. The term is also used in publishers' catalogs to distinguish the hardcover from the softcover edition of a work. For examples of cloth bindings, see the online exhibition Cover Story: 19th Century Cloth Book Covers (George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida). Synonymous with cloth-bound. See also: half cloth, publisher's cloth, and quarter cloth.

Cloth was also used as a covering material in luxury hand-binding of the 16th and 17th centuries. Bindings in canvas, satin, or velvet were often embroidered in silk and/or metallic thread. To see examples, try a keywords search on the phrase "satin or velvet" in the British Library's Database of Bookbindings. See also: textile binding.

cloth book
A small, illustrated children's book printed entirely on sturdy woven fabric and given a flexible binding for toddlers who have not yet developed sufficient manual dexterity to turn paper pages without tearing them (see this example). To withstand drooling, the cloth pages may be treated with a moisture-resistant substance. In the 19th century, this type of toy book was called a rag book.

cloth joint
A strip of linen used to reinforce the inside of the front and back joints in some library bindings and in very large, thick, or heavy books. In volumes of normal size and thickness, the unreinforced joints are usually formed on the inside by the fold in each endpaper.

cloth map
A map made on woven material instead of parchment or paper, often designed for use in the field. Cloth maps are more durable than paper maps, especially in wet conditions, and they can be easily rolled up or folded for storage and transport. The technique of printing maps on cloth reached a peak during World War II with highly accurate registration of multiple colors on both sides of a single piece of fabric. Click here to see an example of a U.S. Army Air force "survival" map of Luzon Island in the Philippines issued by the Aeronautical Chart Service in 1944 (Library of Congress).

cloth photograph
A photographic image produced by any one of a number of processes, in color or black and white, on a support consisting of fabric made from cotton, silk, or some other fiber (see these examples).

cloud computing
A marketing term for the delivery of computing technologies as a service rather than a product, allowing capital expenditure to be converted into operating expenditure. In this model, software, data access, and storage are provided to computers and other devices over a network as a shared IT service. The end-user sees only interface software and has no need to know the physical location or configuration of the delivery system.

cloze test
A test of reading comprehension and grammar in which a language student must supply appropriate missing words intentionally omitted from a text. The word cloze is derived from the concept of "closure" in Gestalt theory. Click here to see examples. Synonymous with cloze deletion test.

club line
A single indented line at the beginning of a paragraph when it appears at the foot of a printed column or page of text, considered awkward by skilled typesetters and avoided whenever possible. Compare with orphan.

CLV
An abbreviation of constant linear velocity, a disc recording technology in which the speed of the motor that rotates the disc is adjusted to keep the linear velocity of the disc constant in playback. When the head is reading the outside of the disc, the motor runs slower because the tracks are longer than on the inside, ensuring that the same amount of data passes the read head in a given amount of time. The main advantage of CLV is that data storage capacity is significantly greater than in CAV (constant angular velocity) format; however, special playback features available in CAV such a freeze frame, step frame, slow motion, and reverse are not possible in CLV.

CMYK
An abbreviation of cyan-magenta-yellow-black. See: process color.

Coalition for Networked Information (CNI)
Founded in 1990, CNI is a nonprofit organization with headquarters in Washington, D.C., dedicated to supporting the future of networked information technology for the advancement of scholarly communication and the enhancement of intellectual productivity. Sponsored by the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and EDUCAUSE, CNI's membership includes 200 institutions representing higher education, publishing, telecommunication, information technology, libraries, and library-related activities. Click here to connect to the CNI homepage.

coated paper
Book and printing papers to which a thin layer of mineral, wax, resin, plastic, or emulsion has been applied, either in the papermaking machine prior to drying and finishing or by a separate coating machine after manufacture, to create a smooth surface that improves appearance and printability. Some papers are double-coated using both methods to give them a very hard gloss. Coated papers are used for posters, wall calendars, dust jackets, magazine and catalog covers, and other materials in which detailed graphic elements predominate (art books, exhibition catalogs, coffee table books, etc.). The finish can be glossy or dull. Also known as art papers. Compare with uncoated paper.

coat of arms
A shield or its representation bearing the heraldic insignia traditionally associated with a specific person, family, institution, etc., often found in or on the bindings of books owned by royalty or members of the aristocracy. Click here to see a 16th-century example bearing the coat of arms of King Frederik II of Denmark, courtesy of the Royal Library of Denmark. See also: armorial binding.

coaxial cable
A high-capacity metal cable consisting of four layers: a solid or stranded wire encased in insulation, shielded by braided wire covered in plastic insulation (see this diagram). Various types of coaxial cable are used extensively in cable television transmission and computer networks because "coax" can carry more data and is less susceptible to interference than the twisted pair wire used in older telephone systems. Compare with optical fiber.

cobweb site
A Web site that contains broken links and outdated information because it has not been updated in a long time.

co-citation coupling
The idea that two scholarly papers (A and B) cited in a third (C) are bibliographically related in a way that is likely to be of interest to researchers, even when they do not directly cite one another. The relationship is stronger when both A and B are also cited in other papers besides C. Compare with bibliographic coupling.

cocked
A serious binding defect in which the spine of a book is angled or twisted in a way that prevents the boards from lining up evenly with each other. Click here to see an example, courtesy of Abebooks.com. Synonymous with cocked spine. See also: shelf-cocked.

cockle
A slightly puckered finish produced naturally or artificially as paper shrinks unevenly when dried under little or no tension, as in the production of onionskin. The boards and paper in a finished book may cockle if heat is applied following exposure to excessive moisture. The condition can be prevented by controlling temperature and relative humidity in storage. The parchment and vellum used as a writing surface in medieval manuscripts is also susceptible to cockling because it is made from membrane (see this example courtesy of the Gold Meir Library, Univ. of Wisconsin-Milwaukie).

cockled
The condition of a book in which the leaves or boards appear puckered, wavy, wrinkled, or curled, usually due to uneven distortion produced by excessive heat and/or humidity in drying. In a book cover, the condition can result from the incorrect use of adhesive (too much or the wrong kind).

cockroach
A very common nocturnal beetle-like insect of the genus Blatta, dark brown in color and of comparatively large size, known for its voraciousness and affinity for human habitations. It prefers kitchens where it multiplies rapidly if sufficient food is available. Cockroaches also feed on paste and glue and will chew through the binding of a book to get to it. They also excrete a dark-staining liquid that can be difficult to remove. The best way to prevent infestation is to prohibit food and drink near library collections. According to Jane Greenfield (The Care of Fine Books, Nick Lyons Books, 1988), boric acid powder sprinkled lightly on the shelves around books also discourages cockroaches. Click here to learn more about cockroaches and how to control them, courtesy of the University of Rhode Island.

Also, a publisher's term for text set all in lowercase, probably derived from Archy and Mehitabel, a series of humorous newspaper columns written by Don Marquis for the New York Evening Sun, beginning in 1916. Archy was a fictional cockroach who could type only by jumping with all his weight on the typewriter keys one-at-a-time.

coda
From the Latin word cauda, meaning "tail." An independent passage added at the end of a musical work or literary composition to bring the piece to a graceful conclusion by drawing preceding motifs and themes together in a satisfying resolution. The last chapter of a biography, the last essay in a collection of essays, or the last story in a book of short stories is sometimes written as a coda to tie the other parts together.

codebook
The metadata that describes a social science data set. Although codebooks have been digitized since the 1970s, social scientists continue to refer to them as "books" because they originally existed in the form of bound manuals. A codebook contains bibliographic information about a scientific study, describes the composition and format of data files, and documents methodology and study variables. See also: Data Documentation Initiative.

CODEN
A system of alphanumeric codes developed by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) to uniquely and permanently identify sci-tech serial and monographic publications. Responsibility for administering the system was transferred to the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) in 1975. CODEN is used in electronic information systems to process bibliographic data because it is more concise than the full title and less ambiguous than an abbreviated title.

code of ethics
A set of standards governing the conduct and judgment of librarians, library staff, and other information professionals in their work. The ALA Code of Ethics sets standards for equitable access, intellectual freedom, confidentiality, respect for intellectual property rights, excellence, accuracy, integrity, impartiality, courtesy, and respect for colleagues and library patrons.

codex
From the Latin caudex, meaning "tree bark." Originally an ancient manuscript written with a stylus on hinged wax-covered tablets made of wood, metal, or ivory, called codices. From the 1st century on, a manuscript written on sheets of papyrus, fastened at one side to allow the leaves to open and close like a book, a format used for law books in ancient Rome, also popular among the Christians because of its portability (scrolls were difficult to carry and had to be unrolled to locate a specific portion of text). Parchment replaced papyrus in about the 3rd century, and paper came into widespread use with the introduction of printing in the mid-15th century.

The oldest vellum codex known to exist is the Codex Sinaiticus, a Greek Old and New Testament of the mid-4th century written in scriptio continuo in four columns per page, currently in the British Library, although some scholars consider the Codex Vaticanus in the Vatican Library to be older. Click here to see a selection of contemporary models of early codex bindings, courtesy of the University of Iowa Libraries. The term also refers to the form of the modern book, consisting of individual leaves of writing material bound together along one edge and enclosed in a protective cover. See also: pugillaria.

codicil
In law, an informal document, usually attached to a will, changing or adding to its provisions, explaining the provisions, or giving instructions for the disposition of assets. Click here to see the codicil to Thomas Jefferson's will (courtesy of the Library of Congress) and here to see the codicil to the Last Will and Testament of Henry Clay (1851). In a more general sense, an appendix or supplement to a document, usually attached to it.

codicology
Analysis of the physical structure and characteristics of a book as a means of understanding its production and to establish date and place of origin and determine subsequent history (provenance). By examining the materials used in making a book, and its page design, artistic style(s), and methods of construction, codicologists are able to identify the scribes and workshops that produced them, establish relationships between manuscripts, and assist scholars in detecting alterations (accidental or intentional) in classical and medieval texts. In the case of books that survive in altered condition, such study may also help to determine the original appearance for the purpose of documentation or restoration. Compare with bibliology. See also: paleography.

codification
The process of creating systematic rules to govern a specific activity, such as the cataloging of bibliographic materials. In the United States, Britain, and Canada, the joint efforts of the American Library Association, the Library Association (UK), and the Canadian Library Association have produced Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, which apply to library materials in various formats (books, manuscripts, cartographic materials, music, sound recordings, motion pictures and videorecordings, graphic materials, computer files, three-dimensional artifacts and realia, microforms, and serials).

co-edition
An edition for which two or more publishers share responsibility, for example, The Great Libraries: From Antiquity to the Renaissance, published in 2000 by Oak Knoll Press and the British Library. In most cases, the original publisher grants the exclusive right to market and distribute the publication within a specific sales territory to one or more other publishers (see co-publishing). The title page of a co-edition may bear the imprint of the originator, of one of the companies granted distribution rights, or of all the co-publishers. Compare with export edition and joint publication. See also: joint imprint.

coextensive entry
The principle in indexing that the subject heading or descriptor assigned to a work should encompass all the significant concepts covered in the item (and no more). Thus a book about painters and poets would require the heading "Painters and poets," rather than the separate headings "Painters" and "Poets." Coextensive indexing is attempted in the PRECIS system. Also spelled co-extensive entry. Compare with specific entry.

coextensive heading
A subject heading that indicates all or most of the subjects of a bibliographic item, for example, the Library of Congress subject heading United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Participation, African American--Juvenile literature assigned to the juvenile book Black, Blue & Gray: African Americans in the Civil War (Simon & Schuster, 1998). Also spelled co-extensive heading. Compare with post-coordinate indexing. See also: exhaustivity.

coffee table book
An expensive book on a popular subject, usually oversize and lavishly illustrated, with the text clearly subordinate to the illustrations. Designed primarily for display and casual browsing rather than cover-to-cover reading, coffee table books are often marketed on the decorative appeal of their colorful dust jackets. In trade bookstores, they may be sold at a deep discount, especially at Christmas to attract gift buyers. Public libraries may add them to the collection when received as gifts, provided demand exists for the subject and condition is good. Academic library approval plans generally exclude them. Compare with table book.

cognitive style
The way a person habitually organizes a problem-solving or learning experience, or consistently receives and responds to information, especially whether the individual prefers content already structured (lecture-style) or is more likely to impose his/her own structure on the material (hands-on approach). Differences in learning style have important implications for the delivery of reference services and bibliographic instruction and for the design of online tutorials and library Web pages.

cold boot
To restart a computer by turning the power off and turning it back on again, causing the files in its operating system to be re-executed. This procedure is sometimes helpful in getting a computer "unstuck" when it locks up unexpectedly during processing and rebooting fails to get it going again, but the user should be aware that powering down will result in loss of unsaved data.

cold-crack
The tendency of the adhesive on the spine of a perfect-bound book to split at very low temperatures, reducing the text block to a pile of loose leaves. The inability of hot-melt adhesives to withstand cold temperatures makes them unsuitable for use in bindings marketed in countries like Finland and Russia where winter temperatures can be severe. The problem is eliminated in Otabind adhesive binding, which uses slower-drying, cold-resistant polyvinyl acetate (PVA) adhesive.

cold storage
A technique used by archivists and special collections librarians to extend the life expectancy of materials by storing them at below normal room temperature. Since temperature is a major factor in the chemical reactions that cause materials such as film and paper to deteriorate, its reduction can slow the effects of aging. As a general rule, cold storage begins at 65 degrees Fahrenheit and continues down to 0 degrees. A distinction is often made between cool storage at 65 to 40 degrees and cold storage (40 to 0 degrees). In preservation, cold storage is frequently used to stabilize materials in large quantities. It is particularly effective in preserving color and nitrate photographs and motion pictures. In cool storage, items can be taken directly to room temperature without acclimatization, but in cold storage, materials may be kept below freezing and must therefore pass through a staging process to bring them up to a temperature at which they may be safely handled. Also refers to the area in which materials are stored at below normal room temperature. Click here to see a cold storage vault for film (Swedish Film Institute) and here to learn more about this method of preserving film (National Film and Sound Archive of Australia).

collaborative collection development (CCD)
Agreement between two or more libraries to share the expense of collection development and management by allocating strengths in certain subject areas among the participating libraries, with the understanding that resource sharing will make materials accessible to users of all the libraries, providing a collectively richer and more useful whole than if the collections of the participants had been developed separately in response to purely local needs. The Triangle Research Libraries Network (TRLN) in North Carolina is a successful example.

A standard model for CCD in the print environment divides the information sphere into "core" and "specialized" materials. A research library has a basic responsibility to maintain a core collection on-site to serve immediate needs, especially those of undergraduates. At the same time, a commitment is made to develop collections of specialized materials in selected areas, not only to meet local priorities but also to serve consortial needs. Specialized collections are supported by the collections of consortial partners built through distributed responsibility for complementary fields. Effective delivery is essential to the success of complementary collections. Synonymous with cooperative collection development.

collaborative learning
A teaching method in which responsibility for organizing the learning experience is shared with the students. Collaborative learning is based on the premise that learning is a social process.

collaborative reference
A mode of digital reference in which reference questions are routed to reference librarians at different institutions, based on such criteria as expertise, availability, etc. The QuestionPoint service developed by OCLC and the Library of Congress, with input from participating members of the Global Reference Network, is an example of such a service. Compare with cooperative reference.

collaborator
A person who works closely with one or more associates in producing a work to which all who participate make the same kind of contribution (shared responsibility) or different contributions (mixed responsibility), for example, essays written by different authors for publication in a collection or illustrations for a children's book in which the text is written by a person other than the illustrator. See also: joint author.

collagraph
A print made from a rigid substrate (board, block, or plate) on which the image is composed of a collage of various textured, comparatively flat materials (cardboard, fabric, tinfoil, string, sand, grit, found objects, etc.) glued to the surface, sometimes with the application of modeling media. An intaglio collagraph is made by rubbing ink into grooves and fissures and then wiping away the ink on the surface before the print is pulled. A relief collagraph is taken from ink rolled over the surface, leaving grooves and fissures untouched. The two techniques can be combined in the same print. To see examples, try a keyword search on the term "collagraph" in Google Images. Also spelled collograph. Synonymous with collage print.

collate
To determine, usually by close examination of signatures, leaves, illustrations, and other characteristics, if a copy of a book is complete and perfect, or to compare it with descriptions of ideal copies found in bibliographies for the same purpose. Also, to compare two printed works page by page and line by line, to establish whether they are identical copies or variants of the same text.

Also, to check a book for completeness before binding, and to make sure the signatures are gathered in correct sequence, a task is made easier by collating marks printed along the back fold or in the tail margin to make misplaced sections easier to spot. The marks are removed in trimming or concealed when the lining is applied to the binding edge.

Also, to merge two or more ordered sets of documents, records, pages, or data into a single desired sequence. High-end photocopiers usually have collating capability.

collation
In codicology, a complete description of both the current and the original structure of a manuscript or book, especially the arrangement of its leaves and sections. Separate descriptions may be given of current and original structures or information about both states may be conveyed in a single collation.

In binding, a list of the signatures of a book, indicating the number of leaves in each. Also, the process of checking the physical make-up of a book for correct sequence and completeness before binding, particularly the presence of all illustrations, plates, and maps not printed with the text.

In analytical bibliography, the comparison of two texts of the same work to determine which is the first edition or the definitive text.

In library cataloging, a synonym for the physical description area of a bibliographic record, now disused.

Also refers to the merger of two ordered sets of documents, records, pages, or data into a single desired sequence.

collected edition
An edition of the previously published works of an author, issued in a single volume or uniform set of volumes, usually under a collective title. Compare with author's edition.

collectible
Any class of things, usually old or rare but lacking intrinsic value, that people accumulate as a hobby or in the expectation that the value will rise (autographs, baseball cards, comic books, phonograph records, etc.). Also used as an adjective to describe something sought by collectors, for example, first editions and incunabula. Also spelled collectable.

collecting archives
An independent organization, or unit within a larger organization or institution, responsible for building a collection of records and documents from a variety of outside sources (individuals, families, etc.), in keeping with the mission of the parent institution and an acquisitions policy, for example, a manuscript repository in the library of a major university. Archives of this type may provide online access to a portion of their resources (example: Declaring Independence: Drafting the Documents, courtesy of the Library of Congress), or be completely electronic (USGenWeb Archives hosted by RootsWeb). See also: institutional memory and personal archives.

collecting level
The thoroughness with which materials published in a given field or subject area are selected by a library for inclusion in the collection. The following levels are generally recognized in the library literature:

0 Out of scope
1 Minimal information
2 Basic information
3 Study or instructional support
4 Research support
5 Comprehensive

Synonymous with collecting intensity.

collection
In library cataloging, three or more independent works or long excerpts from works by the same author, or two or more independent works or excerpts from works by different authors, not written for the same occasion or for the publication in hand, published together in a single volume or uniform set of volumes, for example, a book of essays written by one or more essayists. Selected by an editor, the works are listed in the table of contents in order of appearance in the text. Click here and here to see collected editions of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes short stories originally published in The Strand Magazine (Lilly Library, Indiana University). Synonymous with collected work. Compare with anthology and compilation. See also: analytical entry.

Also refers to a number of documents (books, reports, records, etc.) assembled in a single physical or virtual location by one or more persons, or by a corporate entity, and arranged in some kind of systematic order to facilitate retrieval. See also: library collection.

collection agency
A commercial enterprise that specializes in collecting past-due bills from people who owe them, usually by informing them that their credit record will suffer unless prompt payment is received. Most public libraries enter into a contractual agreement with such an agency to handle the collection of unpaid bills for items lost, damaged, or long overdue. Academic institutions have the option of withholding grades or diploma from a student until the balance on a student's library account is paid.

collection assessment
The systematic evaluation of the quality of a library collection to determine the extent to which it meets the library's service goals and objectives and the information needs of its clientele. Deficiencies are addressed through collection development. Synonymous with collection evaluation.

collection development
The process of planning and building a useful and balanced collection of library materials over a period of years, based on an ongoing assessment of the information needs of the library's clientele, analysis of usage statistics, and demographic projections, normally constrained by budgetary limitations. Collection development includes the formulation of selection criteria, planning for resource sharing, and replacement of lost and damaged items, as well as routine selection and deselection decisions.

Large libraries and library systems may use an approval plan or blanket order plan to develop their collections. In small- and medium-sized libraries, collection development responsibilities are normally shared by all the librarians, based on their interests and subject specializations, usually under the overall guidance of a written collection development policy. Compare with collection management. See also: Collection Development and Evaluation Section, Collection Management and Development Section, and collaborative collection development.

Collection Development and Evluation Section (CODES)
The section of the Reference and User Services Association (RUSA) within the American Library Association (ALA) that addresses the collection development interests of reference and user services librarians in libraries of all types. CODES studies questions of reference collection development and maintenance, readers' advisory, user communities, and reference publishing. Click here to connect to the CODES homepage.

collection development bias
Partiality in the selection of materials for a library collection, whether against or in favor of materials presenting a particular point of view or with respect to a specific type of resource, category of publisher, etc. Although the Library Bill of Rights of the American Library Association charges librarians in the United States to "provide materials and information presenting all points of view on current and historical issues," some studies suggest that librarians tend to avoid selecting potentially controversial books and media, for reasons conscious or unconscious, undermining the goal of balanced collection development. See also: precensorship.

collection development policy (CDP)
A formal written statement of the principles guiding a library's selection of materials, including the criteria used in making selection and deselection decisions (fields covered, degrees of specialization, levels of difficulty, languages, formats, balance, etc.) and policies concerning gifts and exchanges. An unambiguously worded collection development policy can be very helpful in responding to challenges from pressure groups.

collection level cataloging
The encoding level used to control separately published documents (maps, pamphlets, ephemera, etc.) that are unrelated bibliographically and do not warrant the expense of full level or even minimal level cataloging but have research value and can be cataloged as a single item under a collective title because they share at least one unifying characteristic (author, issuing body, language, subject, genre, etc.). Synonymous with collective cataloging.

collection maintenance
Measures taken on a routine basis or as needed to preserve the materials in a library collection in usable condition, including mending, repair, binding, rebinding, and reformatting, usually the responsibility of the technical processing and serials departments.

collection management
The application of quantitative techniques, such as statistical and cost-benefit analysis, to the process of collection development, usually limited to large libraries and library systems. In a more general sense, the activity of planning and supervising the growth and preservation of a library's collections based on an assessment of existing strengths and weaknesses and an estimate of future needs. See also: Collection Management and Development Section.

Collection Management and Development Section (CMDS)
The section of the Association for Library Collections and Technical Services (ALCTS) within the American Library Association (ALA) devoted to promoting the improvement of collection management and development and to the selection and evaluation of library materials in all formats and in all types of institutions. Click here to connect to the CMDS homepage.

collective bargaining agreement (CBA)
A legally binding contract signed on behalf of library staff organized in a collective bargaining unit (union) by elected representatives authorized to negotiate terms of employment with management, including salaries and wages, benefits, job responsibilities, evaluation for promotion and tenure, grievance procedures, etc. Librarians employed at colleges and universities that grant librarians faculty status may be members of the same bargaining unit as the teaching faculty. The Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) has expressed its policy on collective bargaining in Guideline on Collective Bargaining. See also: American Association of University Professors and compulsory arbitration.

collective biography
A work in one or more volumes containing separate accounts of the lives of two or more individuals who lived within a specific time period, distinguished themselves in the same field or activity, or have some other characteristic in common (example: Ordinary Women, Extraordinary Lives: Women in American History edited by Kriste Lindenmeyer). Written by one or more biographers, the essays in a collective biography are usually longer than the entries in a biographical dictionary and may include a biobibliography or list of references for further reading.

collective record group
In archives, a collection of records assembled according to artificial rather than conventional criteria, usually by the archivist from a number of comparatively small, short-lived, or satellite agencies that are related in some way, often by administration or function. The purpose of the consolidation is generally to simplify records management by reducing the number of fonds. Within such a record group, the records of each agency are typically segregated as an identifiable subgroup or series.

collective title
In library cataloging, the title proper of a bibliographic item containing several works by one or more authors issued in a single volume or uniform set of volumes, each with its own title distinct from that of the whole. Also refers to the title assigned by a cataloger to a group of separately published materials cataloged collectively.

collective work
For purposes of copyright (17 USC 101), a work in which a number of contributions by one or more authors, each a separate and independent work, are assembled, usually by an editor, to constitute a whole. Included are individual issues of a periodical, anthologies, collections of essays, conference proceedings, etc.

collector's edition
A special edition of a book, videocassette, or DVD designed to be appeal to collectors who will wish to keep it permanently in a private collection. In books, a collector's edition may be printed on better quality paper and include additional illustrations, with a binding also of superior quality. In audiocassettes and DVDs, a collector's edition may be housed in a specially designed container and include printed program notes and material not found in the standard edition. Copies are sold for a higher price, even in the secondhand market if the item is in good condition. To see examples, try a keywords search on the term "collector's edition" in Amazon.com for books, VHS, or DVD. Compare with deluxe edition.

college bookstore
A retail outlet operated in association with a college or university, selling new and secondhand textbooks and trade editions assigned by professors as reading in their courses. College bookstores also sell popular reference books, school supplies, greeting cards, college memorabilia, general interest magazines, bestsellers, and nonfiction trade titles of interest to the student market. They can be owned and managed by the institution served, operated by an independent contractor, or run as a cooperative. College bookstores are organized in the National Association of College Stores (NACS). Compare with trade bookstore. Click here to connect to the Yahoo! list of college and university bookstores.

College Libraries Section (CLS)
Established in 1940, CLS is the section of the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) within the American Library Association (ALA) devoted to advancing college librarianship and to encouraging the development of library services in baccalaureate degree-granting institutions. Click here to connect to the CLS homepage. Compare with University Libraries Section.

college library
A type of academic library maintained by an independent four-year college, or by one of several colleges within a larger university, for the use of students and faculty. The Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) has established Standards for Libraries in Higher Education (June 2004). Compare with undergraduate library. See also: College Libraries Section.

collegiality
From the Latin collegium, meaning "community," "association," or "fraternity." Engagement by the members of a group in relations based on civility and an awareness of common interests, as between colleagues.

collocation
In library cataloging, the process of bringing together all the bibliographic records representing works by the same author, of variant titles, of different editions, of the same series, or on closely related subjects, by assigning the same access point to facilitate retrieval. For example, the preparation of entries under a heading for the predominant name of an author who wrote under one or more pseudonyms. Collocation often requires the use of cross-references to direct the user to the authorized form of the name, title, subject heading, etc. See also: authority control.

In classification, the arrangement of the subdivisions of a hierarchical classification system in a manner that places classes and subclasses of equal rank together and shows the degree to which they are logically removed from the main class.

collodion
A highly flammable, colorless or pale yellow, viscous solution of pyroxylin (nitrated cotton) in a mixture of ether and a varying proportion of alcohol. The solvents evaporate quickly on exposure to air, leaving a thin, tough, elastic, highly adhesive film on any surface upon which the solution is spread. Collodion was used as an early coating on photographic plates and film. Introduced in 1851, the collodion process solved two problems inherent in earlier photographic processes: the daguerreotype was capable of high definition but not reproducible, whereas calotype negatives could be reproduced, but print quality was affected by the texture of the paper negative and any imperfections in it. Attention focused on finding a suitable binder that would allow photosensitive compounds to adhere to a glass plate and in 1851 Frederick Scott Archer tried collodion, which had been discovered by Louis-Nicolas Ménard in Paris in 1846. Never patented, the process made possible the less expensive ambrotype (positive image on glass) and tintype (positive on a metal plate), but working with collodion was risky and photographers sometimes lost their lives in darkroom explosions and fires. Because the plate had to be sensitized, exposed inside the camera, and developed while still wet, the process, also known as wet-plate collodion, was labor-intensive. It was superseded by the gelatin dry plate, developed in the 1880s. Click here to learn more about the collodion process. See also: albumen print.

colloquy
A literary work written in the form of a conversation or dialogue (example: Aelfric's Colloquy). Plural: colloquies.

Also refers to a conference in the form of a seminar, with several speakers participating in a discussion that is conversational in style and tone. Synonymous in this sense with colloquium.

collotype
A photomechanical reproduction process in use from about 1870 to 1920 in which one surface of a glass plate is coated with a gelatin silver emulsion and exposed, when dry, to ultraviolet light in contact with a reverse negative. The light-sensitized gelatin hardens in proportion to the amount of light striking it, leaving the unexposed areas of the plate capable of absorbing moisture. Washed in water, the unhardened gelatin dissolves, leaving a raised image that can be inked to produce continuous-tone prints on high quality paper. Because the gelatin surface is delicate, collotype press runs are limited to about 2,000 copies. Click here to see examples, courtesy of the Victoria & Albert Museum, London. The EdinPhoto provides another example. Synonymous with photogelatin process.

Colon Classification
A classification system in which subjects are analyzed into facets based on their uses and relations, then represented by synthetically constructed classes with the parts separated by the colon (:). Developed by S.R. Ranganathan in the 1930s, Colon Classification is used in libraries in India and in research libraries throughout the world. To learn more about colon classification, see Wikipedia.

colonial edition
An edition of a book, usually a work of fiction, produced from sheets sold by the British publisher to other publishers or separately issued by the publisher, often on paper of inferior quality and in a less expensive binding, for distribution and sale in other parts of the British Empire at a significantly lower price than the original edition. A replacement title page may indicate that the edition is intended for the colonial market. Click here to see a colonial edition of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's The Hound of the Baskervilles (Lilly Library, Indiana University) and here to read about the history of colonial editions in New Zealand, courtesy of the New Zealand Electronic Text Centre.

colophon
A Greek word meaning "finishing touch." A statement appearing at the end of the text of an early manuscript, usually giving details of production (name of scribe, illuminator, and binder; date and place of production; etc.). The colophon may also include an expression of gratitude to the patron or client commissioning the work, a warning against unauthorized copying, or a brief comment by the scribe (often an expression of relief at having completed the task). Colophons occur sporadically in medieval manuscripts, sometimes decorated or embellished with flourishes. Click here to view an elaborate colophon in humanistic capitals, Greek capitals, and gothic book hand in a 15th-century copy of the Nicomachean Ethics (Schøyen Collection, MS 111). Early printed colophons followed the manuscript tradition, giving the name and emblem (imprint) of the printer, date of printing, number of copies printed, and sometimes an apology to the reader for any errors in the text. Click here to see the colophon in the early 16th-century Aldine edition of Dante's Divine comedy and here to see modern example (University of Pittsburgh Libraries). Synonymous with explicit. See also: impensis.

In modern printing, a statement printed at the end of the text, or on the verso of the title page of a book, especially in private press and artists' books, giving the name of the printer, typeface, grade of paper, materials used in binding, and sometimes the names of those responsible for producing the edition (click here to see an example). Also refers to a printing device, usually an emblem, used to represent a publisher's imprint (click here to see the colophon of William Morris' Kelmscott Press).

color balance
In the graphic arts, the range of colors in an image, especially as regards deviation from the accurate reproduction of tones in the original subject (e.g., the skin tones of a face), inaccurate color balance giving a general cast, subtle or pronounced, to the image. Color balance can be manipulated by the artist to express mood or to create the desired impression. In video production and transmission, color balance is tested and calibrated by means of color bars. Also refers to the ability of photographic materials to reproduce colors accurately, which may diminish as the material ages, posing problems for preservation.

color bar
A standardized electronic signal recorded at the head of a videotape for use as a benchmark to test and calibrate the color balance of video and television monitors. Established by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE), the standard test pattern for the NTSC analog television system used in North America appears as vertical bars of seven colors: white, yellow, cyan, green, magenta, red, and blue (see this example). Click here to learn more about SMPTE color bars, courtesy of Wikipedia. British spelling: colour bar.

color chart
A calibration target consisting of a matrix or spectrum of chromatic samples set to a known standard (see this example). In computing, color charts provide reference points to ensure accurate color capture and to calibrate output devices. Synonymous with color patch. Compare with gray scale.

color fading
The deterioration of color photographs and film over time, caused by the chemical instability of the image-producing dyes used in the emulsion. As the dyes gradually break down, contrast is lost, giving the image a washed-out monochromatic appearance.

color plate
An illustration in color, usually printed separately from the text on a different grade of paper and bound with others in one or more sections of a book. Color plates are often numbered and listed by number in the front matter of a book. In publishing, color printing almost always increases cost of production. Click here to see examples from an 19th-century botanical magazine, courtesy of the Project Gutenberg. In the 19th century, when color lithography reached its peak, editions consisting of color plates with little or no text were common (see Sketches in North America and the Oregon Territory [1848] by Sir Henry James Warre and Viviparous Quadrapeds of North America [1845-48] by John James Audubon, courtesy of the Virginia Historical Society). Also spelled colorplate. Compare with duotone and monochrome plate.

color separation positive
One of a set of transparencies, usually three or four in number, used to make a plate for printing one color (cyan, magenta, yellow, or black) in register with the others, to create a photomechanical print in full color (see these examples).

color supplement
A magazine printed in color to be issued with a Sunday newspaper (examples: Parade and The New York Times Magazine). Also refers to a section of illustrations printed in color for insertion in the center of a magazine or book, whether removable or not.

colporteur
From the French words col ("neck") and porter ("to carry"). A peddler of newspapers and books printed in inexpensive edition (almanacs, primers, Bibles, etc.) who traveled about the countryside in Europe, carrying his wares in a box or basket attached to a neck strap as he hawked them in the streets and door to door. In Britain, itinerant salesmen were sometimes employed by religious societies to sell or distribute religious tracts on foot. Colportage flourished from the late 15th century, when printed works first became available, until the end of the 18th century despite unsuccessful efforts by the French government to suppress the trade because it helped spread the new ideas that eventually led to reformation and revolution. Click here to see a painting of a colporteur.

column
One of two or more vertical sections of written or printed text separated from each other by a ruled line or blank space, as in ancient scrolls, newspapers, and language dictionaries. The length of a newspaper article is expressed in column inches. Abbreviated col. See also: double column and intercolumn.

Also refers to an essay providing commentary on a current issue, sometimes from a political point of view (Left, Right, or Center), usually printed on or near the editorial page of a newspaper or in a magazine or trade journal (example: Carol Tenopir's Online Databases column in Library Journal). National political columnists are often syndicated. For an example of a self-published e-mail column, see Holt Uncensored. Compare with editorial.

column inch
In newspaper and magazine publishing, the unit of measurement in which the length of an article or size of a paid advertisement is expressed, equivalent to the width of a column of type multiplied by one inch of depth.

columnist
A journalist who writes regular commentary on current issues for publication in a magazine or newspaper, or in more than one newspaper, usually from a political position left or right of center, or expressing an original point of view on a matter of interest to readers. National political columnists are often syndicated. Also refers to a specialist in a particular field or on a given subject who writes regular commentary for a magazine or trade journal (example: Roy Tennant who writes the Digital Libraries column in Library Journal).

column picture
A miniature in a medieval manuscript that fills the entire width of a column of text but not necessarily it full height, as in this example in an early 15th-century French manuscript (British Library, Lansdowne 1178).

column rule
A straight narrow line running down the page from top to bottom, separating two columns in a newspaper or book.

comb binding
A form of mechanical binding in which a row of interconnected curved plastic teeth is inserted into slots punched along the binding edge of the leaves of a publication to hold them together, used for binding calendars, lab manuals, instruction manuals, and workbooks that must open flat to be used conveniently. If the plastic spine is wide enough, the title may be printed on it. Plastic comb bindings are easily broken. To see examples, try a keywords search on the term in Google Images. Compare with loose-leaf and spiral binding.

combination rate
The special discounted price offered by a publisher when subscriptions to two or more serial publications are purchased by the same subscriber. The publisher normally determines the eligibility of a specific title for such a discount.

comedy
A dramatic work in which an amusing event or series of events with a happy ending is presented for the enjoyment of the audience or reader. Comic effect is usually achieved by emphasizing incongruity of character in dialogue and/or action. When such an effect is achieved with subtle insight, the result is "high" comedy, as distinct from "low" comedy, which appeals to cruder perceptions. The earliest surviving examples of classical comedy are the 11 plays of Aristophanes, thought to have been written and performed in Athens in the 5th century B.C. The opposite of tragedy. Compare with farce. See also: black comedy, screwball comedy, situation comedy, slapstick comedy, and tragicomedy.

comedy-drama
A genre of theatre, film, and television in which humorous and serious content are equally or nearly equally balanced (example: The Big Chill (1983) directed by Lawrence Kasdan). Synonymous with dramedy and seriocomedy. Compare with tragicomedy.

comes-with title
In acquisitions, a title that is not a supplement, received by a library at no additional charge as a result of purchasing another title, for example, a newsletter or directory supplied by an academic society or professional association with a paid subscription to a journal.

comic book
A booklet, usually printed in color on paper made from wood pulp, containing one or more stories told pictorially in a continuous strip of panels drawn in cartoon style, with dialogue or monologue enclosed in balloons or given in captions (see this Disney example). An extended form of the comic strip published in daily newspapers, comic books are often issued in series and classified by genre (adventure, fantasy, romance, science fiction, etc.). They are acquired by libraries for special collections on popular culture and are of considerable interest to private collectors. For early examples, see the British Comics Collection at the British Library. See also the Comic Book Database (CBDB). Similarities between contemporary comics and medieval manuscript illustration is the subject of the online exhibition Comics before Comics, courtesy of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France. See also: Big Little Book, comic strip, graphic novel, Tijuana bible, and underground comics.

comic card
A small paper card, issued individually or as part of a set, bearing a printed caricature or cartoon, often with a line or two of humorous text, popular from the 1850s until the early part of the 20th century. In AACR2, comic cards are cataloged as graphic materials.

comic mode
The arrangement of successive images on roll film with the frames (portrait or landscape) oriented horizontally, perpendicular to the edges of the film. Synonymous with horizontal mode. In microfiche, the arrangement of images with the frames filling the columns in a row, from left to right, before proceeding to the next row. Compare with ciné mode.

Comics Code Authority (CCA)
A watchdog organization founded in 1954 by the Comics Magazine Association of America (CMAA) in response to public concern about inappropriate content in comic books. Publishers could submit their publications to the CCA for screening and receive authorization to use the CCA seal of approval on the cover of comic books that conformed to its Comics Code. Although the CCA had no legal authority over publishers, magazine distributors often refused to carry comics lacking the CCA seal of approval.

comic strip
A succession of cartoon panels that tells a story graphically, with monologue or dialogue provided in balloons or captions. A comic strip may be complete in itself or part of a longer narrative published serially. The comics section of the Sunday issue of most major newspapers provides a selection of syndicated comic strips printed in color. The most famous American comic strip was Peanuts created by Charles Schulz. Other classics include Li'l Abner by Al Capp and Pogo by Walt Kelly. Click here to connect to the online exhibition Masters of the European Comic Strip, courtesy of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, and here to explore the Comiclopedia, courtesy of Lambiek of Amsterdam. See also: comic book and manga.

command-driven
A computer interface in which the user must type a command statement or query to achieve the desired result, usually faster than a menu-driven interface but not as user-friendly for novices who must invest time and effort in learning the system's command language.

commemorative print
A print bearing an image of a significant event, such as the signing of an important document, the founding of an institution, or a decisive military battle, shown in narrative or allegorical style, often bearing text indicating commemorative intent ("in honor of..." or "in memory of..."). See this example for abolition of the slvae trade in England, 1808.

commendatory verse
A poem in praise of an author and his work, written by another author. In the 16th century, publishers began printing such verses in the same volume as the commended work, for example, two poems by Ben Jonson were include in the First Folio of Shakespeare's plays (1623). Click here to see examples printed in 17th-century editions of English plays (Columbia Rare Book & Manuscript Library). More examples can be found in An Anthology of Commendatory Verse from the English Renaissance edited by Wayne Chandler (Edwin Mellen: 2005).

comment
A substantive article, letter, or editorial that challenges, refutes, supports, or expands on a previously published work. Articles considered comments include: 1) invited comments, 2) letters to the editor in response to a previously published article, 3) items providing additional information about the subject of a previous article, and 4) announcements or notices reporting questionable scientific methods or investigations of scientific misconduct (sometimes published as an "expression of concern"). Mere mention of another work is not sufficient--the commenting article must have been written primarily for the purpose of drawing the reader's attention to the referent work. In some bibliographic databases, such as MEDLINE, the publication type "Comment" is assigned in indexing to such an article, and bibliographic linkage is created between the commenting article and the article(s) to which it refers. Compare with commentary.

commentary
A critical or explanatory note or collection of notes on a sacred or literary work, accompanying the text or issued separately, usually written by a person or persons other than the author. Click here to see a 12th-century copy of a commentary on Cicero's "Scipio's Dream" written in the 5th century by Macrobius (Royal Library of Denmark). Commentaries are often devoted to major works that have been the subject of considerable interpretation, such as the Bhagavad-Gita, Bible, Qur'an, etc. (click here to see a 10th-century example). In medieval manuscripts, commentary was often written as a gloss alongside the text to which it referred (click here to see a 13th-century example, courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art). Also refers to a historical narrative written largely from personal experience, for example, Seven Commentaries on the Gallic War by Julius Caesar. Synonymous in this sense with memoirs.

In a more general sense, a series of remarks or observations made by someone with authority to speak and be heard on the subject, for example, a journalist writing a column on a political or social issue.

commercial
A very brief work, usually no longer than ten seconds to one minute in duration, broadcast on television to promote a consumer product, service, or commercial company. Most television commercials are carefully crafted by an advertising agency. A variety of visual techniques are used, from animation to live action, usually with voice-over. The sponsor pays the television network or station to run the advertisement, often in conjunction with a specific program or series, with prime-time at a premium. Compare with infomercial. See also: public service announcement.

commercial journal
A scholarly journal or trade journal published by a for-profit company, as opposed to a journal published by a university press or nonprofit organization, such as a scholarly society or professional association. Click here to see a list of examples. Relentless price increases have become an important issue for libraries that subscribe to commercially published journals.

commercial publisher
A publisher in the business of producing and selling books and/or other publications for profit, as opposed to a university press or the publishing arm of a scholarly society, professional association, or other nonprofit organization operating on a cost-recovery basis. The term includes trade publishers and popular presses. In commercial publishing, the decision to publish is influenced by sales potential, sometimes at the expense of originality and quality.

commercial television
Television broadcast stations for which profit is the prime concern. In the selection of programming, commercial stations rely heavily on ratings because their advertisers are motivated by the desire to reach the widest possible viewing audience. Compare with public television.

Committee on Accreditation (COA)
The official body within the American Library Association responsible for accrediting graduate programs leading to the first professional degree in library and information science offered at universities in the United States, under Standards for Accreditation of Master's Programs in Library and Information Studies (2008). Click here to read the COA statement on Accreditation Process, Policies & Procedures (2011) and here to connect to the COA homepage. See also: accreditation action.

Committee on the Status of Women in Librarianship (COSWL)
Established by the Council of the American Library Association as a Council Committee in July 1976, COSWL is charged with representing the diversity of women's interests within the ALA and with ensuring that the Association considers the rights of the majority (women) in the field of librarianship. Click here to connect to the COSWL homepage.

common carrier (CC)
A telecommunication service, such as a telephone or cable company, that provides wire and/or microwave services to businesses and the general public, usually at rates regulated by federal, state, or local government.

Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
A program interface installed on a Web server that allows Web pages to be linked to databases and other programs in such a way that input can be entered via the Web page and sent to a database management system for searching. Results are sent back by the DBMS and presented to the user in HTML format.

commonplace book
A book with blank pages in which passages in prose or verse are recorded irregularly by its owner as ideas for future exploration or contemplation, sometimes arranged by subject. The writer may note only his own thoughts and ideas or excerpt those of other writers or speakers. Commonplace books kept by persons of literary or historical importance, such as Ralph Waldo Emerson and Thomas Jefferson (see this image), have been deemed worthy of publication. Although interest in this form of literary expression has waned, it is still used by poets (example: A Certain World by W.H. Auden). Click here to view images of the English commonplace book of Humphrey Newton (1466-1536), courtesy of the Bodleian Library, University of Oxford (MS Lat. misc.c.66). See also: diary and journal.

communications
The transfer of information from one physical location to another by electronic means. The term telecommunication refers to both analog and digital communications, including the transmission of voice and video. Data communications refers to digital communications only, occurring via modem over a telephone line, by direct cable to another PC equipped with file transfer software, from a remote terminal connected to a minicomputer or mainframe, from one node to another on a local area network (LAN), or between client and server in a network environment. A communications device is a piece of hardware, such as a modem, cable, or port, designed to facilitate data transmission.

Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA)
Legislation passed by Congress in 1996 requiring telecommunications carriers to comply with wiretapping requests made by law enforcement. A distinction was made in CALEA between telecommunications services (telephony, fax, etc.) and information services in an attempt to balance privacy and regulatory interests. A line was also drawn between public circuit-switched telecommunications networks and private telephone networks, with the former subject to CALEA and the latter exempt. In response to subsequent development of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) services (telephone service running over the Internet), law enforcement agencies petitioned the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 2004 to provide access under CALEA to VoIP and other broadband packet switching services in the interest of national security. The American Library Association (ALA) joined the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) and the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) in filing comments before the FCC seeking exemption of libraries from CALEA and in a petition before the District of Columbia Court of Appeals arguing that the FCC lacked jurisdiction to extend CALEA to the Internet. In 2006 the DC Circuit Court of Appeals supported the FCC in extending CALEA to Internet access and VoIP, but the decision had no direct effect on libraries because the FCC previously determined that it was not in the public interest to cover libraries.

Communications Decency Act (CDA)
Part of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, the Communications Decency Act made it a federal offense to transmit content over the Internet deemed "indecent" on the basis of "community standards" and made it a criminal offense to have transmitted such material if received by a minor. In a suit filed by the Citizens Internet Empowerment Coalition (CIEC), the American Library Association took the lead, joined by 22 co-plaintiffs, in challenging the CDA in federal district court, consolidating its action with a similar suit by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). In June 1996, a three-judge panel ruled that the term "indecent" was unconstitutionally vague and unenforceable but upheld the portion of the CDA making it a felony to display or transmit "offensive" materials to minors. On appeal, the CDA was declared unconstitutional in June 1997 by unanimous decision of the U.S. Supreme Court, whose members agreed with the plaintiffs' argument that the law was so broad and poorly defined that it violated the First Amendment rights of adults and would subject librarians to criminal prosecution for permitting access to online materials that are not illegal in other media. See also: Child Online Protection Act and Children's Internet Protection Act.

communiqué
From the French verb communiquer meaning to communicate. An official bulletin, notice, or announcement, especially to the press or public, often issued in haste (see this historic example).

Community and Junior College Libraries Section (CJCLS)
The section of the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) within the American Library Association (ALA) devoted to enhancing library service and librarianship in libraries and learning resources centers that support the educational programs of community and junior colleges and equivalent institutions. Click here to connect to the CJCLS homepage.

community information
A format in MARC 21 designed to carry descriptions of non-bibliographic resources that fulfill the information needs of a community, including programs, services, events, organizations, and individuals (storytellers, civic leaders, etc.). Click here to learn more about the MARC 21 Concise Format for Community Information, courtesy of the Library of Congress.

community information system (CIS)
A centralized source providing government, business, historical, and geographic information about a local community or small group of communities, intended primarily for the use of local residents, prospective residents, and visitors. For an example, see the Danbury Community Network.

community service volunteer (CSV)
A person convicted of a misdemeanor assigned volunteer work in his or her community as a form of restitution. Community service volunteers are typically recommended by a probation officer based on criteria established by the library, with most libraries reserving the right of refusal. Because one of the goals of such work is to teach responsibility, attendance is closely monitored, but duties that involve handling money or accessing nonpublic computer systems are generally not assigned. Some libraries accept adult offenders but not teenagers. In most cases, the program coordinator and supervising librarian are the only employees in the library who know the volunteer is completing community service. The library benefits from unpaid labor, but CSVs often require closer supervision than paid employees. Synonymous with probation volunteer.

compact cassette
A format for magnetic audiotape introduced by Philips in 1963, compact cassettes quickly became the de facto standard for sound recordings on audiotape. Just under 4 � 2 1/2 inches in size, the audiocassette contains 1/8-inch wide, four-track tape wound on two hubs in a hard plastic shell. When played, the tape moves at 1 7/8 inches per second (47.625 mm/s). Standard tape lengths are 60, 90, and 120 minutes. In the commercial market place, the medium has been largely superseded by compact discs (CDs). Click here to learn more about compact cassettes, courtesy of Wikipedia. Synonymous with compact audio cassette.

compact disc (CD)
A digital audiorecording medium introduced in 1982 capable of storing up to 74 minutes of high-fidelity stereophonic sound in a single spiral track on one side of a 4.75-inch disc, similar to the track on a phonograph record (see this example). Designed to be read by a laser beam and decoded inside a device called a CD player, compact discs not only provide clearer sound than phonograph records and audiotape but are capable of recording a much wider range of volume. Click here to learn more about CDs, courtesy of HowStuffWorks.

In libraries, CDs are usually shelved separately, often in specially designed display cases. Some libraries provide listening equipment on the premises. In AACR2, the term "sound disc" is used in the physical description area of the bibliographic record representing a compact disc, with "digital" given as type of recording. See also: MP3 CD and optical disk.

compact edition
An edition in which the physical size of a long work is reduced, usually by altering the format without changing the content, for example, The Compact Oxford English Dictionary (second edition), reproduced micrographically and issued in a slipcase with a microprint reader. Compare with concise edition.

compact shelving
Library shelving designed to maximize the storage capacity of a given space by incorporating movable elements such as shelf ranges on tracks (see this example at the University of Connecticut). Because it is considerably heavier than normal shelving when filled, compact shelving requires more structural support, an important design consideration in the construction and renovation of a library facilities. Compare with high-density shelving. See also: compact storage.

compact storage
A library shelving area, often reserved for low-use materials, in which narrow aisles, higher-than-normal shelves, and/or compact shelving is employed to maximize storage capacity (see this example at Virginia Commonwealth University). The building must be structurally capable of supporting the additional weight. Compact shelving with movable parts may be subject to electrical or mechanical failure. See also: automated storage and retrieval system.

companion
A handbook intended to be used in connection with the study of a particular subject or field (examples: The Cambridge Companion to Ralph Ellison and The Oxford Companion to Philosophy). This type of reference work is often an edited collection of essays. Compare with companion book.

companion book
A book published in conjunction with a motion picture or television program or series, usually a work of nonfiction intended to complement documentary or instructional content, for example, Lewis and Clark: An Illustrated History by Dayton Duncan, based on the PBS television mini-series Lewis and Clark: The Journey of the Corps of Discovery by Ken Burns. In library cataloging, the note Companion volume to: is included in the bibliographic description, followed by the title of the work on which the book is based. Compare with tie-in. See also: companion.

company file
A collection of information about one or more commercial enterprises, usually maintained by a corporation or business library for the use of employees, business students, investors, career counselors, job seekers, etc. Annual reports, SEC filings, trade catalogs, issues of house organs, news clippings, photographs, etc., are usually organized alphabetically by name of firm. Synonymous with corporation file.

comparative librarianship
The study and analysis of similarities and differences in librarianship as practiced in different countries, to identify or clarify underlying principles, expand awareness of successful practices, facilitate cooperation, etc.

comparative table
An alphabetical list of selected topics in a complete or extensive revision of Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), giving the class number in the current edition and the corresponding number used in the preceding edition. In most cases, only numbers for comprehensive works are given. See also: equivalence table.

compartment
In bookbinding, one of the areas between the raised bands on the spine of a volume, referenced from top to bottom, the spine title usually appearing in the second. Compartments may be decorated, as in these examples, or undecorated (see this example). On fine bindings, one or more of the compartments may be inlaid with leather of contrasting color (see this example). More generally, one of several square or rectangular design elements on a decorated bookbinding, often arranged symetrically around a central panel (click here to see an example tooled in blind and in gold, courtesy of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek).

In medieval manuscript illumination, one of two or more sections of a miniature or historiated initial divided to display multiple images or scenes. Click here to see examples in an early 15th-century Italian manuscript (British Library, Burney 198).

compass rose
A circular or star-shaped device drawn or printed on the face of a map or chart, graduated from the reference direction (usually north) in compass points (N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, and NW) or in degrees (0-360) or both. Click here to see a modern example, courtesy of Wikipedia, and here to see examples on a 17th-century chart of the Adriatic (National Maritime Museum). To see other examples, try a keywords search on the term in Google Images. Compare with wind rose. See also: north pointer.

compatibility
The ability of computer software to run on hardware other than that for which it was originally designed. Compatibility can be upward (or forward) in programs capable of running on newer, more powerful machines, or downward (backward) in programs that will run on older, less powerful machines.

compendium
A work that presents in condensed form the main points of a longer work, prepared by a person other than the original author. Also, a work that treats a broad subject or entire field of knowledge briefly and concisely, sometimes in the form of an outline. Used synonymously with digest and epitome.

compensation
Tangible rewards received in exchange for a service or employment, including wages and salaries, stipends, bonuses, longevity payments, and health and retirement benefits. Also, something received in reparation for a loss.

competencies
The capabilities expected of a person hired to perform a specific job or upon successful completion of a course of study or training. In librarianship, the knowledge, skills, and experience necessary to effectively handle professional responsibilities, usually within a specialization, expressed inclusively rather than as a set of minimum standards. For an example, see Competencies for Librarians Serving Children in Public Libraries (1999), approved by the board of the Association for Library Service to Children (ALSC) in a revised version.

competition
In marketing, rivalry among providers of a product or service aimed at increasing profits, market share, sales volume, etc., usually by altering the marketing mix (price, product, distribution, and promotion). For libraries, the main competition is from bookstores, book clubs, video stores, Internet cafes, community events, and other agencies that receive public funds. In the United States, public libraries rarely compete with each other because their geographic service areas do not overlap, but the quality of a college or university library can be a factor in attracting enrollment in the market place for higher education.

competitive intelligence (CI)
In business, the collection, analysis, and assessment of information about a company's markets and competition, for use in strategic decision-making. CI involves monitoring the environment external to the company for information pertinent to the decision-making process, which is then analyzed into accurate, usable strategic knowledge about the firm's markets and competitors, including position, performance, capabilities, and intentions. For example, a CI professional might wish to learn about a competitor's research and development initiatives or the best way to bid against another company to win a contract. Ethical CI is conducted openly, but the target company is generally kept in the dark. Fuld & Company, a specialist in CI, has developed the Internet Intelligence Index to help CI professionals gather information from a variety of public sources. CI practitioners are organized in the Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals (SCIP). CI is one aspect of business intelligence.

compilation
A work assembled from the works of various authors, or the various works of a single author, into an ordered whole by a person other than the original author, without editorial alteration of the original text. Laws, rules, procedures, regulations, and technical data are particularly subject to compilation. The person who puts such a work together is a compiler. In a broader sense, any book or other written work assembled, sometimes over an extended period of time, from materials gathered from a variety of sources, for example, a bibliography or index. Compare with anthology and collection.

Also refers to the activity of preparing a new or revised map or chart from existing map data, aerial photographs, field surveys, and other pertinent sources. See also: compiled map.

compile
To gather and put together pieces of information or materials from various sources in an orderly structured whole, as in the creation of a bibliography or index. The person who assembles such a work is the compiler, and the resulting work is called a compilation.

compiled map
A map that incorporates information assembled from various sources having no connection with the map's creation, as opposed to one based on survey data collected specifically for the purpose of its creation (see this example).

compiler
A person who selects and assembles written material from the works of various persons or bodies, or the various works of a single person or body, into a ordered whole, without editorial alteration of the original text. The resulting document or collection is called a compilation. When the compiler's name is indicated in or on the chief source of information, it is entered in the statement of responsibility area of the bibliographic record that represents the item in the library catalog. Compare with editor.

compleat
Possessing or exhibiting full knowledge or proficiency in a given field or skill.

complete
Used in the holdings statement to describe a serial title for which the library owns 95-100 percent of the published run. Compare with incomplete. See also: completeness.

completeness
An indication of how much of the published run of a serial title is held by a library, usually given in the holdings statement as: complete (95-100 percent held), incomplete (50-94 percent held), or scattered (less than 50 percent held).

complex subject
In library classification, a subject that has more than one defining characteristic, for example, the subject "unemployed librarians," which has the facets "employment status" and "occupation." See also: preference order.

complimentary copy
Any copy of a book or periodical given free of charge by the publisher, usually to promote sales. The category includes author's copies, desk copies, examination copies, and review copies. Faculty members sometimes donate complimentary copies to the library at the institution with which they are affiliated. Abbreviated comp.

composer
The original creator of a musical work in any form, entered as author in the bibliographic record created to represent the edition in the library catalog. Compare with arranger and performer.

composite book
A book assembled from portions of other books. Because page size may vary slightly, the edges are apt to be irregular.

composite daguerreotype
A daguerreotype consisting of more than one image, usually made in a studio from a series of individual daguerreotypes (see this composite portrait of the Princeton University Class of 1852, courtesy of the Princeton University Archives).

composite photograph
A photograph in which the image is produced by (1) multiple exposure of negatives, (2) sandwiching two or more negatives, or (3) some other method of combining negatives (click here to see an example, courtesy of the Library of Congress). Synonymous with combination print.

composite print
A positive print of motion picture film that carries both synchronized images and sound. Synonymous with combined print and married print.

composite volume
A bound volume containing two or more separately published works, for example, a collection of brochures or music scores.

composite work
An original work produced as the result of a collaboration between two or more authors or composers in which the contribution of each is a separate and distinct part of a planned whole (example: Festschrift). Compare with joint author. See also: shared responsibility.

composition
The putting together of words to express an idea, sentiment, thesis, analysis, or conclusion, as in a work of poetry or prose, or in the form of a writing exercise assigned as school work. In a musical composition, the message is expressed in musical notation. Also refers to the piece of writing or music that is the result of such activity.

In printing, the process of preparing copy, assembling type, and making up type and display matter into pages. In letterpress, these tasks are accomplished by the compositor.

In medieval manuscript illumination, the overall design of a page or miniature, especially the ensemble formed by its parts. Click here to page through examples in a 15th-century Book of Hours illuminated by the Boucicaut Master (Getty Museum, MS 22).

compositor
The worker responsible for setting (composing) the type used to print a book or other publication (see this example, courtesy of the Cary Collection). In letterpress, the compositor holds the composing stick in his left hand (example) and removes the individual elements of type, called sorts, each bearing an individual letter or other character, from the case with his right hand, assembling each line in sequence until the stick is full and ready to be transferred to a tray called a galley (see this illustration). The compositor is also responsible for making up the galleys into pages, a process that includes inserting display matter, dividing the matter into page lengths, adding running heads, page numbers, footnotes, etc., and imposing the pages in a frame called a chase, which, when locked up, constitutes a forme ready to be placed on the bed of the press for printing (see this example).

compound name
A name formed by joining two or more proper names with a hyphen (example: Marie-Louise), conjunction (Simon & Schuster), or preposition (Alcuin of York). See also: compound surname.

compound subject heading
A subject heading consisting of two or more words that together represent a single concept ("Book reviewing") or two related concepts ("Libraries and adult education"). In some cases, semantic factoring yields false drops (School + Library --> "Library school" and "School library").

compound surname
A surname composed of two or more proper names, usually joined by a hyphen (example: Smith-Bannister), preposition (Ruiz de Alarcón), or conjunction (Ortega y Gasset). In AACR2, compound surnames are entered under the element preferred by the person, with cross-references from the other elements, for example, Lloyd George, David, 1863-1945 with a reference from George, David Lloyd, his correct paternal surname. Hyphenated surnames are entered under the first element (Bourke-White, Margaret, 1904-1971).

comprehensive
All-inclusive or all-encompassing. An index, bibliographic database, or other work of reference compiled with the stated goal of covering all possible aspects of a subject or all the published literature on a subject or in a given discipline or field. In bibliography, an attempt to list of all the works that meet the criteria for inclusion established by the bibliographer as to author, subject, publication type, currency, etc. The opposite of selective.

comprehensive number
In Dewey Decimal Classification, a class number (often identified by a "Class here comprehensive works" note) covering all the components of the subject treated within the discipline, whether the components are represented by a span of consecutive class numbers or distributed throughout the schedule or table, for example, 305.2, representing the heading "Age groups," also used for comprehensive works on the generation gap (DDC).

comprehensive review
Periodic review of a library and information studies program by the Committee on Accreditation (COA) of the American Library Association to determine if the program conforms to the ALA's Standards for Accreditation of Master's Programs in Library and Information Studies (2008). The two-year process includes submission of the Program Presentation document and a two-day on-site review by an External Review Panel (ERP), followed by the COA's accreditation action. See also: interim reports.

compression ratio
The ratio of the size of a compressed data file, which has been more efficiently encoded, to that of the original uncompressed file. For example, the ratio for a 10MB file compressed to 2MB would be 1:5, yielding a space saving of 80%.

compulsory arbitration
The process in which representatives of organized labor and management, having reached an impasse in contract negotiations, submit their differences to a legally designated arbitrator or arbitration board authorized to hear arguments from both sides on unresolved issues and reach a final binding decision. Both sides are required to accept the outcome. See also: collective bargaining agreement.

compulsory retirement
Mandatory retirement at a fixed age, usually established by the employer and stipulated in its personnel policy, a controversial legal issue in the United States. Organizations with no mandatory retirement age may offer periodic retirement incentives to longtime employees, usually to reduce personnel costs.

compulsory rights
Permission granted for materials protected by copyright law to be used without the explicit consent of the copyright holder, provided a specified fee is paid by the user to the copyright owner. Under U.S. copyright law, compulsory rights have governed the mechanical reproduction of music, cable television systems, noncommercial broadcasts, jukeboxes, etc. Compulsory licenses may also be granted by patent holders. Synonymous with mandatory rights.

computer-aided design (CAD)
The process of creating and documenting graphic delineations, usually design drawings, using a computer drafting system. Also refers to the result of such a process (see this example). Synonymous with computer-aided design and drafting (CADD).

computer-aided retrieval (CAR)
The use of a computer to facilitate access to information stored in physical media, especially microfilm. CAR systems generally include an index, with or without a brief searchable description of the stored material. Once desired information has been identified, the system may be designed to: 1) automatically load microfilm or offline storage media containing the relevant materials, 2) locate the material within the appropriate container, and 3) display it to the user. Synonymous with computer-assisted retrieval.

computer file
Data or programs encoded in machine-readable format for processing by a computer. Data files stored on a computer are usually organized by topic or other characteristic in directories and subdirectories. Synonymous with machine-readable data file.

computer-generated map
A map produced electronically by the manipulation of digital data files, using software that is usually part of a geographic information system (GIS), often involving the application of layers of data to a base map. Click here to see examples, courtesy of the Library of Congress.

computer graphics
The art of creating or altering images by the use of a computer system, which may simulate drawings, paintings, photographs, etc. Sophisticated computer graphics software is available for professionals. Computer graphics images are used in Web pages and in computer games and modeling, and to create special effects in motion pictures, video, and television. Click here to learn more about computer graphics in Wikipedia. Compare with digital image.

computer literacy
The skills required to retrieve information efficiently and communicate effectively using computer hardware and software, based on a conceptual understanding of computer technology and how it can be used to accomplish specific tasks, including an awareness of its inherent limitations, as well as its advantages. Because hardware and software are progressively upgraded, an ongoing effort is required of the user to remain computer literate. Compare with information literacy.

computer-mediated communication (CMC)
Communication via networks accessed by computer. The category includes instant messaging, e-mail, Weblogs, and chat rooms.

computer output microform (COM)
Computer output produced directly on microfiche or microfilm without ever having been printed on paper. A device called a COM recorder converts digital data into a form that can be read by the human eye before recording it on film. See also: computer output microform catalog.

computer output microform catalog
A library catalog produced directly on microfiche or microfilm from a file of machine-readable bibliographic records, using a special recording device called a COM recorder. Comcatalogs are more compact than card catalogs, but a microform reader-printer machine is required to display and print individual catalog records. Prior to the development of online catalogs, this format was preferred for state, regional, and consortial union catalogs.

computer program
A set of instructions written in a symbolic programming language, which enables a computer to process data, perform operations, and solve logical problems. Synonymous with software. See also: application, middleware, and operating system.

computus text
A medieval manuscript or early printed book devoted to the calculation of time. The category includes calendars, Easter tables, almanacs, and various astronomical and astrological texts used in medicine and for other purposes, often illustrated with diagrams. Click here to see a 15th-century example, courtesy of the Cornell University Library. Some were designed to be portable (see vade mecum). See also: volvelle.

Comstock, Anthony (1844-1915)
An American reformer with a high school education who in 1873, after serving in the Union army during the Civil War, founded the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice and devoted the rest of his life to waging an aggressive crusade against pornography, abortion, gambling, swindling, medical quackery, and other activities he considered morally offensive. Comstock used his influence to persuade Congress to pass what became known as the "Comstock laws" empowering the U.S. Postal Service to exclude from the mail books and other publications that he considered indecent or obscene, including information about contraception. After Comstock publicly attacked the first American production of George Bernard Shaw's play Mrs. Warren's Profession, the British playwright dubbed his rigid views and repressive methods "comstockery," turning his name into a public symbol of censorship based on prudery. Click here to see a portrait photograph Anthony Comstock, courtesy of Wikipedia.

concatenate
From the Latin con ("together") and catenare ("to chain"). To join two or more data fields within a record to create a single field. In a more general sense, to link items together in a series, for example, several related essays or long excerpts for publication in a collection.

concept album
An audiorecording containing a collection of musical pieces linked by a unifying theme, which can be instrumental, compositional, narrative, or lyrical (example: The Dark Side of the Moon by Pink Floyd, released in 1973).

concertina
A form of bookbinding in which the spine is continuous with the front and back covers but folded in narrow, accordion-style pleats to which the leaves or folios are attached along the peaks or valleys of the folds. Also used synonymously with accordion fold. Compare with zig-zag book.

Also, a very rare form of binding in which three or more physical volumes are bound together, with each volume sharing at least one of its boards with another and opening in the opposite direction from the volume(s) to which it is attached. An extension of dos-à-dos. Click here to see a 17th-century Hebrew Bible in four volumes bound concertina-style, courtesy of the Royal Library of Denmark.

concise edition
An edition in which the content of a longer work is stated in the fewest possible words, sometimes aimed at beginners in the field (example: The Concise AACR2, published by ALA Editions). In the concise edition of a dictionary, infrequently used words and phrases included in the full edition are omitted, and long definitions may be shortened. In a concise encyclopedia, the text is shortened and less important entries may be dropped entirely. The adjective concise is sometimes used in the titles of works not based on a longer work to indicate that the content is expressed succinctly. Compare with compact edition. See also: abridgment.

concordance
An alphabetically arranged index of the principal words or selected words in a text, or in the works of an author, giving the precise location of each word in the text, with a brief indication of its context. A glossarial concordance includes a brief definition of each term. Concordances are usually devoted to very well known works, such as the Bible, or to the works of major writers (Chaucer, Shakespeare, etc.). The first Bible concordance was completed in A.D. 1230 under the guidance of Hugo de Saint-Cher while he was Prior of the Dominican Order in France. It was an index to passages in which a word could be found, indicated by book and chapter. Click here to search an online concordance to the poetry of Wallace Stevens, courtesy of John Serio and Greg Foster. Compare with dictionary.

concrete poem
A poem that is, in its graphic form, a pictorial expression of its subject, for example, one in which the lines follow the contours of a shape suggested by its theme. The genre bridges the gap between words and things. Click here to see examples.

condensed
A typeface narrower in proportion to its height than the normal version of the same style, used in printing to fit more text than normal in a column or on a page. The opposite of expanded. Compare with full face.

condensed book
A single volume, usually published in inexpensive hardcover edition, containing abridgments or long extracts from several separately published works, usually of fiction. In the United States, the Reader's Digest Condensed Book Club is a prolific distributor of condensed books. Most libraries specify in their collection development policy that works are to be purchased in unabridged form.

condensed projection
A cartographic technique in which areas of a map or chart that are of little or no importance for a particular purpose (often expanses of open ocean) are eliminated in a systematic representation of the graticule to bring the remaining areas closer together, a form of interruption used to save printing space and/or to allow larger scales and finer detail in the remaining areas. Condensed areas should be clearly marked to avoid suggesting continuity to the user. Click here to see a world map condensed at the Atlantic Ocean.

condensed score
The score of a musical work composed for orchestra or band in which the principal parts, usually organized by type of instrument (woodwind, brass, strings, percussion), are reduced to a minimum number of staves.

condition
The physical state of existence of a book or other document at a particular point in time, indicated in the antiquarian and used book trade by a two-part code (example: VG/G) in which the first part (VG) indicates the condition of the book itself and the second part (G) the condition of its dust jacket. A hyphen or dash following the slash indicates that the dust jacket is missing. Antiquarian book dealers grade the condition of hardcover books as follows:

As New/Mint - in the same flawless condition as when published (no defects, missing pages, or ownership marks); dust jacket in perfect condition (no chips, marks, or tears).
Fine (F or FN) - nearly new but not as crisp and clean as mint; small defects in dust jacket are noted.
Very Good (VG) - shows some signs of wear but has no tears in paper or binding; defects are noted.
Good (G) - an obviously worn book in which all the pages or leaves are present; defects must be noted.
Fair - worn but all pages present; may lack endpapers, half title, etc.; binding and jacket also show signs of wear; defects must be noted.
Poor - text complete but so worn that it can be sold only as a reading copy; missing parts must be noted.

Old books sometimes require extensive restoration. Booksellers may use a simpler letter system for grading paperbacks. See also: as issued, brittle, bumped, chipped, cracked, damaged, dimpled, ding, doctored, dog-eared, edge-worn, faded, fallen in, foxing, mildew, rubbed, shaken, sprung, stained, sunned, thumbed, unmarked, warping, water-damaged, with all faults, and worming.

condition report
Under the Guidelines for Borrowing and Lending Special Collections Materials for Exhibition approved in January 2005 by the Rare Books and Manuscripts Section (RBMS) of the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL), it is the responsibility of the institution lending special collections materials for exhibition to provide to the borrower a written report of the condition of each item (or portion of item) to be lent prior to delivery, giving the overall condition of the item and a detailed description of the condition of the portion to be on view. If possible, the lender should attach a current photograph of the item to the report. See also: loan agreement form.

conference
A formal meeting of a group of individuals, or representatives of several bodies, for the purpose of discussing topics and/or making decisions on issues of mutual interest, for example, the Charleston Conference, an annual meeting of librarians, publishers, and vendors. When published collectively, any papers presented at such a meeting are known as proceedings. Abbreviated conf. Compare with workshop. See also: conference name, library conference, and preconference.

Also refers to a formal meeting of the representatives constituting the legislative or governing authority of a corporate body, usually for the purpose of discussing and acting on matters of importance to the organization.

conference name
The official name of a meeting, conference, workshop, symposium, exhibition, exposition, festival, athletic contest, scientific expedition, etc., used as the name heading in cataloging any publication issued in its name. Form of heading is subject to authority control.

conference paper
An original paper presented by the author(s) at a formal gathering of peers, usually at the invitation of the group or organization sponsoring the conference, which may be subsequently published in its proceedings. In the sciences, ground-breaking research results are often publicly introduced in such presentations.

conference proceedings
See: proceedings of the conference.

conference room
A room in a library that is reserved for meetings of library staff and invited guests, usually located near the administrative offices. Most library conference rooms are equipped with a long table, comfortable chairs, and telephone. Some also have Internet connectivity and a small kitchenette for serving food. Click here to see an example, courtesy of the Booth Library, Davis & Elkins College (West Virginia). Compare with meeting room.

confessions
An autobiography in which the author discloses personal feelings and private matters, usually with a spiritual, intellectual, or theoretical purpose. Early examples are the Confessions of St. Augustine of Hippo, written in the late 4th century, and the Confessions of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, published in 1782.

confidentiality
In the delivery of library services, the right of patrons to have the nature of their research and library transactions remain private. Under the guidance of the ALA Code of Ethics, librarians and library staff members are encouraged to "protect each library user's right to privacy and confidentiality with respect to information sought or received and resources consulted, borrowed, acquired or transmitted." For this reason, automated circulation systems are designed to delete from the patron record all indication that a specific item has been borrowed once it has been returned to the library and to limit access to borrower accounts to authorized personnel. See also: Library Awareness Program and USA Patriot Act.

configuration
The physical arrangement and functional relationships of the various components of a computer system, usually established to meet the needs and preferences of its users. The term configurability has been coined to refer to the ease with which a computer system can be modified or customized to meet changing needs and special requirements.

conflict management
Skills and techniques for addressing and resolving interpersonal antagonism in the workplace. Conflict in libraries is often the result of familiar scenarios (external candidate given preference over internal candidate who feels betrayed, staff member with personal problems affecting job performance, the micro-manager, the office romance, "dead-wood" syndrome, poor communication, etc.). When serious conflict remains unresolved over time, productivity and job satisfaction suffer and the library is at risk of becoming dysfunctional. In extreme cases, it may be necessary to hire an outside consultant with expertise in defusing conflict to tackle the problem. For more on this subject, see for Libraries: Strategies for a Positive, Productive Workplace by Jack Montgomery and Eleanor I. Cook (American Library Association, 2005). Synonymous with conflict resolution.

conflict of interest
A situation in which an official's impartiality is open to question, because he or she stands to gain personally from decisions or actions taken in an official capacity.

conformal projection
In cartography, a systematic representation of the graticule on which the scale at any point on the map or chart is the same in any direction, with all meridians (lines of longitude) and parallels of latitude intersecting at right angles. Shape is preserved locally on a conformal projection, but the shapes and areas of larger features are distorted. The Mercator and Stereographic projections are examples of conformal projections. Click here to learn more about conformal projections, courtesy of Wikipedia. Synonymous with orthomorphic projection. Compare with equal area projection.

Congressional Information Service, Inc.
A commercial publisher that has specialized for 30 years in providing government information from all branches of the U.S. federal government and from state and municipal governments. In 2010, ProQuest acquired CIS from LexisNexis. Click here to connect to the CIS homepage.

Congressional Research Service (CRS)
Established in 1914 as the Legislative Reference Service, the Congressional Research Service is an agency within the Library of Congress staffed by nationally recognized experts responsible for conducting reliable, nonpartisan research and analysis on issues of public policy on a confidential and timely basis, specifically for members of the U.S. Congress (House and Senate), their committees, and members of their staff. Although CRS reports are not widely distributed, their distribution is not protected by copyright or other law. Click here to learn more about the CRS.

conjectural work
A graphic image showing how an historical event, place, object, or person not captured on film might have appeared in the past (example: a drawing of a living dinosaur or hominid based on skeletal remains), or how real people, places, or objects might appear at some time in the future.

conjoint leaves
Two leaves formed by one piece of parchment, vellum, or paper, usually folded lengthwise down the center. In a book, they may be bound into a section in such a way that they are not adjacent in the resulting sequence of leaves but when traced through the back of the volume are found to be of a single piece, for example, in a 16-page signature, pages 3 and 4 (leaf 2) would be the conjugate of pages 13 and 14 (leaf 7), and vice versa. Compare with singleton.

conjugate
Joined at the gutter margin. See: conjoint leaves.

connectivity
The ability to make and maintain a connection between two or more points in a telecommunications system. Also, the ability of a computer or other digital device to communicate (exchange data) with another device, computer, or computer system or network. In hyperconnectivity, the traffic-handling capacity and bandwidth of a computer network always exceeds demand because the number of pathways and nodes is greater than the number of users or subscribers (see this illustration).

connect time
The length of time a user is logged on to a remote computer network or system. Some Internet service providers began by charging subscribers on the basis of connect time, but most ISPs now provide unlimited access for a fixed monthly fee. Connect time is still used by some database vendors as the basis for billing (example: DIALOG).

Connexion
An OCLC interface providing one-stop access to integrated cataloging tools and to WorldCat, the world's largest online union catalog and bibliographic database. Functions of the OCLC CORC service, CatExpress, and other options, such as Dewey services, are included in Connexion. The interface is available in browser and client versions. Click here to learn more about OCLC Connexion.

CONSER
An acronym for Cooperative Online Serials, a cooperative online serials cataloging program that began in the early 1970s as a project to convert manual serials cataloging to machine-readable format. Since then it has evolved into a program for creating and maintaining high-quality bibliographic records for serial publications. CONSER also establishes standards for serials.

Residing within the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the CONSER database is maintained by program members, which include the national libraries of the United States and Canada and their respective ISSN centers; selected academic, U.S. federal, and special libraries; participants in the National Digital Newspaper Program (NDNP); and selected library associations, subscription services, and abstracting and indexing services. CONSER is a component of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC). Click here to connect to the CONSER homepage.

conservation
Physical or chemical intervention to ensure the survival of manuscripts, books, and other documents, for example, the storage of materials under controlled environmental conditions or the treatment of mildew-infected paper with a chemical inhibitor. Non-invasive techniques are preferred as a means of preserving items in their original condition. In a more general sense, any measures taken to protect archival or library collections from damage or deterioration, including initial examination, documentation, treatment, and preventive care supported by research. Current ethical standards require respect for the historical integrity of the item. A person educated, trained, and experienced in such procedures is a conservator. Click here connect to CoOL (Conservation OnLine): Resources for Conservation Professionals, a project of the Preservation Department of the Stanford University Libraries. See also: conservation binding, conservation center, and conservation survey.

conservation binding
Binding or rebinding intended to stablilize and ensure the long-term survival of a manuscript or book while maintaining the integrity of its original form, as opposed to binding or rebinding for appearance or durability regardless of the consequences for conservation. Ideally, no adhesives are used in contact with the book block, and the materials selected are as stable as possible. Click here to see examples of modern conservation binding, courtesy of the Princeton University Library.

conservation board
An archival quality board, used in bookbinding, book boxes, picture framing, and archival storage, containing no harmful properties, such as acid or lignin, that might migrate to materials that come in contact with it.

conservation box
A type of book box designed to protect books of an age or condition requiring additional preservation. Made of acid-free materials, they can be hand-made or commercially manufactured and are designed to allow the volume to be easily removed and reinserted (see these examples).

conservation center
An organization that specializes in the protection and rehabilitation of printed and photographic materials, especially damaged or deteriorating items. Conservation centers support the enhancement of preservation programs in libraries, archives, museums, and other historical and cultural organizations. Some conservation centers also provide disaster assistance (example: Northeast Document Conservation Center).

Conservation Center for Art and Historic Artifacts (CCAHA)
Established in 1977 as the Center for the Conservation of Art and Historic Artifacts, CCAHA is a nonprofit regional conservation lab specializing in the treatment of art and historic artifacts on paper, such as drawings, prints, maps, posters, historic wallpaper, photographs, rare books, scrapbooks, and manuscripts, as well as related materials on parchment, papyrus, etc. Located in Philadelphia, CCAHA also offers on-site consultation services, educational programs and seminars, internships, and emergency conservation services. Click here to connect to the CCAHA homepage.

conservation survey
A study aimed at assessing the current physical state and conservation needs of a library or archival collection, which may include detailed analysis and recommended treatments, often undertaken as the first step in preservation planning. UNESCO has published Methods of Evaluation to Determine the Preservation Needs in Libraries and Archives (1988). See also the preservation planning page on the Web site of Northeast Document Conservation Center. Synonymous with preservation survey.

consistency
The quality of being in agreement or conformity with previous or existing practice. Catalog code is adopted to ensure that bibliographic description and classification remain consistent over time and across participating libraries. Standards are created to govern the form in which bibliographic information is recorded and displayed. Style manuals are written to encourage consistency of citation in scholarly communication.

In indexing, the degree of similarity between the index terms (subject headings or descriptors) assigned to the same item or document by different indexers or at different times by the same indexer.

consolidated shipment
In the book trade, a batch of materials sent by a publisher, jobber, or other vendor to a library or bookseller that includes both recently ordered titles and items on back order, combined to reduce shipping costs.

consolidation
The merger of two or more separately administered library districts, libraries, or organizational units within a library, into a single unit under one administration, usually for reasons of efficiency and/or economy or to improve quality of service.

consortial discount
A reduction in the annual subscription price of an electronic information resource for libraries that subscribe as a group, often calculated on a sliding scale, with the percentage discount proportional to the number of libraries in the consortium and eligibility determined by a fixed minimum number. Not all vendors are willing to give consortial discounts, but some do, usually on the expectation of reduced operating costs and enhanced market penetration.

consortial license
A licensing agreement for an electronic information resource in which the licensee is a group of libraries, instead of a single library or library system. Some vendors offer consortial discounts for their electronic products on the expectation of reduced operating costs and enhanced market penetration. The consortium may be pre-existing or formed specifically to take advantage of consortial pricing. Some consortia share licensing costs equally, others try to achieve fairness by allocating according to size of institution, usually based on library budget, total annual circulation, collection size, FTE, or a combination of factors. Some consortia use a hybrid of the two methods, sharing some costs equally and others according to formula. Synonymous with consortial subscription.

consortium
An association of independent libraries and/or library systems established by formal agreement, usually for the purpose of resource sharing. Membership may be restricted to a specific geographic region, type of library (public, academic, special), or subject specialization. In the United States, two leading examples are the Orbis Cascade Alliance, serving member colleges, universities, and community colleges in Oregon and Washington, and OhioLINK, serving the college and university libraries of Ohio and the Ohio State Library. Plural: consortia. Compare with network. See also: consortial license and International Coalition of Library Consortia.

conspectus
A survey of a topic or body of literature that takes a general or comprehensive view of the subject. Also, a summary or digest that retains the basic pattern or structure of a larger work but condenses the content considerably.

In libraries, a method of uniform collection assessment developed in North America in 1979 to facilitate resource sharing. The system uses codes to survey strengths, levels of difficulty, linguistic and geographical coverage, etc., recorded on worksheets in subject areas based on Library of Congress Classification. In 1982, the Research Libraries Group initiated the RLG Conspectus Online to provide electronic access to data on the collections of research libraries in the United States. The system was subsequently adopted by the Association of Research Libraries for its North American Collection Inventory Project (NCIP). It has also been adapted by Library and Archives Canada and is used in the UK, Australia, and some European countries. In the 1990s, after the Western Library Network (WLN) developed PC software that enabled libraries to develop and maintain local collection assessment databases, use of RLG Conspectus Online dwindled, and the files were removed from the Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN) database in 1997. Click here to view the collecting levels of the RLG Conspectus, used in Library of Congress policy statements to define the extent of its collections.

constituency
The persons represented by a library or library system when it seeks funding for daily operations, new programs, and capital improvements and when it lobbies for legislation favorable to its interests. Successful library administration depends on winning the approval of the library's external constituency (voters, users, supporters, etc.) through quality of service, public relations, and community outreach programs. A library also has an internal constituency consisting of its employees and management. See also: library advocate.

constructive notice
The legal fiction that knowledge of specific information cannot be disputed in law because it was communicated in a manner that gave the party an opportunity and obligation to become aware of it, even if there was no actual knowledge of it. Usually communicated in a recorded document or public announcement, constructive notice is intended to: 1) give individuals an opportunity to protect their interests, 2) allow them to become informed of the details of an action, and 3) provide all interested parties ample opportunity to either support or oppose the matter at issue. In the United States, records of births, marriages, and deaths (vital records); real property ownership; judicial decisions; trademark registration; and minutes of public meetings maintained in a public office by a city or town clerk, county recorder, secretary of state, or other authority, constitute constructive notice.

consultant
A person with knowledge and experience in a specialized field, hired by a library or other institution to analyze a problem and provide professional or technical advice concerning possible solutions, especially when the required level of expertise is not available within the organization or the opinion of an outsider is desirable. A consultant may also participate in the planning and implementation phase of a recommended change.

consumer guide
A publication containing practical information and advice for prospective purchasers concerning the quality of products and services available in the market place. Some consumer guides are published serially (example: Consumer Reports Buying Guide). High-demand consumer guides may be shelved in the reference section of a library, sometimes in ready reference. Used synonymously with buying guide.

contact print
A photographic print made by holding the printing paper emulsion-to-emulsion with the negative, usually in a special printing frame, while it is exposed to light through the negative. Click here to see an example, courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

contact printing
A laboratory process in which original motion picture film is duplicated by running it in direct physical contact with raw stock exposed to light through an aperture. In intermittent or step contact printing, the film is advanced one frame at a time so that each frame is stationary at the time of exposure, the method used when perfect registration is required. In continuous contact printing, both films (original and unexposed stock) are run rapidly past the aperture and the negative is reversed or looped to produce multiple release prints from the same original. Compare with optical printing.

contact sheet
A proof sheet containing contact prints from more than one photographic negative, often for use in selecting images for individual printing (see this example). Contact sheets may convey a sense of the photographic session not apparent from individual prints.

container
A box or holder designed for storing a bibliographic item, group of items, or part of an item, for example, a pull-case, slipcase, or solander. Physically separable from its contents, a container can be open or lidded. Compare with physical carrier. See also: archival box and pull.

contamination
The condition of having unwanted, foreign material added in, often as a result of direct contact. Although the term generally refers to the introduction of physical or biological impurities in the case of library and archival materials (mold, mildew, gaseous or particulate contaminates from air pollution, etc.), it is also used for the corruption of a digital or analog signal, as with noise. Also refers to the process by which such undesirable material is introduced.

conte
The French term for a narrative tale or short story of the medieval period, originally dealing with events of an imaginative nature (example: Guigemar by Marie de France, as distinct from her lais). In modern usage, the term is associated with any brief story of a few printed pages, regardless of genre. See also: short short story.

contemporary
In the antiquarian and used book trade, a work published within the most recent decade. Also refers to a book in which all the parts, particularly the illustrations and binding, were created at the time the edition was published and to an author inscription dated the year of publication.

contemporary binding
A binding made in the same time period as the text block, but not necessarily at the same time the text was printed or hand-copied. Older books are often rebound in the style of a later period and the original binding discarded when badly worn.

content
The essential matter or substance of a written work or discourse, as opposed to its form or style. In a more general sense, all the ideas, topics, facts, or statements contained in a book or other written work. Synonymous in this sense with subject matter. Also refers to the matter that is the subject of a course of study. Compare with contents. See also: content analysis and editorial content.

content analysis
Close analysis of a work or body of communicated information to determine its meaning and account for the effect it has on its audience. Researchers classify, quantify, analyze, and evaluate the important words, concepts, symbols, and themes in a text (or set of texts) as a basis for inferences about the explicit and implicit messages it contains, the writer(s), the audience, and the culture and time period of which it is a part. In this context, "text" is defined broadly to include books, book chapters, essays, interviews and discussions, newspaper headlines, periodical articles, historical documents, speeches, conversations, advertising, theater, informal conversation, etc. Click here to learn more about content analysis, courtesy of the Writing Center at Colorado State University.

content designator
Characters used as tags, indicators, and subfield codes in a machine-readable bibliographic record to identify or provide additional information about the data elements of which it is composed. See also: parallel content.

content enrichment
Information added to the bibliographic description of an item not included in the original machine-readable record format, for example, an image of the front cover or dust jacket, table of contents, first page or first chapter, excerpts from or links to reviews, biographical information about the author(s) and/or illustrator, etc. Synonymous with record enrichment.

content management system (CMS)
Application software that allows users to create, edit, publish, store, and manage Web page content without knowledge of HTML or Web design skills, often accommodating the needs of a collaborative work environment. Open source CMS solutions are available.

content rating
A labeling system that uses ranks, grades, or classes to index media content, primarily as a means of controlling access by minors to material considered suitable for adults only. In the United States, most motion pictures produced for theatrical distribution are rated by the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) according to a voluntary system introduced in 1968, using five categories to indicate age-appropriate content: G: General Audiences; PG: Parental Guidance; PG-13: Parents Strongly Cautioned; R: Restricted (anyone under 17 must be accompanied by a parent or adult guardian); and NC-17: No One 17 and Under Admitted.

In response to evidence that viewing television violence can have negative effects on the psychological development of children and adolescents, Congress included a provision for "Parental Choice in Television Programming" in the Telecommunications Act of 1996 (TCA), giving parents greater control over content available on their home television receivers. TCA required manufacturers to include a V-chip in new TV sets and recommended that the television industry develop a voluntary rating system readable by the V-chip. In January 1997, entertainment industry executives began implementing "TV Parental Guidelines," a controversial four-level rating system based on the MPAA movie ratings. Many child advocacy organizations preferred ratings modeled on the premium channel system, designed to indicate the amount of sex, violence, and vulgar language by such labels as: SC: Strong Sexual Content; MV: Mild Violence; AL: Adult Language; etc. In July 1997, the industry and public advocacy groups agreed on a compromise that adds content indicators to age-based guidelines. Compare with filtering. See also: British Board of Film Classification and Motion Picture Production Code.

contents
All the divisions, chapters, articles, or individual works contained in a book, periodical, or other publication, usually listed in order of appearance with locators (page numbers) in the table of contents in the front matter of a book or on a page near the front of an issue of a periodical. Compare with content.

Also refers to all the items physically contained in a box, binder, case, or holder designed to keep loose materials together, for example, a pamphlet file or portfolio.

contents note
A note in the bibliographic record for a book listing its major divisions (books, chapters, etc.) or the works contained in it (essays, interviews, short stories, poems, plays, etc.), usually by title in order of appearance in the text.

context
In the most general sense, the entire situation, background, or environment relevant to an event, action, statement, work, etc. In a literary sense, the parts of a sentence, paragraph, or text that occur just before and after a specific word, phrase, or passage and determine its precise meaning. Quoting out of context may give a misleading impression of the intentions of the original speaker or author. Context is included in certain types of keyword indexing (see: KWAC, KWIC, and KWOC).

context-sensitive
In computing, an interface designed to provide assistance to the user at the point when help is needed, as opposed to a program that provides a general help screen that the user must locate and navigate to find instructions or advice about how to solve a problem. See also: wizard.

contingency fund
A special fund set aside in a library budget to cover unanticipated expenditures and emergencies. Contingency funds are commonly included in budgets for major capital improvements to allow for possible cost overruns.

contingency plan
An alternative plan of action prepared in advance to be put into effect should it become impossible to implement normal arrangements or when certain predetermined conditions arise. An example might be the decision of a library to cut spending on monographs rather than cancel serials subscriptions in the event of an unexpected budget cut. Contingency planning is often done in connection with a disaster plan or emergency plan (see this example).

contingent records
In archives, temporary records scheduled for final disposition, not after a fixed period of time, but following an action or event that is to occur at an unspecified time in the future, such as the sale of property or closure of a facility.

continuation
A book or other uncompleted work continued by another writer, usually after the death of the original author. Compare with sequel. See also: posthumous.

Also, a work issued as a supplement to one previously published or a part issued in continuance of a monographic set or series. Libraries normally place such materials on continuation order. In the catalog record, a library's holdings are indicated in an open entry if publication is ongoing or in a closed entry if it has ceased. See also: map continuation.

continuation order
An order placed by a library with a publisher or vendor to automatically supply until further notice each succeeding issue, volume, or part of a serial or series as published. If a continuation order does not specify a maximum price, it is assumed that the item may be shipped regardless of price. Some publishers offer a discount on continuation orders (usually 5 to 10 percent). Annuals (example: Literary Market Place) and reference serials are often purchased in this way. A special order record is created and maintained to track receipt of individual items. Sometimes used synonymously with standing order. See also: open entry.

continuing education
Formal instruction for persons who have completed an academic degree, moved into the workplace, and wish to keep up with changes and innovations in their field. For librarians, continuing education opportunities include courses offered online or traditionally through a library school, training provided by commercial vendors, and workshops sponsored by bibliographic service centers and library associations, as well as independent study.

continuing resource
A publication in any medium, defined in AACR2 2002 as issued over time with no predetermined conclusion, including bibliographic resources issued successively in discrete parts and integrating resources into which updates are incorporated without remaining discrete. Examples include serials (periodicals, newspapers, etc.), monographic series, and updating loose-leaf services, databases, and Web sites. See also: Continuing Resources Section (CR/S).

Continuing Resources Section (CR/S)
The section of the Association for Library Collections and Technical Services (ALCTS) within the American Library Association responsible for developing theory and practice concerning continuing resources in all formats. The CR/S initiates and supports studies, reports, discussions, and publications; encourages specialized education, programming, and training for practitioners in the fields of continuing resources management; and coordinates ALCTS activities within the ALA with respect to continuing resources. Click here to connect to the CR/S homepage.

continuing value
In archives, the enduring usefulness of records, based on the significance of the administrative, legal, fiscal, evidential, or historical information contained in them, serving to justify their ongoing preservation. According to Richard Pearce-Moses in A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology, many archivists prefer to describe archival records as having continuing value, rather than permanent value, because the word "continuing" emphasizes perceived value at the time the records are appraised, recognizing that a future archivist may decide dispose of them following reappraisal. Synonymous with enduring value.

continuous forms
Forms printed (in one or more copies) on fanfold paper, usually one to a sheet, with the folds perforated to facilitate bursting. Designed for use in a computer printer, continuous forms typically come with small holes punched in removable strips along the edges to facilitate tractor feeding (see this example). Checks, invoices, and purchase orders are often printed on this type of form.

continuous pagination
Numbering the pages of two or more volumes or parts of a set, or the issues of a periodical comprising a volume, in a single unbroken sequence, beginning with number one. Compare with separately paginated. See also: journal pagination.

continuous revision
The process of updating a textbook or reference work by revising a portion of the text and/or illustrations with each printing, as opposed to updating the entire content of the work all at once and publishing the result as a revised edition.

contour
An unbroken line connecting points of equal vertical distance (elevation) above or below a datum, usually mean sea level. A person walking along an imaginary contour would neither gain nor lose elevation. In cartography, such a line is a type of isogram, not to be confused with an outline establishing the boundary of a discrete area on the face of a map or chart. Here are some general rules for contours:

1. A contour line never splits or divides.
2. A contour line never simply ends except at the edge of the map.
3. A contour line represents one and only one elevation.
4. A contour line never intersects other contour lines except in the case of an overhanging cliff.
5. Contour lines form a V-pattern when crossing a stream and the V always points upstream.
6. Closely spaced contour lines represent a steep slope; widely spaced lines indicate a gentle slope.
7. Concentric circles of contour lines indicate a hilltop or mountain peak.
8. Concentric circles of hachured contour lines indicate a closed depression.

On tinted maps, contours are usually printed in brown ink. Click here to see contours on a USGS topographic map of Mount Shasta in California and here to see a bathymetric example, courtesy of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Click here to learn more about contours, courtesy of Mark McNaught's Topographic Maps online tutorial. Compare with form line. See also: contour interval, contour map, and isobath.

contour interval
In cartography, the vertical distance or change in elevation, as measured on the ground, between two successive contour lines, each connecting points of equal distance above or below a datum. On a map, the closer contours are to each other, the steeper the slope, with flat terrain represented by contours comparatively far apart. Click here to see an illustration of gradient on a contour map, courtesy of Mark McNaught's Topographic Maps online tutorial, and here to see a series of examples of contour intervals, courtesy of GPS Information.

contour map
A topographic map that indicates relief or distance by continuous lines, traditionally shown in brown ink, connecting points of equal elevation, with or without shading. The number of feet represented by the intervals between contour lines varies with the scale of the map. A topographic map of the sea floor is called a bathymetric map. Click here to view a contour map of Crater Lake National Park (use button in lower right corner to englarge) and here to explore a clickable contour map of the Hubble Deep Field Region. For more information on topographic maps, see Toporama from Natural Resources Canada. Compare with relief map. See also: hypsometric tint.

contract
A legally binding written agreement between an employer and (1) an individual librarian or other member of the library staff or (2) librarians and/or staff organized in a collective bargaining unit for the purpose of negotiating terms of employment (salaries and wages, duties and responsibilities, promotion and tenure, vacation and sick leave, benefits, etc.), usually for a specified period of time. See also: book contract and breach of contract.

contraction
A shortened form of a word or phrase used for brevity in place of the whole, formed by the omission of one or more letters or sounds, usually replaced by a hyphen (e-mail for electronic mail) or an apostrophe (isn't for is not). Compare with abbreviation and elision.

contraries
Impurities in the rag, waste paper, or other fibrous material from which paper is made, usually bits of wool, feathers, or twine, or hard materials such as metal staples, bone, or plastic that must be removed in the papermaking process to maintain quality of product. Contraries occasionally show as blemishes in a sheet of finished paper.

contrast
The degree of difference between the highest and lowest tonal values in a print, photograph, or image on motion picture film, video, or television--maximum contrast being black and white with no intermediate gray tones. In photography, contrast is sometimes expressed as the ratio of the lightest to the darkest areas of an image on exposed and processed film, as measured by an instrument called a densitometer. Contrast is influenced by the photographer's selection of high-contrast or low-contrast film.

contribution
An article, column, editorial, entry, or other composition written for publication with works by other authors in a serial, reference work, or collection. Usually written by a freelance writer or academic professional, a contribution may be signed or unsigned. Contributors are usually listed by name with credentials in the front or back of the issue, volume, or set of volumes containing their works.

contributor
One of several persons, each of whom writes one or more signed or unsigned portions of a book, periodical, or other edited work. A major contributor is the person who has supplied the most information or written text for a publication. A contribution may consist of an article or column in a magazine or journal, an essay in a collection, a poem or story in an anthology, an entry in an encyclopedia, or one or more terms and definitions in a dictionary or glossary. Contributors are usually listed by name in the front matter or back matter of a book, on one page of a periodical, or in the first or last volume of a reference set, alphabetically by name or in the order in which their works appear. Compare with joint author.

control field
A field of the MARC record (tagged 00X with X in the range of 1-9) containing neither indicators nor subfield codes, reserved for a single data element or series of fixed-length data elements identified by the relative position of characters. For example, field 008 containing 40 characters of encoded information about the record as a whole, such as the date it was entered into the database, frequency of publication, etc. A control field containing a fixed number of characters, as in 008, is called a fixed field. Compare with variable data field.

control key
A key located in the lower left-hand corner of a standard computer keyboard, usually labeled Ctrl or Ctl, that can be used simultaneously with one or more other keys to give a specific command, for example, Ctrl+Alt+Del to reboot the operating system.

controlled access
Entry into a library, or use of a library collection, limited to registered members of the library's user group or some other category of user specifically granted access. The libraries of large private universities may extend access to all or part of their collections only to registered students, faculty, and staff. Use of special collections may be limited to authorized library staff, except by appointment. Compare with restricted access. See also: closed stacks.

controlled-list data element
In library cataloging, a data element in the MARC record whose content is determined by a list maintained by a designated agency, for example, the MARC Code List for Geographic Areas in the case of field 043 (Geographic Area Code) of the bibliographic format, a list controlled by the Library of Congress. This type of data element is indicated at the field or subfield level in MARC 21, and only values from the designated list may be used. If a change or addition is desired in a list, the maintenance agency must be consulted. (MARC 21 Concise Formats)

controlled vocabulary
An established list of preferred terms from which a cataloger or indexer must select when assigning subject headings or descriptors in a bibliographic record, to indicate the content of the work in a library catalog, index, or bibliographic database. Synonyms are included as lead-in vocabulary, with instructions to see or USE the authorized heading. For example, if the authorized subject heading for works about dogs is "Dogs," then all items about dogs will be assigned the heading "Dogs," including a work titled All about Canines. A cross-reference to the heading "Dogs" will be made from the term "Canines" to ensure that anyone looking for information about dogs under "Canines" will be directed to the correct heading. Controlled vocabulary is usually listed alphabetically in a subject headings list or thesaurus of indexing terms. The process of creating and maintaining a list of preferred indexing terms is called vocabulary control.

The utility of controlled vocabulary in the online environment has been challenged, but a study by Tina Gross and Arlene G. Taylor (College & Research Libraries, May 2005) found that more than one-third of records retrieved by successful keywords searches in OPACs would be lost if subject headings were not present, and for some searches the loss was as high as 80-100 percent. Synonymous with controlled terms. Compare with free-text search.

convenience file
In archives, duplicate copies of records, personal papers, or other documents preserved elsewhere, maintained near the point of use for ease of access and reference. The documents in such a file are often called convenience copies. When kept by an individual to facilitate reference, such a file is known as a personal file. Synonymous with crutch file and working papers.

convention
A generally accepted custom established by usage over an extended period of time, rather than by law or some other prescriptive process. Also, a formal standard that produces similar but not invariable results. According to Richard Pearce-Moses in A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology, a convention is more specific than a guideline, but not as precise as a technical standard, producing results more consistent than those arising from guidelines but less consistent than those achieved by the application of technical standards.

Also refers to an agreement or compact between two or more groups, especially nations, less formal than a treaty, usually reached at an assembly of delegates, for example, the Berne Convention (1886) on international copyright. Also used in reference to the assembly at which such an agreement is reached, and synonymously with conference.

conventional name
A name, distinct from the real or official name by which a thing, place, or corporate body has become known, for example, "Wall Street" for the New York Stock Exchange. Compare with nickname.

convention discount
A discount given on orders placed at a publisher's exhibit booth during a conference or convention, usually 10 to 20 percent, with 15 percent the norm. Librarians sometimes compile lists of selected new books prior to attending a major library conference to be prepared to take advantage of the anticipated discount. At the end of the conference, display copies may be sold at an even deeper discount, especially if the dust jackets are no longer in perfect condition. Synonymous with show discount.

convention issue
An issue of a trade journal devoted to a forthcoming conference or convention, providing a brief description of the program, information about exhibits, registration procedures, advice about travel and accommodations, and whom to contact for more details. Follow-up articles usually appear in the issue immediately following the event.

conversion
A move from one computer system to another, which may entail reformatting data files.

conversion fee
The fee charged libraries in the United States by some vendors based in foreign countries to convert payments made in U.S. dollars into the currency of the vendor's country. The fee should be stated separately, rather than included in the cost of the materials purchased. Payments made to foreign vendors that have bank accounts in the United States can be made in dollars without penalty.

conversion table
A cataloging tool that lists the class numbers of one classification system in order of notation and gives the corresponding class number in a second classification system, usually in a separate column on the same line, and sometimes vice versa. For example, Mona L. Scott's Conversion Tables published in three separate volumes by Libraries Unlimited, converting (1) Library of Congress Classification to Dewey Decimal Classification and Library of Congress Subject Headings, (2) DDC to LCC and LCSH, and (3) LCSH to LCC and DDC. Conversion tables facilitate reclassification, especially in projects involving very large collections or entire libraries.

cookbook
A type of how-to book that gives instructions for preparing food, including recipes for specific dishes, notes about tools and ingredients, weights and measures, and sometimes directory information on culinary suppliers. Click here to see an example, published for mass distribution by Routledge in 1855 (British Library). Most cookbooks are specialized, focusing on a particular cuisine, type of dish, or category of food. Cookbooks for beginners often include color illustrations, but those intended by the author to be comprehensive are usually sparsely illustrated. Most public libraries include a diverse selection of cookbooks in the nonfiction section. Click here to see a selection of early examples, courtesy of the Cornell University Library. Synonymous with cookery book, recipe book, and receipt book.

In computing, a how-to manual that often includes boilerplate code, templates, style sheets, and other software tools, assembled to help implement a particular standard or technology.

cookie
A small string of data created by a Web server, transmitted to a computer connected to the Internet, and stored in the cookie file of its Web browser. Originally intended to reduce the amount of time required for Web site registration by retrieving from the user's hard drive input provided in a previous visit, cookies can also be used to determine what a user viewed on previous visits and on visits to other Web sites. Potential invasiveness has made cookies the subject of debate over privacy. Web browser software can be set to allow the user to accept or reject a cookie at the time it is offered or to reject all cookies automatically. "Cookie manager" software provides a wider range of options. Click here to learn more about cookies, courtesy of HowStuffWorks.

cooperative cataloging
An arrangement in which a library or library system agrees to follow established cataloging practices and work in automated systems or utilities that facilitate the creation of bibliographic and authority records in a form that can be shared with other libraries. In North America, cooperative cataloging is facilitated by the uniform cataloging practices established in Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2). OCLC is the bibliographic utility used for cooperative cataloging in the United States. Synonymous with shared cataloging. See also: National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections.

Cooperative Online Resource Catalog (CORC)
A Web-based metadata project undertaken by OCLC in 1998 to facilitate access to electronic resources, CORC provided a catalog of bibliographic records for electronic resources, an authority file, a pathfinder database, and an enhanced version of Dewey Decimal Classification called WebDewey. The CORC toolkit was designed to support flexible automated bibliographic record creation, authority control, URL maintenance, subject heading assignment, and pathfinder creation. CORC functions are now available in the integrated cataloging interface called Connexion.

cooperative publication
A federal government publication required to be self-sustaining through sale, usually on a cost-recovery basis, not distributed free of charge to depository libraries through the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP). Click here to see a U.S. Forst Service example.

cooperative reference
Reference services provided by referring the user or the user's question(s) to library or information personnel at another institution, according to a formally established system of protocols, rather than on an informal case-by-case basis. When such services are provided digitally, the service is known as collaborative reference. The Reference and User Services Association (RUSA) of the American Library Association (ALA) has developed Guidelines for Cooperative Reference Service Policy Manuals (June 2006) to assist libraries in establishing and evaluating cooperative reference service.

coordinate
One of a number of quantities used to indicate the position of a point, line, or plane with reference to a fixed system of reference, such as a grid or graticule. On maps and charts of the surface of the earth and other heavenly bodies, the quantities are usually degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude and longitude (example: 30º, 15', 5") or angles of declination and ascension. Click here to learn more about coordinate systems, courtesy of ThinkQuest, or try Peter H. Dana's Coordinate Systems Overview. See also: azimuth.

copperplate
Illustrations produced from printing plates engraved on copper, a method introduced before the end of the 15th century. Click here to see a copperplate engraving of an ancient diagram of the heavens from the Temple of Dendara, published in 1798 in Description de l'Égypte, a twenty-two volume work based on the discoveries of the scientists and artist who accompanied Napoleon on his trip to Egypt. Early copperplate engravings were often hand-colored (see these examples).

Coptic
A manuscript produced by the indigenous Christians of Egypt (the Copts). Established in the mid-1st century A.D., the Coptic Orthodox Church exerted an influence on western Church symbolism (the cross) and monasticism. In early manuscripts, Coptic influence is seen in heavily decorated carpet pages and distinctive binding techniques. Click here to see Coptic manuscripts (Leiden University Library) and here to see an illuminated example, courtesy of the Library of Congress.

Coptic binding
The earliest form of codex binding, in use from the 4th to the 11th century, developed in the Coptic monasteries of Egypt and North Africa. Gatherings of papyrus or vellum bifolia, sewn through the fold, were linked together by a chain stitch running at intervals perpendicular to the binding edge (see these examples, courtesy of the Princeton University Library). The boards were made of wood or layers of discarded papyrus glued together (cartonnage) and attached to the book block by knotting the ends of the chain stitches through holes pre-bored along the inner edge. The spine was lined with a strip of linen, vellum, or leather, with the endbands extending onto the boards. Spine and boards were covered in goatskin decorated with blind tooling or pierced leatherwork.

Coptic binding spread to northwestern Europe in the early Christian period, the 7th-century Stonyhurst Gospel being the earliest-known English example. The method has been revived in the United States for sewing single sheets (see Non-Adhesive Binding Volume IV: Smith's Sewing Single Sheets, Keith Smith Books, 2001). Click here to see a contemporary example, courtesy of the Wellesley College Library.

co-publishing
The simultaneous publication of an edition by two or more publishers, usually in different countries, to achieve economies of scale when the home market is not sufficient to guarantee a reasonable profit. Typically, a work is printed in the country of the originating publisher and then supplied to a publisher in another country with a title page bearing the imprint of the second publisher (or both). Subsequent printings may occur independently or cooperatively. In journal publishing, the result may be separate editions for each country or a bilingual edition marketed in both countries. Compare with export edition.

copy
To make a duplicate of a document or other work by hand or any other process. Many early books were produced in only one copy. In medieval Europe, devotional works and the classics were laboriously hand-copied by monks and copyists known as scribes. Modern methods rely on printing and reprography. Compare with original. See also: copying press, photocopy, and polygraph.

Also refers to a single specimen of a manuscript or printed document. Libraries sometimes purchase heavily used items in multiple copies. Copy number is indicated in the catalog record and at the end of the call number, beginning with the second copy. In limited editions, the total number of copies printed and the number of each copy are recorded in the certificate of issue, usually on the verso of the leaf preceding the title page. See also: aberrant copy, advance copy, association copy, author's copy, blind copy, complimentary copy, desk copy, distribution copy, examination copy, last copy, review copy, and secondary copy.

In publishing, matter that is to be typeset in preparation for printing or incorporated as text into a hypertext document. See also: fair copy and printer's copy.

In data processing, to reproduce data stored in memory from one file, location, or storage medium to another without alteration and without erasing it from memory. Compare with cut-and-paste.

copy art
An image made using a photocopy machine, which is an original work rather than a reproduction of another document. Copy art is sometimes made by putting one or more objects on the glass image area of a photocopier and pressing "Print." If the objects are three-dimensional, rather than flat, the resulting image may be distorted (see these examples). Examples of copy art include multiple copy, personal use invitations as well as works by artists. Synonymous with electrostatic art and xerox art.

copybook
A manual of penmanship, calligraphy, arithmetic, or geography which includes instructional text and examples, with space left blank to allow the pupil to practice his or her skills by imitation (see this example). The first American copybook was The American Instructor: Or, Young Man's Best Companion by George Fisher, first published in 1748. Also spelled copy book.

copy card
A small plastic debit card available for purchase from a vending machine or at the circulation desk of a library that can be used in photocopiers and microform reader-printer machines instead of cash to pay for paper copies of documents.

copy cataloging
Adaptation of a pre-existing bibliographic record (usually found in OCLC, NUC, or some other bibliographic database) to fit the characteristics of the item in hand, with modifications to correct obvious errors and minor adjustments to reflect locally accepted cataloging practice, as distinct from original cataloging (creating a completely new record from scratch). Synonymous with derived cataloging.

copy editor
A person employed by a publisher to meticulously edit and mark up an author's typescript in preparation for printing, usually in accordance with house style as to spelling, abbreviation, punctuation, grammar, syntax, usage, citation style, etc. A good copy editor also checks the accuracy of facts, quotations, and citations and is alert to possibilities of libel, plagiarism, etc. See also: subeditor.

copying press
A mechanical device, first patented by James Watt in England in 1780, for taking by means of pressure an exact copy of a letter or other document handwritten in a special copying ink (see these examples). Thomas Jefferson used a copying press for making duplicate copies of his correspondence prior to acquiring his first polygraph. By the late 1840s, copying presses utilizing various screw and lever mechanisms were widely used in offices for copying outgoing correspondence. Synonymous with letter copying press.

copy number
When multiple copies of the same edition are added to a library collection, the cataloger numbers each copy sequentially, beginning with the second. In the catalog record for the edition, each copy is listed separately in the holdings, with the copy number given at the end of the call number following the abbreviation cop. It is also printed at the end of the call number on the label that is affixed to the physical item (see this example).

copy protection
A technique for preventing unauthorized duplication of computer software, recorded music, motion pictures, and other media, usually for reasons of copyright. Synonymous with content protection.

copyright
The exclusive legal rights granted by a government to an author, editor, compiler, composer, playwright, publisher, or distributor to publish, produce, sell, or distribute copies of a literary, musical, dramatic, artistic, or other work, within certain limitations (fair use and first sale). Copyright law also governs the right to prepare derivative works, reproduce a work or portions of it, and display or perform a work in public.

Such rights may be transferred or sold to others and do not necessarily pass with ownership of the work itself. Copyright protects a work in the specific form in which it is created, not the idea, theme, or concept expressed in the work, which other writers are free to interpret in a different way. A work never copyrighted or no longer protected by copyright is said to be in the public domain. See also: copyright compliance, copyright depository, copyright piracy, digital rights, infringement, intellectual property, international copyright, and Public Lending Right.

In 1710, the first copyright law in England (Statute of Anne) gave protection to the author for 14 years, renewable for a second period of equal length. In the United States, the first federal copyright law, passed in 1790, also provided protection for 14 years, renewable for an additional 14 years if the author survived the first term. Congress extended the term in 1831 and 1909, then changed the duration of copyright to life of the author plus 50 years, effective January 1, 1978. In 1998, the controversial Copyright Term Extension Act (CTEA) lengthened the period to life of the author plus 70 years for works published on or after January 1, 1978, the same as in Europe. For anonymous works, pseudonymous works, and works for hire the period is 95 years from year of first publication or 120 years from year of creation, whichever expires first. Library and consumer groups including the American Library Association (ALA) filed amicus briefs in support of a challenge (Eldred v. Ashcroft), but on January 15, 2003 the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the CTEA by a 7-2 vote. Copyright is controlled by Congress and administered by the U.S. Copyright Office of the Library of Congress (click here to see the U.S. Copyright registration of L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz). International copyright is governed by the Berne Convention and the Universal Copyright Convention.

Notice of copyright usually appears on the verso of the title page of a book in the form of a small "c" inside a circle ©, the abbreviation "Copr.," or the word "Copyright" followed by year of publication, name of the owner of copyright, and the phrase "all rights reserved." Because copyright law is highly complex, accurate interpretation often requires the advice of a legal specialist. Click here to learn more about Copyright & Fair Use in the United States, courtesy of Stanford University Libraries, or see the Copyright Crash Course provided by the University of Texas. See also: abandonment of copyright, Copyright Clearance Center, Digital Millennium Copyright Act, and International Copyright Information Centre.

Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC)
The largest licenser of photocopy reproduction rights in the world, CCC was established in 1978 by a group of authors, publishers, and users of copyrighted material in an effort to facilitate compliance with U.S. copyright law. CCC manages the rights to over 1.75 million works and represents approximately 9,600 publishers and hundreds of thousands of individual authors and creators. Click here to connect to the CCC homepage. See also: fair use and International Copyright Information Centre.

copyright compliance
The responsibility of a library to ensure that its interlibrary loan requests, reserve materials, instruction guides, Web pages, etc., conform to existing copyright law. In the OCLC interlibrary loan system, the codes ccg ("conforms to copyright guidelines") and ccl ("conforms to copyright law") are used by the borrowing library to inform the lending library that a request is compliant. See also: Copyright Clearance Center, Inc.

copyright date
The year in which a work was first published, usually printed in the copyright notice on the verso of the title page, sometimes following the letter "c" with a circle around it (see this example). If more than one copyright date is given, the earliest is the date of the first edition, which is the same as the date of first publication. Subsequent dates indicate revisions in the text of an extent requiring renewal of copyright.

copyright depository
A library designated by law or custom to receive and preserve a specified number of free deposit copies of works published under national copyright law. In the United States, the copyright depository is the U.S. Copyright Office at the Library of Congress. In Great Britain it is the Bodleian Library. In Canada, copyright law is administered by the Canadian Intellectual Property Office (CIPO). Synonymous with copyright library.

copyright fee
The payment required by a national copyright depository to register copyright of a creative work, which must be submitted with the completed application form and a deposit copy of the work. Also refers to the fee that must be paid to the holder of copyright in exchange for the right to use all or part of a work in a manner not defined under U.S. copyright law as fair use, for example, the right to include a poem or short story in an anthology, or an excerpt or quotation in a published work. See also: permission.

copyright holder
The person(s) or corporate body possessing the exclusive legal rights granted by a government to publish, produce, sell, or distribute copies of a literary, musical, dramatic, artistic, or other work, within certain limitations (fair use), usually the author, editor, compiler, composer, playwright, publisher, or distributor. In the United States, such rights are granted by the U.S. Copyright Office when a work is registered for copyright. The name of the copyright holder is given in the copyright notice, usually printed on the verso of the title page of a book. Synonymous with copyright owner.

copyright notice
A formal announcement of legal status appearing conspicuously on all copies of a work protected by copyright and published by authority of the copyright owner. In the United States, it consists of three parts: (1) the symbol "c" inside a small circle © and the abbreviation Copr. or the word Copyright, followed by (2) year of first publication and (3) name of copyright holder. In printed books, the copyright notice appears on the verso of the title page (see this example).

copyright page
The page of a book, in most editions the verso of the title page, bearing official notice of copyright, usually the copyright symbol ("c" inside a small circle) or the word Copyright or its abbreviation (Copr.), followed by year of first publication, name of copyright holder, country of publication, and other notice and rights information (see this example).

copyright piracy
The systematic unauthorized reproduction or use, without permission and recompense, of a work protected by copyright law, usually for the purpose of profiting from such activity. This type of egregious infringement is subject to legal action by the copyright owner(s) in countries that have accepted international copyright agreements, but in countries that have not, the holder of intellectual property rights may have little recourse. See also: pirated edition.

cord
A thin string of twisted vegetable fiber used as a sewing support in early bookbinding. Click here to see single and double cords across the spines of old bindings (Princeton University Library). Thongs and tapes of parchment or vellum were also used for the same purpose. To secure the text block to the cover, the ends of the sewing supports were laced into grooves or holes cut in the wooden boards (see these examples). See also: raised bands.

core
The hard plastic spool around which motion picture film or raw stock is wound for storage (see this example). Film negatives are usually stored on cores rather than reels. The wider the diameter of the core, the less the film is stressed in winding. Wide hubs also reduce the tendency of film to curl. Click here to learn more about film cores, courtesy of the National Film and Sound Archive of Australia.

core collection
A collection representative of the basic information needs of a library's primary user group. In public libraries, core collections are selected in anticipation of popular demand and maintained on the basis of usage. In academic libraries, selection is based on curriculum need, and collections are maintained to meet the research interests of students and faculty. Also refers to an initial collection developed for a new library, usually with the aid of standard lists and other selection aids (example: Resources for College Libraries published by the American Library Association).

Core Competences
An inventory of the basic knowledge to be possessed by all persons graduating from ALA-accredited master�s programs in library and information science (LIS), approved and adopted as policy in January 2010 by the Council of the American Library Association. Click here to read the ALA's Final Core Competences Statement.

core document
An important record, usually one of several, widely regarded as defining a subject because it contains information vital to understanding the topic. Print collections of core documents are often shelved in the reference section of a library. Click here to see the FDsys list of Core Documents of U.S. Democracy.

core journal
A scholarly journal that reports original research of such significance to the academic community that the publication is considered indispensable to students, teachers, and researchers in the discipline or subdiscipline. For this reason, it is included in the serials collections of academic libraries supporting curriculum and research in the field (example: American Historical Review in American history). Compare with primary journal.

In public libraries, a periodical so essential to meeting the information needs of a wide range of users that it is included in most general serials collections (example: Scientific American).

core level cataloging
An encoding level developed for use in the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC) that allows the cataloger to create bibliographic records containing fewer data elements than in full level cataloging but more than in minimal level cataloging. Fields of fixed length are fully coded, but a list of exceptions applies to certain fields of variable length.

core list
A list of the best books, periodicals, etc., on a subject or in a discipline, usually compiled as a selection aid for librarians whose responsibilities include collection development (example: Core List of Best Books and Journals in Education by Nancy O'Brien and Emily Fabiano). Although useful when first published, such lists become outdated within a few years unless they are periodically updated. See also: core collection.

Coretta Scott King Award
Chosen by a seven-member national jury and presented by the Coretta Scott King Task Force of the American Library Association's Ethnic and Multicultural Information Exchange Round Table ( EMIERT), the annual Coretta Scott King Awards are made to an author and an illustrator of African descent whose distinguished books promote an understanding and appreciation of "the American Dream." The Awards commemorate the life and work of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and honor his widow, Coretta Scott King, for her continuing work for peace and world brotherhood. Winners receive a framed citation, an honorarium, and a set of the Encyclopaedia Britannica or World Book Encyclopedia. Click here to learn more about the Coretta Scott King Award.

corner
The juncture of two edges of the cover of a book. Corners can be rounded, square, or mitered and are sometimes covered in contrasting material, such as leather or heavier cloth, for protection and decorative effect. To make library corners, the turn-in is folded; on Dutch corners, it is cut. See also: boss, cornerpiece, and Oxford corners.

corner cut
A small diagonal cut at the corner of an aperture card, punched card, sheet of microfiche, or similar rectangular card or sheet, usually at the top right or left, made to aid a specific use, such as content identification or storage (a notch in the edge may be used for the same purpose). Click here to see examples, courtesy of the University of Iowa. On microfiche, corner cuts may be used to identify the photosensitive side of the film. Large corner cuts are also used on the front of manila folders to facilitate access to the contents of a file. Also refers to a diagonal cut made at the upper corner of the front flap of the dust jacket or flyleaf of a book, usually to remove the price or a brief inscription.

cornering
A binding technique in which the outer corners of the boards of a book are rounded before the covering material is applied.

cornerpiece
In bookbinding, especially of the late 16th and early 17th centuries, a decorative element tooled or stamped on each of the four corners of a cover, sometimes as part of an ornamental design that includes a matching centerpiece. Click here to see a 15th-century example in gilt, here to see an 18th-century example with no centerpiece, and here to see stylized foliate cornerpieces on a 20th-century Doves binding (Princeton University Library). Cornerpieces can also be inlaid or onlaid, as in this 18th-century example (British Library). To see other examples, try a search on the keyword "cornerpiece" in the British Library's Database of Bookbindings.

Also refers to metal corners attached to the binding of a book to protect it from wear. Click here to see a 16th-century blind tooled leather binding with decorative metal cornerpieces and a matching centerpiece and clasps (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, BD7-e.26). Metal cornerpieces are sometimes jeweled, as in this 19th-century example (British Library). In modern usage, a temporary guard made of metal, plastic, or some other hard material, attached to the corners of a book to protect against damage in shipping. Compare with boss and shoe.

Also refers to an ornament or flourish printed or drawn by hand at the corner of a border around a portion of printed or handwritten text.

corpora
Initial capital letters inserted by a rubricator in blank spaces left for that purpose by the copyist in a manuscript or by the printer in an early printed book.

corporate author
A corporate body such as an association, company, government agency, institution, or nonprofit organization in whose name a publication is issued. In libraries, the official name or title of such a body is used as the corporate name in cataloging publications issued in its name (example: American Library Association). Compare with personal author.

corporate body
A commercial enterprise, government agency, intergovernmental body, nonprofit organization, association, institution, or group of individuals identified by a collective name, that has the capacity to act as a single entity, including territorial authorities and groups constituted as meetings, conferences, congresses, expeditions, exhibitions, etc., whether operating or defunct. In libraries, the official name or title of such a body is used as the corporate name in cataloging publications issued in its name. See also: related body and subordinate body.

corporate name
The official name by which a corporate body such as an association, commercial enterprise, government agency, institution, or other organization is identified, used by libraries in cataloging publications issued in its name (example: Special Libraries Association). Form of entry is subject to authority control. Synonymous with collective name. See also: geographic name and personal name.

corporation library
A type of special library established and maintained as a unit within an incorporated company or organization to meet the information needs of its employees and facilitate the achievement of its mission and goals. Some corporation libraries also serve as the repository for the official records of the organization. For internal security reasons, most corporation libraries are closed to the public except by special appointment. Synonymous with company library. Compare with business library.

corrected copy
A manuscript, typescript, or printed copy of a work bearing emendations, usually made by the author, editor, or a reader, often by hand, in the preparation of a new edition or printing. Click here to see corrections in a copy of the first printed edition of Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, made by the author and his associates in mathematics in preparation of the second edition (University of Sydney Library).

correction
A change made in a manuscript or proof, usually to correct an error of spelling, punctuation, or grammar or to insert or delete a word, phrase, sentence, etc. Word processing software makes correction easy. In letterpress printing, type has to be reset. In medieval manuscripts, the scribe, stationer, or reader made corrections by erasing and rewriting, by inserting omissions in margins, by crossing out repetitions, or by adding an unobtrusive row of dots under the word or phrase to be deleted (expunction). Errors were detected by comparing the text against the exemplar or another copy, but in some cases corrections were based on independent judgment. See also: corrected copy.

correctional library
A type of special library maintained inside the walls of a prison or other correctional institution for the use of inmates and staff, usually managed by a prison librarian (see this example in Arizona). The collection usually includes general interest titles for recreational reading, educational and vocational materials, and legal resources (example: Federal Bureau of Prisons Library). Synonymous with prison library.

correspondence
Letters, memoranda, notes, postcards, e-mail, and other written and addressed messages exchanged between two or more people, usually archived with the personal papers of the correspondents. Often used in preparing biographical and historical works, correspondence may be published separately or with other papers. In AACR2, collected correspondence is cataloged under the name that appears first on the title page, with an added entry for each of the other correspondents and for the editor or compiler. See also: letterbook.

corrupted text
A text in which words or passages have been added, deleted, or altered to suggest a meaning other than the one intended by the original author. In medieval manuscripts, this was sometimes the result of accidental copying errors, but in modern texts tampering may be done by an individual or organization for other purposes, such as propaganda or public relations. See also: censorship and expurgated.

cost-effective
A decision or practice that reduces expenditure in relation to the amount of resources invested (time, money, materials, etc.). Monetary savings can be difficult to determine when costs are intangible, intermittent, or incurred over an extended period of time.

cost projection
In acquisitions, a forecast made by a vendor, based on information on current economic trends and from publishers and other sources, concerning the future inflation rate for various categories of materials (books, periodicals, etc.). Libraries use such informed estimates in collection management to allocate budgets, particularly for serials collections.

cost-recovery
A product or service offered at a price that allows the vendor or provider to cover costs incurred without generating a profit, for example, document delivery service in most academic libraries.

costume design drawing
A graphic delineation, usually in color, made for the design of costumes to be worn in theatrical or other performing arts productions or for special events, such as costume balls or parties, or to document such designs (see this example by Leon Bakst for the Ballets Russes). Compare with costume print.

costume print
A print made by any one of a number of processes, in color or black and white, to document or facilitate the study of apparel, for example, the national dress or military uniforms of a particular culture and period (example), often published in series. Compare with costume design drawing.

Cosway binding
A style of fine binding named after the English miniaturist Richard Cosway (1742-1821), who painted on ivory but had nothing to do with bookbinding. Introduced in the early 20th century, the style was probably the innovation of Henry Sotheran, London booksellers, or the firm's manager, J. Harrison Stonehouse. Executed by Robert Rivière in levant morocco, the bindings were finely tooled in gold with watered-silk linings and glazed miniatures painted on ivory (usually oval portraits) inset in the front and back covers. The paintings were usually done by Miss C.B. Currie (see this example). To see other examples, try a search on the keyword "cosway" in the British Library's Database of Bookbindings. Synonymous with Cosway-style binding.

cottage binding
A style of leather binding, popular in England during the 17th and 18th centuries, in which the center panel is surrounded by decoration tooled to resemble the gables of a building, with the design of the binding bearing no relationship to the content of the work. According to The Bookman's Glossary (Bowker, 1983), this ornamental style, developed by Samuel Mearne, binder to King Charles II, was particularly popular on Bibles and prayer books. Click here to see a 17th-century gold-tooled example in black goatskin (Princeton University Library) and here to see the style used on a book of common prayer of the same period (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, Ds-f.3). To see other examples, try a search on the keyword "cottage" in the British Library's Database of Bookbindings. Synonymous with cottage style.

Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA)
A private, nonprofit national organization that coordinates voluntary accreditation activities and recognizes regional, institutional, and professional accrediting agencies, CHEA has a membership of over 3,000 colleges and universities in the United States. Governed by a 17-person board of college and university presidents, institutional representatives, and public members, CHEA recognizes over 60 participating national, regional, and specialized accrediting bodies. The Committee on Accreditation (COA) of the American Library Association (ALA) is recognized by CHEA and is also a member. Click here to connect to the CHEA homepage. See also: Association of Specialized and Professional Accreditors.

Council of Literary Magazines and Presses (CLMP)
Founded in 1967 as the Coordinating Council of Literary Magazines (CCLM), CLMP serves the independent publishers of exceptional fiction, poetry, and prose, who accomplish the backstage work of American literature by discovering new writers, supporting mid-career writers, publishing the creative voices of communities under-represented in mainstream commercial culture, and preserving literature for future readers by keeping books in print. Supported in part by the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), CLMP publishes the newsletter CLMP Newswire. Click here to connect to the CLMP homepage.

Council of State Archivists (CoSA)
Formally established in 1989 as the Council of State Historical Records Coordinators (COSHRC), CoSA is a national organization comprised of the individuals designated by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC) to serve as State Historical Records Coordinators and their deputies. The coordinators chair the State Historical Records Advisory Boards (SHRABs) in each of the 50 states, five territories, and the District of Columbia, which are required for full participation in the NHPRC grant program. Members of the SHRABs represent the full range of repository types and historical records advocates in each state, including state and local governments, colleges and universities (public and private), community-based organizations (historical societies, public libraries, historic sites, museums), genealogists, and professional historians. CoSA holds an annual meeting. Click here to connect to the CoSA homepage.

Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR)
Originally named the Council on Library Resources, CLIR is an independent foundation that supports initiatives in preservation awareness, digital libraries, information economics, resources for scholarship, and international developments in library and information science. CLIR publishes the bimonthly newsletter CLIR Issues. Click here to connect to the CLIR homepage. See also: Access to Learning Award.

counter
A long cabinet top, shelf top, or other horizontal work surface of sufficient height to accommodate a person standing in front of it who wishes to transact business with the person standing or sitting behind it. In most libraries, the circulation desk is a long counter near the entrance to the building. In the children's room of a library, countertops (and furniture) are usually lower than normal to accommodate persons of small stature.

Also, an automatic feature built into the HTML code of a Web page, or into the software running some other type of online resource, that allows the number of visits or uses to be counted for statistical purposes.

In typography, the space enclosed by the strokes of a unit of type, for example, the center of the "p" or the space between the vertical strokes of the "h."

counterfeit
An imitation of something genuine, made with the intention to deceive others about its true origin. The term is used most often in reference to money, stamps, and documents (stock certificates, driver's licenses, passports, etc.), but it can apply to any manufactured item, usually something of value (see this example). Counterfeiters vary considerably in skill. Also refers to the act of making such an imitation. Click here to learn more about counterfeiting, courtesy of Wikipedia. Compare with forgery. See also: fake.

counterfeiting
In the recording industry, the unauthorized manufacture and distribution of copies of a prerecorded product, packaged to look like the officially released original, in violation of U.S. copyright law. Compare with bootlegging.

countermark
A smaller, secondary watermark on antique papers, usually located in the center or lower center of the half-sheet opposite the watermark, indicating the name of the papermaker and sometimes the date and place of hand manufacture (see this example).

counterproof
An impression made by running a newly struck print through a press against second sheet while the ink is still wet, producing an image that is the reverse of the print but in the same direction as the engraved plate, useful to the artist in making corrections. A counterproof can be identified not only by the reversal, but also by its flatter image and weaker impression. Click here to see an example, courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

countersunk
Said of a depression stamped or impressed on the surface of a book cover to display a label, inlay, or decoration.

counting book
A picture book designed to teach preschool children to count (usually from 1 to 10 or 12) by providing illustrations in which the number of objects displayed on each page or double spread corresponds to the numeral printed with them (see this example). Compare with alphabet book. See also: horn book.

Counting Online Usage of Networked Electronic Resources (COUNTER)
An international initiative launched in March 2002 to serve librarians, publishers, and intermediaries by developing more consistent, reliable, and meaningful measures of online resource usage to facilitate the recording and exchange of e-usage statistics. The project initially focused on journals and bibliographic databases but will include other types of networked resources, such as e-books. Librarians can encourage the adoption of this new code of practice by requiring vendors to be COUNTER-compliant in licensing agreements. Click here to learn more about COUNTER.

country code
The top level domain for an Internet site outside the United States, indicated by a two-character alphabetic code at the end of the address, representing the country or external territory in which the network host is located (examples: .au for Australia, .ca for Canada, .uk for Great Britain, .vg for British Virgin Islands). Some Web search engines allow the user to specify country code in a query. Country codes are maintained by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). Click here to view a worldwide list of ISO two-letter country codes.

country of origin
The country in which a book, pamphlet, serial, etc., is published, determined by the geographic location of the editorial office responsible for producing its intellectual content (ALCTS Serials Acquisitions Glossary, Chicago, 1993).

country study
A publication that provides factual information about a specific nation, including its history, geography, demography, society and culture(s), economy, government and politics, etc., with statistical information sometimes given in an appendix. Country studies often include at least one map and may be published in series, for example, the Country Studies/Area Handbook Program sponsored by the U.S. Department of the Army and issued by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Compare with area study.

coupon
A printed slip of paper redeemable for goods or services, usually up to a stated value and expiration date, often contingent on purchase(s) by the coupon holder (click here to see World War II examples, courtesy of the Delaware Public Archives). In libraries, coupons are considered a form of ephemera.

courier
A person or service hired by a library to retrieve materials on request from an off-site storage facility or to transport materials from one library to another within a library system or consortium, as opposed to relying on the postal service or a commercial delivery service.

course catalog
A comprehensive list, usually published annually, of all the courses taught at a school, college, or university during a given academic year, usually arranged by department and course number, with brief descriptions of course content and a list of instructors with their credentials at the end. Institutions offering both undergraduate and graduate programs may publish separate catalogs. Course catalogs for educational institutions in the United States and around the world are available online in the searchable database CollegeSource Online. Synonymous with college catalog.

course-integrated
Bibliographic instruction designed to complement the content of a specific course of study, integral to completing the library research component embedded in the course. Compare with course-related.

coursepack
A collection of readings from a variety of sources, selected by the instructor(s) of an academic course of study to supplement or serve in place of a textbook. The readings are reproduced, usually by a college/university duplicating service or commercial photocopy shop, for sale under a single cover to students enrolled in the course. Kinko's, a leading producer of coursepacks, was sued by eight publishers for violating U.S. copyright law and in the 1991 settlement, the company agreed to pay the plaintiffs $1.875 million and cease producing coursepacks for ten years. In 2003, Kinko's re-entered the coursepack market, promising full compliance with copyright law.

course-related
Bibliographic instruction designed to support the needs and objectives of a specific course of study but not essential to the completeness of the course. Compare with course-integrated.

courseware
A computer application designed to assist teachers and librarians in creating Web-based courses and online tutorials, either in conjunction with a traditional textbook or independently of other instructional materials. Courseware requires little knowledge of HTML and may include presentation management software, the ability to include graphics and audio/video files, online chat and threaded discussions, auto-marked quizzes, course calendaring, and grading (examples: Blackboard and WebCT). Synonymous with authorware.

coursework
The exercises and assignments completed as part of an academic course of study, which are assessed separately from final examinations.

courtesy book
A literary genre popular during the Renaissance, devoted to the detailed description of the code of personal conduct, duties, training, and view of life expected of a gentleman, soldier, and courtier by the society in which he lived (example: Castiglioni's The Courtier).

courtesy line
A brief note beneath a photograph in a printed or online publication giving the name of the photographer or organization that provided the photograph for reproduction.

court hand
The cursive style of writing used by scribes from about A.D. 1100 until the end of the 16th century for making charters, keeping legal records, and writing other official documents, in contrast to the book hand used for copying liturgical, devotional, and literary manuscripts. Marc Drogin notes in Medieval Calligraphy: Its History and Technique (Allanheld & Schram, 1980) that during the early Middle Ages court hands were highly ornate, making them indecipherable to most outsiders, but by the late Middle Ages, they had become models of elegance and clarity. Click here to see an example of 13th-century English court documentary script (Schøyen Collection, MS 610).

court library
A large private library housed in a monumental building, similar to the libraries known to have existed in ancient Rome, financed by a wealthy nobleman, aristocratic family, or high-ranking Church dignitary of the Italian Renaissance whose love of books manifested itself in collecting. An expression of the humanist revival of interest in classical culture, court libraries were open for use by outsiders at the discretion of the owner and, according to Konstantinos Staikos (The Great Libraries: From Antiquity to the Renaissance, Oak Knoll/British Library, 2000), some even functioned as lending libraries for educated readers.

Also, a law library located in a courthouse, maintained for the use of judges, courthouse staff, attorneys and their clients, and members of the public, for example, the library of the South Carolina Supreme Court or that of the U.S. Supreme Court.

court reporter
A set of law books in which the cumulative opinions of the courts of a state or federal government are published in a timely manner and in uniform format to facilitate reference (see this example). In law libraries, court reporters are cataloged as continuing resources.

courtroom sketch
A graphic representation made by hand of proceedings in a court of law to illustrate a newspaper article, television newscast, or other trial account, especially of the parties involved in a criminal case when the courtroom has been closed to photography. To see examples, try a keywords search on the term in Google Images.

cover
The outer protective material attached to the sewn, stitched, or adhered leaves of a manuscript or printed publication, consisting in books of two panels (front and back), each attached along a flexible joint to an inlay over the spine. Books covered in cloth, paper, leather, or vellum over stiff boards are bound in hardcover (see the process illustrated). Covers can also be limp or semi-limp. In full binding, the material used to cover the boards is all of a kind (see also half-binding, quarter binding, and three-quarter binding). The cover of a machine-bound book is called a case. Books bound in flexible paper covers are called paperbacks. Periodicals are almost always issued in softcover. See also: all over, cover art, and covers bound in.

coverage
The extent of a library collection (or section of a collection), or of a catalog, index, abstracting service, database, bibliography, or other finding tool, usually indicated by the number and types of publications indexed and a publication date range. The range of subjects or fields indexed determines the scope of such a resource.

Also refers to the amount of attention (time, space, number of commentators, etc.) given a specific topic in the media.

coverage date
The period of time of the content of an item or group of materials, independent of the date of creation of the material. Coverage is often expressed as a date range, for example, 1914-1918 for a book about World War I written in 1995 and published in 1996.

cover art
The illustration or photograph printed on the outside of a publication, such as a book, magazine, comic book, DVD, VHS tape, video game, CD, or record album. In hardcover books, cover art is usually printed on the dust jacket. Cover art is an important design element of publications for children (example). Its primary purpose is to promote product sales, but it can have also have an aesthetic function, which may be connected artistically to the product, either thematically (example) or by virtue of having been created by the author(s) or subject(s) of the text (example). Cover art may be republished separately, usually in the form of prints or posters (example). Originals may be of considerable value, depending on the artist. Synonymous with covers.

Coverdale Bible
The first complete English language Bible, translated from German and Latin by Miles Coverdale (1488-1568), a former Augustinian friar, and first printed in 1535, probably at Cologne. Reviewed for heresy by the Church of England, it was subsequently approved by Henry VIII for public use in England. Coverdale went on to produce a revision of Matthew's Bible (1537) under the patronage of Thomas Cromwell, which became known as the Great Bible because of its large size--a pulpit folio more than 14 inches in height. After the addition of a prologue by Thomas Cranmer in the 1540 edition, it was sometimes called "Cranmer's Version." Click here to see a page from the 1535 edition (Southern Methodist University) and here to see a page from an edition printed in Zurich in 1550 (University of Sydney Library).

cover letter
A letter of introduction, usually no longer than one page, sent with a resume or curriculum vitae when applying for employment. A good cover letter usually indicates that the applicant meets all the qualifications listed in the job posting, and expresses an interest in being considered for the position. In a more general sense, a brief letter of explanation sent with a document.

cover paper
Heavier grades of paper used for the outer cover of pamphlets, trade catalogs, and paperback books. Also, any paper used to cover the outer surface of the boards of a book bound in hardcover. Available in a wide range of colors, cover papers often have a finish designed for durability or to enhance marketability. Synonymous with cover stock.

cover price
The retail price of a book as suggested by the publisher, usually printed on the dust jacket in hardcover editions or on the back cover in paperback editions. In most cases, cover price is the same as list price.

covers bound in
A term used in the book trade to describe a volume in which the original covers are enclosed in a later binding. This usually occurs in rebinding when the bindery decides to retain the original covers as endpapers or flyleaves.

cover story
The article in a magazine or trade journal that corresponds to the headline and illustration on the cover, usually longer and more extensively illustrated than other feature articles in the same issue. Some periodical indexes and bibliographic databases indicate whether an article is a cover story.

cover title
The title printed or impressed on the cover of a publication as issued by the publisher, which may be a shortened form of the title proper. Compare with binder's title. See also: side title.

cracked
The condition of a book that has developed one or more long, narrow breaks in the cover or down the length of the spine (this example courtesy of My Wing Books). The usual method of rehabilitation is rebinding. See also: cold-crack.

cracker
A slang term for a person who tries to gain access to a supposedly secure computer system without proper authorization, usually with malicious or criminal intent. Compare with hacker. See also: security.

craft book
A book which has, as its subject, work traditionally done by hand, such as knitting, sewing, flower arranging, stenciling, or model-making. Some publishers specialize in craft books, for example, Taunton Press.

crash
In bookbinding, a narrow strip of thin, loosely woven, starched muslin attached with adhesive to the back of a book after the sections have been sewn to help hold them together (see this diagram of its placement). In some editions, a strip of kraft paper is applied to the layer of fabric as a liner for added strength. Synonymous with gauze, mull, and super (in the United States).

In computing, a slang term for the unanticipated breakdown of a system, usually caused by hardware failure, a serious software defect, or a network error. See also: dump.

crawl
The credits appearing on the screen at the conclusion of a film or television program, acknowledging by name the individuals responsible for the various aspects of its creation. Synonymous in this sense with closing credits. Also, any text given at the beginning of a film or television program, usually to establish the backstory and context of the following action. Synonymous in this sense with roll-up. See also: trailer.

crawler
A robot software program that searches "intelligently" for information on the World Wide Web, for example, one that looks for new documents and Web sites by following hypertext links from one server to another, indexing the files it finds according to pre-established criteria. The crawlers used to fetch URLs listed as entries by Web search engines are designed to adhere to standard rules of politeness by asking each server which files may not be indexed, observing firewalls, and allowing an interval of time to pass between requests to avoid tying up the server. Synonymous with harvester, spider, and webcrawler. See also: harvesting.

crayon enlargement
A type of portrait that was popular from the 1860s to the 1920s, usually oval in shape and often life-size, in which a faint photographic enlargement made on matte-surfaced developing-out paper was used as an underlying sketch by a skilled artist who finished the work in charcoal or pastels. Crayon enlargements were a compromise between the cost of a painted portrait and a studio photograph. Synonymous with crayon portrait.

crazing
A network of fine fracture lines in the emulsion layer of film, caused by shrinkage of the acetate base. In a more general sense, a pattern of fine, irregular cracks in the surface of any hard or dry material (paint, varnish, albumen, ceramic glaze, etc.), sometimes used for aesthetic effect.

crease
A visible deformation in a flexible surface, such as a book cover, made (accidentally or intentionally) by a sharp fold. See also: crescent.

creasing
In binding, the process of impressing a dull rule or disk on a sheet or leaf of paper to create an indentation along the line where a fold is to be made. By compressing the fibers, creasing produces a cleaner fold and increases the number of times the sheet can flex before it detaches at the fold. Compare with scoring.

creative control
In artistic endeavor, especially media production (film, television, sound recording, etc.), the authority to determine the appearance and/or sound of the final product. In motion pictures, the term generally refers to the authority to make the final cut, usually reserved for the director or producer (studio). Disputes over creative control sometimes lead to an Alan Smithee credit. Synonymous with artistic control.

creator
In archives, the individual or agency responsible for creating, receiving, accumulating, or otherwise producing records or documents for which some form of disposition must be made once their archival value has been appraised. Also refers to the person responsible for producing an original work of visual art.

credential
A letter, certificate, degree, or other document certifying that a person, organization, or institution is qualified to fill a specific position, offer a service, or exercise authority in a given field. For librarians in the United States, the most desirable credential is the M.L.S. or M.L.I.S. degree from an ALA-accredited program. The term is usually used in the plural: credentials.

credenza
Originally, a sideboard from which a lord's food was tested for poison ("credence"). In libraries, a furnishing that doubles as a bookshelf and study table, having two or three tiers of shelves under a flat surface low enough to accommodate a person standing or seated on a high stool or chair.

credibility
The state or quality of being worthy of trust or belief. The reliability of information content usually depends on the motives and credentials of the author or provider. In 2001, Consumers Union launched a three-year Web Credibility Program with $4.8 million in grant support from the Pew Charitable Trusts, the Knight Foundation, and the Open Society Institute. Its goals are to investigate the business practices of Web sites and report findings to the public, develop disclosure standards for the Internet, and make the public more aware of disclosure issues. Academic librarians have responded to lack of disclosure in the online environment by emphasizing critical thinking skills and verification techniques in information literacy instruction. The Persuasive Technology Lab at Stanford University maintains Stanford Web Credibility Research, a site devoted to understanding what leads people to accept information they find on the Web.

credit
An amount printed on a vendor's monthly statement, or on a separate credit memo, usually following a minus sign, indicating that it has been deducted from the total amount owed, for items returned or prepaid but not shipped.

credit line
A brief statement giving the name of the author, artist, agency, or publication that is the source of a picture, photograph, or quotation reproduced in an article or book, or on a Web page, usually displayed immediately below the illustration or portion of text or given at the end of the caption. Credit lines are sometimes printed together in a separate section in the front matter or back matter of a book or in a paragraph on another page in a periodical.

credit memo
A written or printed statement sent by a publisher or vendor to confirm an amount credited to the library's account. A credit is often taken by submitting a copy of the credit memo with an invoice and deducting the amount of the credit from the total amount due.

credits
Any textual statement at the beginning or end of a motion picture, videorecording, or television program identifying by name the director, producer, screenwriter, performers, narrator, and other persons responsible for creating the work, often with graphic and musical accompaniment. In filmmaking, artistic attention is devoted to the style in which credits are presented, to set the tone for what is to follow or to add a final touch. Opening credits are usually less detailed than closing credits. See also: Alan Smithee credit.

crescent
A small crease, semicircular in shape, formed around a point of stress in a planar surface, such as a photograph or book cover, often noted in statements describing condition of item.

cries
A work containing illustrations of peddlers hawking their wares in the streets, accompanied by texts of the short lyrical calls they typically used to advertise their presence (see this woodcut example).

crime
Because many libraries in the United States and other countries are open to the public, they are not immune to the disruption caused by unlawful behavior, including theft of materials and equipment, verbal abuse and assault upon patrons and staff, indecent exposure, drug use and sale by patrons and staff, mutilation of materials, vandalism of equipment and facilities, arson, and more recently, computer crimes. Statistics indicate that crime is increasing in libraries, placing an additional burden on library budgets to provide adequate security. See also: cybercrime and problem patron.

crime fiction
A popular novel, short story, or drama about a criminal act that has been committed or is about to be committed, usually homicide but abduction, theft, assault, and confidence games are also common themes. The category includes murder mysteries, detective fiction, courtroom dramas, legal thrillers, and crime capers. Although "crime" is widely used in publishing and reviewing for thrillers in general, Diana Tixier Herald recommends limiting the scope of the term to fictional works in which the perpetration of a crime is the primary focus (Genreflecting: A Guide to Reading Interests in Genre Fiction, Libraries Unlimited, 2000). The criminal can be a professional or amateur, psychopathic or an ordinary person compelled by circumstance. Click here to learn more about crime fiction, courtesy of Wikipedia. See also Classic Crime Fiction and the Crime Writer's Association. Compare with true crime story. See also: noir fiction and urban fiction.

crime film
A feature film or television program in the form of a fictional narrative of descent into the world of criminal activity (example: The Untouchables based on the autobiography of American Prohibition agent Eliot Ness). The plot generally turns on how the criminal(s) are detected and eventually apprehended. Crime films can be comic (example: Kind Hearts and Coronets [1949] with Alec Guinness). See also: caper and gangster film.

criminal biography
A nonfiction genre in which the story of the life of a convicted criminal is recounted by another person (example: The Napoleon of Crime: The Life and Times of Adam Worth, Master Thief by Ben Macintyre). In exceptional cases, the work is written by its subject (click here to page through the autobiography of William Owen, an 18th-century smuggler, courtesy of the National Library of Wales).

critic
A person who specializes in the reasoned analysis, evaluation, and appreciation of literary or artistic works, especially one who publishes his or her views professionally in reviews or books. Critics who bring talented new writers and artists to public attention perform a valuable service to society.

critical abstract
An abstract that includes a brief evaluation of the significance of the work abstracted and/or the style of its presentation, usually written by a subject specialist. An example can be seen in the Appendix to ANSI/NISO Z39.14 Guidelines for Abstracts. Compare with indicative abstract and informative abstract.

critical annotation
In a bibliography or list of references, an annotation that includes a brief evaluation of the source cited, as opposed to one in which the content of the work is described, explained, or summarized.

critical apparatus
In textual criticism, information provided in the form of notes and marginalia indicating variations in source materials that constitute the basis of a critical edition of a text that exists in more than one version, especially when the original (if one ever existed) has been lost. Because the critical apparatus shows how and why the edition was produced in a certain form, it is essential for evaluating alternative readings of the text (click here and here to see examples).

critical edition
An edition of a work based on scholarly research and close examination of earlier manuscripts, texts, documents, letters, etc., that sometimes includes analysis and commentary by one or more qualified scholars who have studied and interpreted its meaning and significance (see this example). See also: critical apparatus.

critical thinking
In research and scholarship, the skill required to develop effective and efficient search strategies, assess the relevance and accuracy of information retrieved, evaluate the authority of the person(s) or organization producing information content, and analyze the assumptions, evidence, and logical arguments presented in relevant sources. Critical thinking is essential in evaluating information available online because the process of peer review that exists in print publishing has yet to be established in electronic publishing. For this reason, instruction librarians are focusing more attention on teaching critical thinking skills than in the past.

criticism
From the Greek word kritikos, meaning "judge." The thoughtful analysis, interpretation, and evaluation of an artistic or literary work in which the primary considerations are its essential nature ("message"), the intentions of the artist or author, the effect of the work on its audience, its relationship to works of similar style or content, its influence on subsequent works, and its implications for critical theory. Literary criticism is considered to have originated with the ancient Greeks (Aristotle's Poetics). Modern criticism is classified by school or type, depending on the approach taken by the critic.

In the performing arts, initial critical response may determine the success or demise of a production, although a work that fails on first exposure may receive wider acclaim if revived. In publishing, works rejected by critics and readers when first published sometimes become classics with the passage of time. Unlike reviews, which appear during the months immediately following first publication, serious criticism of an enduring literary work may continue indefinitely. Compare with explication.

critique
A critical examination of a topic, idea, thing, or situation by a person intent on determining its essential nature, its strengths and/or limitations, and the degree to which it conforms to accepted standards or prevailing beliefs or assumptions. Sometimes used synonymously with review.

cropped
A photograph or illustration from which a portion of the top, bottom, or sides has been eliminated in the process of reproduction to omit unnecessary detail or make its proportions fit the space available in the layout of a printed page. Also refers to a book with margins trimmed to such an extent that the text and/or illustration is cut into, causing it to bleed. Click here to view a page from the Murthly Hours, a medieval illuminated manuscript from which some of the marginal decoration has been cropped, probably in rebinding (National Library of Scotland). Compare with shaved.

cross aisle
A corridor or passageway that intersects at a 90-degree angle the ranges and range aisles in the stack area of a library, allowing staff and patrons to move from one range to another without walking to the end of the range.

cross-check
To verify the results of an investigation by using an alternative source or method. In library research, facts are usually confirmed or disconfirmed by consulting a second (independent) source. When conflicting evidence or opinion is found, a third or fourth source may be required to resolve the discrepancy.

cross classification
In Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), the assignment of two different class numbers to works on the same subject, an accident most likely to happen when the works deal with two or more characteristics (facets) of the subject in the same class. Notes on preference order are intended to prevent this type of classification error.

cross-classification
The inclusion of a subclass under more than one class in a hierarchical classification system, for example, the subject heading "Library bonds" under the broader terms "Library finance" and "Municipal bonds" in the list of Library of Congress Subject Headings.

cross-grain
A book or other bound publication in which the grain of the paper runs perpendicular to the spine, instead of parallel to it, reducing its openability and making the leaves more difficult to turn.

cross-index
A book index that covers the contents of more than one bibliographic item, such as a group of related reference works. The author and title indexes to the various parts of the Gale Literary Criticism Series are an example.

crossover fiction
A novel, short story, or other fictional work intended by the author to appeal to a diverse, cross-generational audience (children, adolescents, and adults). The category also includes works originally written for children and/or young adults, which eventually become popular with older readers. The fantasy genre includes many examples: Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, J.R.R. Tolkien's Lord of the Rings, and J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter series.

Also, a work in which characters from two discrete fictional contexts are brought together, for example, Shadows Over Baker Street: New Tales of Terror!, an anthology of stories, each by a different author, depicting exploits of Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes set against the backdrop of H. P. Lovecraft's Cthulhu Mythos. When published without the permission of the original creator(s), such works may give rise to legal disputes over copyright infringement.

crossover recording
A music recording intended for a specific market segment, which achieves success (often unexpectedly) in one or more additional markets, as reflected by its appearance on two or more record charts, tracking the popularity of different musical genres.

cross-platform
Application programs, data, computer languages, and other software that can be used over more than one computer hardware and/or software platform, facilitated by the adoption of open standards. A prime example is the Web browser, written for many desktop computer platforms.

cross-reference
A reference from a heading to one or more other headings in the same catalog, index, or reference work. The most common are see references, instructing the user to look elsewhere for the preferred form of the heading, and see also references, directing the user to related headings under which additional information may be found. A work containing cross-references is said to have syndetic structure. Abbreviated x-ref. See also: blind reference, explanatory reference, and omnibus reference.

Examples:
Librarianship
See Library science

Library catalogs
See also Cataloging

Also, a footnote in a document, informing the reader that other relevant information can be found in another part of the document.

cross section
In cartography, a diagram of the intersection of a vertical plane with the surface of the earth, showing the predicted geological strata, fault lines, etc., in a generalized rather than detailed representation, with explanatory data often given in the legends. Click here to see Minnesota geology in cross section (courtesy of Mark Jirsa). A schematic cross section is highly generalized, as in this diagram of the Crater Lake caldera in Oregon (U.S. Geological Survey). Cross sections are sometimes displayed in a block diagram. Also spelled cross-section. Compare with profile. See also: fence diagram and geologic column.

crosstalk
Unwanted signals picked up unintentionally by an electronic communication channel from another channel as a result of electromagnetic interference, for example, chatter from telephone to loudspeakers.

crosswalk
In the management of metadata, a human-generated chart or diagram indicating equivalencies and relationships between the data elements of two or more metadata standards, for example, between FGDC content standards for digital geospatial metadata and USMARC. Crosswalks enable search engines to operate across databases that use dissimilar record formats. Click here to see a set of examples, courtesy of the Alexandria Digital Library Project at the University of California, Santa Barbara. See also: interoperability.

crossword puzzle dictionary
A list of synonyms, arranged alphabetically by cluewords and phrases commonly used in crossword puzzles. Some crossword dictionaries are more sophisticated than others (see The Master Crossword Puzzle Dictionary by Herbert M. Baus). In solving crossword puzzles, peeking at the printed solution is regarded as cheating, but consulting a crossword puzzle dictionary or other reference work is considered research. Click here to search The Online Crossword Dictionary. To learn more about crossword puzzles, try Wikipedia. Compare with thesaurus.

crown
The head of the spine on the binding of a book (click here to see an illustration, courtesy of Abebooks).

cruciform
A medieval manuscript or printed book in which the text and/or decoration is arranged in the shape of a cross. Click here to page through a 12th-century Byzantine cruciform lectionary, courtesy of the Morgan Library (MS M.692).

cryptanalysis
The process of decoding encrypted text (ciphertext) into its original form (plaintext) without access to the secret rules or "key" normally required to accomplish the task. Click here to learn more about the process, courtesy of Wikipedia. Synonymous in non-technical language with codebreaking.

cryptography
Writing in cipher, usually for the purpose of concealment. Also refers to the study and decoding of such writing. In computing, the conversion of data into a code that can be deciphered only by those who have the key, usually to ensure confidentiality in transmission over a publicly accessible network. Click here to learn more about cryptography, courtesy of Wikipedia. See also: encryption.

cryptonym
A secret name, for example, a name written in code or cipher or in the form of an anagram. See also: cryptography.

crystoleum photograph
A color image made prior to the development of color photography by pasting a black and white photographic print (usually albumen) face down to the inner curve of a concave piece of glass. The paper backing on the photograph was carefully sanded away, leaving only the emulsion layer, rendered transparent by rubbing with oil or wax. The details of the photograph were then hand-colored using a fine brush and a second piece of curved glass placed behind the first, with spacers inserted to keep it from touching the colored photograph. The two pieces of glass were bound at the edges and broader areas of color applied to the back of the second piece of glass to achieve the desired artistic effect. When finished, the image was backed with a piece of white card and mounted in a frame (see this example). Also called a chromo-photograph.

CTEA
Copyright Term Extension Act. See: copyright.

c-type print
A color photographic print made on a substrate coated with at least three emulsion layers of light-sensitive silver salts, each sensitized to a different primary color (red, blue, or green) and therefore capable of recording different information about the colors in the image. In printing, chemical additives produce dyes of the appropriate color in each of the emulsion layers and the combination of layers creates a range of hues. Since the introduction of Kodachrome film in 1935, the c-type print has been the most common form of color photograph. Click here to see examples, courtesy of the Victoria & Albert Museum, London. See also: autochrome.

cubic foot
A unit of volume measuring 12 inches in height, width, and depth (12 x 12 x 12), commonly used in records management to indicate quantity of materials and in archives to describe extent of item, especially in the case of large collections (see this example). According to Richard Pearce-Moses in A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology, a linear foot of standard file folders measuring approximately 10 x 12 inches is roughly a cubic foot, and a records center storage box measuring approximately 10 x 12 x 16 inches is generally counted as a cubic foot, although slightly larger in size. Processing time is sometimes measured in hours per cubic foot of records. Canadian archivists and records managers use the cubic meter. Compare with linear foot.

cubook
A unit of volume used to measure library stack capacity, equal to one-hundredth of a standard section of shelving (3 feet wide by 7.5 feet high), the amount of space needed to shelve a book of average height and depth (thickness), assuming 10 percent of the length of each shelf remains unoccupied.

cue sheet
A list of all the music used in the sound track of a motion picture or television program, by title, composer, and publisher, prepared by the producer or music supervisor. For each piece, the list also includes timing and type of use (background, feature, theme, etc.). Cue sheets are used by artists to document use of their work, for purpose of obtaining payment (see this example).

cuir bouilli
A French term meaning "boiled skin." An early form of bookbinding in which the leather used for the cover was soaked in scalding water, then hammered or molded on a die to create a design in relief, usually incorporating motifs popular in the medieval book arts (vines, leaves, flowers, birds, mythical beasts, etc.). When the skin dried, it became so hard that boards were unnecessary. Cuir bouilli was also used in medieval Europe to make armor and other items for which durability was important.

cuir ciselé
A style of leather binding in which the cover is decorated by using a punch to depress the area around the outline of a design scored in the dampened surface, throwing it into relief against a textured background. When hammered from the reverse side, the design appears embossed. Geoffrey Glaister notes in Encyclopedia of the Book (Oak Knoll/British Library, 1996) that the technique was used during the 15th century in Germany, Austria, and Spain. Click here to view a modern example in pale brown calf (Koninklijke Bibliotheek). Synonymous with cut leather and Lederschnitt.

cult classic
An old motion picture or television series, often in a particular genre (science fiction, horror, espionage, western, etc.), so adored by a devoted segment of the public viewing audience that a lively interest is maintained in e-mail discussion groups, Web sites, zines, poster sales, etc. (examples: in science fiction A Clockwork Orange by Stanley Kubrick, Dr. Who, and Star Trek).

cultural heritage
The physical artifacts and intangible attributes maintained and transmitted by a specific human society throughout its history, including its art, architecture, landscapes, language, literature, folklore, music, and knowledge. The responsibility of preservation is on the current generation.

cultural object
An artistic or architectural work, or other artifact of cultural significance. The category includes both physical objects and performance art. The Visual Resources Association (VRA) Foundation sponsors Cataloging Cultural Objects (CCO), a data content standards initiative for the cultural heritage community. The primary focus of CCO includes but is not limited to paintings, sculpture, prints, manuscripts, photographs, built works, installations, and other visual media. CCO also covers many other types of cultural works, including archaeological sites and functional objects from the realm of material culture.

cultural property
The 1970 UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property defines cultural property as that which, on religious or secular grounds, is specifically designated by a national government as being of importance for archaeology, prehistory, history, literature, art, or science, including rare specimens and collections of minerals, flora, and fauna; objects of paleontological interest; products of archaeological discoveries and excavations (regular and clandestine); antiquities (inscriptions, coins, engraved seals, etc.); objects of ethnological interest; property of artistic interest, including rare manuscripts and incunabula, old books, and documents and publications of special interest (singly or in collections); archives in any medium (print, sound, photographic, or motion picture); articles of antique furniture; and old musical instruments. In the United States, the State Department is responsible for implementing the Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act, the enabling legislation for the UNESCO Convention approved by Congress in 1983. Under its provisions, the U.S. Department of State accepts requests from governments to place import restrictions on archaeological or ethnological artifacts, when national cultural heritage is jeopardized by theft, pillage, or illicit transfer of ownership. For more information see Legal Protection of Cultural Property: A Selective Resource Guide by Louise Tsang (LLRX.com). See also: cultural property rights.

cultural property rights
The concept that a society, especially that of an indigenous people, has the authority to control the preservation and use of its traditional heritage. According to Richard Pearce-Moses in A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology, cultural property rights are analogous to copyright, except that the rights are held by a community, rather than an individual, and the property protected was received by transmission through generations, rather than consciously created at a specific time. In the United States, cultural property rights have not been generally recognized or codified by statute, although the Native American Graves Preservation and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) can be regarded as a step in that direction. Other countries with active indigenous peoples, notably Australia and New Zealand, have begun the process of codifying cultural property rights. The context of the debate over cultural property rights is expressed in The Coolangatta Statement issued by the World Indigenous Peoples� Conference on Education at Hilo, Hawaii in August 1999. The implications for museums and libraries holding cultural artifacts are not yet clear.

culture
Geographic features represented on a map or chart that are man-made, rather than naturally occurring, whether located on the surface (roads, trails, buildings, airstrips, etc.), below the surface (subway lines, sewer systems, undersea cables, etc.), or above the surface (flight paths, electrical power lines, etc.). The term is also used in a broader sense for all names, other identification, and legends appearing on a map or chart (Glossary of Cartographic Terms, Perry-Castañeda Library). Synonymous with cultural feature.

cumdach
An Irish word for a rectangular box made of bronze, brass, or wood, elaborately ornamented in gold, silver, and jewels, used in 9th-century Ireland and Northumbria to store and protect precious manuscript books, especially lavishly decorated liturgical works, such as the Book of Kells and Lindisfarne Gospels (see this example). Synonymous with book shrine.

cum privilegio
A Latin phrase meaning "with permission," printed in old books to inform readers that the work was published with the approval of existing secular or ecclesiastical authorities. The Roman Catholic Church still requires "imprimatur" and "nihil obstat" in books representing its official teachings. Synonymous with cum licentia.

cumulate
To augment incrementally by the successive addition of new materials, records, or entries to an existing collection, catalog, index, or list, sometimes at regularly scheduled intervals.

cumulative index
An index designed to save the user's time by combining in a single sequence the entries listed in two or more previously published indexes, providing integrated access to a larger body of material, for example, the 10-year indexes to Current Biography Yearbook. Most printed periodical indexes are issued in monthly or quarterly paperback supplements, cumulated at the end of the publication year in one or more annual volumes. In a more general sense, any index that combines in a single sequence entries for previously published volumes of a book or periodical.

cuneiform
From the Latin cuneus ("wedge") and forma ("shape" or "form"), referring to the pictographic characters used in ancient Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, and Sumerian inscriptions from about 4,000 to 100 B.C., each of which consisted of an arrangement of wedge-shaped marks incised in a wet clay tablet using a sharp, pointed implement called a stylus. To see examples, try a keywords search on the term in Google Images. If a text was long enough to be continued on more than one tablet, each tablet was numbered and incised with a catchword at its foot to link it to the next. The last tablet usually ended with a colophon. Click here to learn more about cuneiform, courtesy of the University of Minnesota Libraries. Duncan J. Melville provides a Web page on Cuneiform Numbers. The Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (CDLI) is a joint project of the University of California at Los Angeles and the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science.

cupping
The damaged condition of motion picture film that can no longer lie flat laterally, caused by different rates of shrinkage across its surface (see this example). Film buckles when the edges are shorter than the center. The opposite condition, called edgewave or fluting, occurs when the edges are longer than the center. Compare with curl.

curator
A person responsible for the development, care, organization, and supervision of a museum, gallery, or other exhibit space and all the objects stored or displayed in it, a role requiring considerable knowledge and experience when items are selected on the basis of artistic merit or connoisseurship. Also, a person in charge of a special collection, trained to assist users in locating and interpreting its holdings.

curiosa
Books or pamphlets that are highly unusual in subject or treatment, usually somewhat indecent by conventional standards. See also: erotica and pornography.

curl
The condition of motion picture film that does not lie flat along its linear dimension, caused by either low humidity (bending toward the emulsion side) or very high humidity (bending toward the base side). According to The Film Preservation Guide (National Film Preservation Foundation, 2004), curl will usually flatten out if film is allowed to acclimatize at 40-60% relative humidity before handling. Compare with cupping.

currency
The quality of being in progress, recent, or up-to-date. In information retrieval, the extent to which the content of a document or source reflects the existing state of knowledge about the subject. In research, the importance of currency varies, depending on the discipline. Medical and scientific information can become outdated in less than five years, but in the arts and humanities, materials decades old may be just as useful as recent information.

Because newspapers and periodicals are issued at regular intervals, they provide more current information than books, which must be updated in supplements and revised editions. Some online catalogs and bibliographic databases allow the user to limit search results by publication date to retrieve only recently published materials. The opposite of noncurrent and outdated. See also: current awareness service, current bibliography, current contents, and current issue.

In archives, newly acquired records usually remain current for a designated period of time, after which their status is changed to semicurrent, and they are moved to a temporary holding area to await final disposition.

current awareness service
A service or publication designed to alert scholars, researchers, readers, customers, or employees to recently published literature in their field(s) of specialization, usually available in special libraries serving companies, organizations, and institutions in which access to current information is essential. Such services can be tailored to fit the interest profile of a specific individual or group. Some online catalogs and bibliographic databases include a "preferred searches" option that allows the library user to archive search statements and re-execute them as needed. Synonymous with selective dissemination of information. See also: current contents.

current bibliography
A bibliography that includes only references to recently published sources on a subject or in a specific field or discipline (example: Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature published by the Historical Association, London). The opposite of retrospective bibliography.

current contents
A periodical that reproduces the tables of contents of the leading scholarly journals in an academic discipline or field to assist researchers in keeping abreast of the most recently published literature in their areas of interest or specialization, usually published weekly or monthly. Because currency is the raison d'être of this type of publication, libraries may limit back files to the most recent three to five years. See also: current awareness service.

current issue
The latest number of a serial publication, bearing the most recent issue date. In some libraries, current issues are displayed with the front cover facing forward on sloping shelves or on a periodical stand to facilitate browsing. Back files are typically stored in a different location, sometimes on microfilm or microfiche to conserve space. Synonymous with current number. Compare with back issue. See also: first issue.

curriculum
All the required and elective subjects/courses taught at a school or institution of higher learning, usually listed by department and course number in an annual course catalog. Courses required of all students for graduation constitute the core curriculum.

curriculum guide
A written plan covering one or more facets of curriculum and instruction (goals and objectives, teaching strategies, learning activities, specific resources, evaluation and assessment techniques) for use within an instructional unit as small as a classroom or as large as a school district or state. Curriculum guides are indexed and abstracted as documents in the ERIC database.

curriculum mapping
Comparing the quality and quantity of materials in a school library's collection with the content of the school's curriculum at all grade levels to reveal strengths and weaknesses, facilitate collection development, and identify areas that need weeding.

curriculum room
A room or designated area within an academic library containing curriculum-related materials such as kits, textbooks, workbooks, educational software, and juvenile fiction and nonfiction for the use of students enrolled in teacher education courses (see this example). The Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) has published Guidelines for Curriculum Materials Centers (January 2003). Synonymous with curriculum lab.

curriculum vitae (c.v.)
A brief summary of a person's professional career, including basic biographical information, degrees and postgraduate education, honors and awards, employment history, publications and presentations, memberships, service, etc., for use in employment (hiring, tenure, promotion, etc.). Compare with resume.

cursive
A right-sloping style of handwriting, also known as running script, in which the letters within words are connected, having been written continuously without lifting pen or pencil from paper (or other writing surface), used in humanist manuscripts and papal documents of the Renaissance and for writing letters and other informal documents. Cursive hands are functional rather than calligraphic, the form of each letter of less importance than the speed with which it can be written. Click here to see a 14th-century sermon written in a German cursive gothic book hand (Schøyen Collection, MS 723). In printing and word processing, a cursive typeface or font is designed to imitate handwriting done with a pen or brush. See also: court hand.

cursor
A small illuminated point, vertical bar, underline, or other symbol on a computer screen that can be positioned by the user via a keyboard, mouse, or other control device to indicate where a new character will appear when typed as input or where a new operation is to occur when initiated by the user. In Windows and other graphical user interfaces, the cursor may change shape when moved from one window or dialog box to another, turning into an I-beam for text editing, an arrow or finger for selecting an option from a menu or toolbar, an hourglass while an operation is in progress, or a small pen in graphics programs. In many applications, the symbol blinks steadily to make it easier to locate on the screen. Synonymous with pointer. See also: prompt.

custodian
The person responsible for the care and protection of something of value. Over the past 100 years, the model of librarianship has evolved from custodianship of materials in physical form to one in which the librarian is seen as a mediator of access to information in a wide range of formats, including electronic resources. However, custodianship remains a high priority in archival and special collections.

custody
In archives, the official guardianship of books, manuscripts, papers, records, and other documents, especially with regard to their security and preservation, based on physical possession, with or without legal title or the right to control access or disposition. The person responsible for such care and control is their custodian. The chain of custody is the succession of individuals (or offices) who have held materials from the moment of their creation. According to Richard Pearce-Moses in A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology, the ability to demonstrate an unbroken chain of custody is an important test of the authenticity of records and legal evidence.

custom binding
A book bound to the specifications of its owner or a dealer or in accordance with special instructions from the publisher, rather than the general instructions for the edition. Some binderies specialize in custom binding (see this example).

customer must order direct (CMOD)
A publication that must be ordered directly from the publisher because it is not supplied by jobbers or retailers, for example, some small press publications, sheet music, legal materials, etc.

customized interface
A computer system that has been specially adapted to meet the needs of a particular user or group of users.

cut
An illustration printed (captioned or uncaptioned) with the text, as opposed to a plate printed on a separate leaf, usually of different quality paper, added to the publication in binding. The term is also used in reference to the woodcut illustrations in chapbooks and 19th-century publications for children.

cut-and-paste
A feature built into most graphical user interfaces allowing the user to move an element displayed on the computer screen, such as a portion of text or graphic, from one location to another within the same document, from one document to another, or from one application to another, usually by highlighting the element to be moved, selecting the option "Cut" under "Edit" in the toolbar, and then "Paste" after positioning the cursor at the point to which the element is to be moved. The element cut is transferred to a temporary storage area called a clipboard until the next cut-and-paste operation is initiated. Most software includes an "Undo" option that allows the user to reverse the operation if a mistake is made. Compare with copy.

cutaway
An illustration of a mechanical device, physical structure, or other enclosed system in which the outer covering or wall is shown removed (like the back of a doll's house) to reveal inner details. Click here to see a cutaway diagram showing the interior of the Sun. Also spelled cut-away.

cut edges
The outer edges of the sections of a book, trimmed smooth in binding using a tool called a guillotine or its predecessor, the plough (see this example). Compare with deckle edges and uncut.

cut flush
Said of a book cover that has edges perfectly even with the edges of the leaves, the result of having been cut after attachment to the sections in binding. Most paperback books are cut flush (see this example). Synonymous with flush boards and trimmed flush. Compare with squares.

cut-in note
A side note printed wholly or partially inside the edge of a paragraph of text, instead of in the margin, usually in a typeface heavier and smaller in size than the text type. Synonymous with cut-in side note, in-cut note, and let-in note.

cutoff
In records management, a point at which a record series can be broken into a regular segment to permit its disposal or transfer as a complete block, often based on a recurring date, such as the end of a month or fiscal or calendar year, or on a decisive event, such as the close of a court case. Using a cutoff date, rather than the date of creation or receipt, to determine the disposition of records within a series enables the archivist to deal with a group of records created or received over a period of time in a single action. Also, to create such a segment for disposal purposes. Abbreviated COFF. Synonymous with file cutoff and file break.

cutout
An illustration from which the background has been removed, creating a silhouette (see this example). Also, an illustration made from pieces of paper or felt cut from one or more sheets or squares and assembled to form an image or design, usually against a background of contrasting color (example). Also spelled cut-out.

Also, a shape, form, or figure cut from, or intended to be cut from, a larger piece of material, such as paper, cardboard, cloth, or wood, often used as decoration, exhibit material, or in displays, miniatures, or scale models.

cutout book
A children's book or booklet from which at least some of the illustrations can be cut out or detached to make figures or models (see this example). Libraries do not, as a rule, collect this type of publication, except for archival purposes.

cutouts
In the recording industry, surplus inventory sold at bargain prices. LPs sold as surplus were identified by a trimmed corner or hole punched in the album cover. CDs are marked with a notch cut in the edge of the jewel case. Also spelled cut-outs. Compare with remainders.

cut-paper work
An image or design produced by cutting interior areas and sometimes edges in outline from a sheet of paper, displayed with or without a backing sheet of contrasting color. Examples include cut silhouettes, cobweb valentines, and paper snowflakes. The Chinese have a long tradition of cut-paper design, known as Jianzhi. To see examples, try a search on the term in Google Images.

Cutter number
A system of alphanumeric author marks developed by Charles A. Cutter to permit the subarrangement of items of the same classification, alphabetically by author's last name. A Cutter number consists of one to three letters from the name, followed by one or more arabic numerals from the Cutter Table added to the end of the call number by a cataloger. Synonymous with Cutter author mark. See also: work mark.

Cutter Table
In 1880, Charles A. Cutter first circulated a two-figure table designed to assist catalogers in adding author marks to call numbers to differentiate items of the same classification by author. The Cutter Table was extended to allow the assignment of three arabic numerals following the initial letters of the author's last name and later revised by Kate A. Sanborn. The OCLC Four-Figure Cutter Tables are revised and expanded versions of the Cutter Three-Figure Author Table and the Cutter-Sanborn Three-Figure Author Table. Click here to see a version of the Library of Congress Cutter Tables.

cutting
A piece sliced from a leaf of a medieval manuscript, usually a miniature or illuminated initial letter removed by a collector or person intent on selling the illustrations individually, a destructive practice condemned by antiquarians and preservationists. Cuttings were collected for their independent aesthetic value, especially during the 18th and 19th centuries. Click here to page through miniatures removed from a 15th-century copy of De Consolatione Philosophiae (Getty Museum, MS 42). Other examples can be seen in the Metropolitan Museum of Art exhibition Manuscript Illumination in Italy (1400-1600 A.D.). Also used synonymously in Britain with news clipping.

cyanotype
A one-of-a-kind photographic print made by placing opaque or translucent objects or a negative directly on a support (paper, card, textile, etc.) sensitized with a solution of iron salts. When exposed directly to natural or artificial ultraviolet light, the salts are reduced to their ferrous state, producing a high contrast, continuous tone image infused into the paper fibers in Prussian Blue (cyan). Hastened by immersion in running water (washing), oxidation leaves white silhouettes against a blue background in places where exposure was blocked. Cyanotypes are the same size as the negative because they are contact prints. Invented by Sir John Herschel in 1842, the process was used to reproduce technical drawings until the development of the modern photocopier. Cyanotype was also used by professional photographers to proof their negatives before deciding which to print. Click here to see two examples made with natural objects (Getty Museum) and here to see examples made from negatives (Five College Archives Digital Access Project). Click here to learn more about the process. Synonymous with direct positive print. See also: blueprint.

cybercafe
A high-tech coffee house equipped with microcomputers for the use of its customers. Cybercafes originated in New York City in the 1990s and have since spread throughout the world. Some large academic libraries have installed them on their premises to give students a place to relax and read their e-mail. Synonymous with Internet cafe and netcafe.

cybercrime
Illegal activities carried out over the Internet, such as malicious hacking, virus distribution, data theft, extortion, fraud, forgery, child pornography, trafficking in illegal substances, digital copyright infringement, etc. Libraries providing computers for public use must be particularly vigilant. In 2001, the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, and the 43 member nations of the Council of Europe approved the European Cybercrime Treaty, the first international agreement on Internet-related criminal offenses, providing comprehensive global laws governing Internet use, including enforcement provisions that allow violators to be extradited. Synonymous with computer crime.

cyberlaw
The body of laws and regulations adopted to govern the use of computers, digital information systems, and computer networks. Also, the field within legal studies pertaining to computer law.

cybermetrics
Description and evaluation of the impact of the Internet as a scholarly communication tool, primarily by means of quantitative analysis of Web-based scholarly and scientific communications. Sometimes used synonymously with webometrics.

cybernetics
From the Greek word kybernetes, meaning "helmsman." A branch of science developed by Norbert Wiener in the 1940s that utilizes the concept of feedback in comparing human and machine processes, particularly mental processes, to understand their similarities and differences, with the ultimate goal of creating machines capable of imitating human behavior and intelligence. See also: artificial intelligence.

cyberphobia
An irrational fear of or aversion to computers and information technology, usually manifested in symptoms of anxiety (see this cartoon).

cyberporn
A neologism coined from the terms "cyberspace" and "pornography" to refer to sexually explicit materials available electronically over the Internet. Cyberporn is of particular concern to parents who would like to see their children become computer literate but hesitate to expose them to adult influences prematurely. Filtering software designed to block access to adult material remains controversial. See also: censorship, Children's Internet Protection Act, and intellectual freedom.

cyberspace
A neologism coined by the writer William Gibson in his science fiction novel Neuromancer (1984) to refer to the virtual world of digital communication, in which human beings interact with one another electronically via computer networks instead of face-to-face.

cybrarian
A shortened form of cyberlibrarian, coined from the terms "cyberspace" and "librarian" to refer to a librarian whose work routinely involves information retrieval and dissemination via the Internet and the use of other online resources. Despite its catchy sound, the appellation has not been widely adopted within the library profession.

cycle
A group of literary works (poems, plays, stories, novels) that share a unifying theme, for example, the Yoknapatawpha stories of William Faulkner. An epic cycle is a group of individual epics or ballads joined, usually by a process of accretion, to form a whole, as in the Iliad of Homer or the narratives comprising the Arthurian legend.

cyclorama
A large painting displayed on a circular structure, showing a 360-degree view of a large city, historical event, or literary or religious scene. Designed to give viewers standing at the center the impression of three dimensions, cycloramas were a popular form of pictorial entertainment in America and Europe from the late 18th century up to the end of the 19th century, when interest waned with the introduction of motion pictures. Click here to see a cyclorama of early Melbourne, Australia, courtesy of the State Library of Victoria, and here to learn about the Gettysburg Cyclorama (U.S. Park Service). Compare with panorama.

cylinder
In geometry, a regular shape with ends that are equal and parallel circles and with sides perpendicular to the ends. In sound recording, a format invented by Thomas Edison in 1877-1878 capable of storing 2-4 minutes of recorded sound (see wax cylinder). Initially used for commercial entertainment, the medium was adopted by the Dictaphone Company for use in early dictation and transcription machines.

In computing, a multiplatter hard drive in which the concentric magnetic tracks on each disk platter are the same distance from the hub. Arranged in a stack, the platters are of equal size but vary in number, with high-end hard drives (normally used in servers) having as many as a dozen. Double-sided, the platters rotate at constant speed, driven by a single spindle motor (see this schematic of a multiplatter hard drive).

Cyrillic
An alphabet used in Russia and countries formerly part of the Soviet Union, Cyrillic evolved from the Greek uncial alphabet. Formalized during the 9th or 10th century, it contains characters not included in the Latin alphabet that represent sounds peculiar to the Slavic languages. Cyrillic typefaces of 43 letters were introduced in the 18th century, based on the civil script established by Peter the Great in 1710. In 1918, the alphabet was reduced to its present 32 letters as a result of reforms introduced after the Russian Revolution. Click here to see the Cyrillic alphabet, courtesy of Baylor University. See also: romanization and transliteration.


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