ABC-CLIO

Encyclopedia of Body Adornment

by Margo DeMello

 

Over 200 entries address the major adornments and modifications, their historical and cross-cultural locations, and the major cultural groups and places in which body modification has been central to social and cultural practices.

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August 2007

Greenwood

Pages 360
Volumes 1
Size 7x10
Topics Geography and World Cultures/Culture
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People everywhere have attempted to change their bodies in an effort to meet their cultural standards of beauty, as well as their religious and/or social obligations. Often times, this modification or adornment of their bodies is part of the complex process of creating and re-creating personal and social identities. Body painting has probably been practiced since the Paleolithic as archaeological evidence indicates, and the earliest human evidence of tattooing goes back to the Neolithic with mummies found in Europe, Central Asia, the Andes and the Middle East. Adornments such as jewelry have been found in the earliest human graves and bodies unearthed from five thousand years ago show signs of intentional head shaping. It is clear that adorning and modifying the body is a central human practice. Over 200 entries address the major adornments and modifications, their historical and cross-cultural locations, and the major cultural groups and places in which body modification has been central to social and cultural practices. This encyclopedia also includes background information on the some of the central figures involved in creating and popularizing tattooing, piercing, and other body modifications in the modern world. Finally, the book addresses some of the major theoretical issues surrounding the temporary and permanent modification of the body, the laws and customs regarding the marking of the body, and the social movements that have influenced or embraced body modification, and those which have been affected by it.

All cultures everywhere have attempted to change their body in an attempt to meet their cultural standards of beauty, as well as their religious and or social obligations. In addition, people modify and adorn their bodies as part of the complex process of creating and re-creating their personal and social identities. Body painting has probably been practiced since the Paleolithic as archaeological evidence indicates, and the earliest human evidence of tattooing goes back to the Neolithic with mummies found in Europe, Central Asia, the Andes and the Middle East. Adornments such as jewelry have been found in the earliest human graves and bodies unearthed from five thousand years ago show signs of intentional head shaping. It is clear that adorning and modifying the body is a central human practice. Over 200 entries address the major adornments and modifications, their historical and cross-cultural locations, and the major cultural groups and places in which body modification has been central to social and cultural practices. This encyclopedia also includes background information on the some of the central figures involved in creating and popularizing tattooing, piercing, and other body modifications in the modern world. Finally, the book addresses some of the major theoretical issues surrounding the temporary and permanent modification of the body, the laws and customs regarding the marking of the body, and the social movements that have influenced or embraced body modification, and those which have been affected by it.

Entries include, acupuncture, amputation, Auschwitz, P.T. Barnum, the Bible, body dysmorphic disorder, body piercing, branding, breast augmentation and reduction, Betty Broadbent, castration, Christianity, cross dressers, Dances Sacred and Profane, Egypt, female genital mutilation, foot binding, freak shows, genetic engineering, The Great Omi, Greco-Roman world, henna, infibulation, legislation & regulation, lip plates, medical tattooing, Meso-America, military tattoos, National Tattoo Association, nose piercing, obesity, permanent makeup, primitivism, prison tattooing, punk, rites of passage, scalpelling, silicone injections, Stalking Cat, suspensions, tanning, tattoo reality shows, tattooing, Thailand, transgender, tribalism.

Topic Centers

PrefaceIntroductionAlphabetical List of Entries1. Acupuncture2. Alliance of Professional Tattooists3. American Tattooing4. Amputation5. Animal Branding6. Animal Surgical Procedures7. Animal Tattooing8. Animality9. Anorexia and Bulimia10. Apotemnophilia11. Asceticism12. Association of Professional Piercers13. Auschwitz14. Australia15. Bakhtin, Mikhail16. Bariatric Surgery17. Barnum, P.T.18. BDSM19. Beauty20. Bible21. Biker Tattooing22. Bio-Power23. BMEZine.com24. Body Building25. Body Dysmorphic Disorder26. Body Hair27. Body Painting28. Body Piercing29. Body Play30. Bondage31. Borneo32. Bourdieu, Pierre33. Branding34. Brazil35. Breast Augmentation and Reduction36. Breast Ironing37. Breast Reconstruction38. Broadbent, Betty39. Castration40. Celts41. Chicanos42. China43. Christianity44. Circumcision45. Class and Status46. Clitoral Piercing47. Clitoridectomy48. Collins, Sailor Jerry49. Contemporary Tattooing50. Cook, Captain James51. Corsets52. Cosmetic Dentistry53. Cosmetic Surgery54. Cosmetic Tattooing55. Cosmetics56. Criminality57. Cross Dressers58. Cutting59. Dances Sacred and Profane60. Dermal Anchoring61. Ear Piercing62. Ear Shaping63. Ear Spools and Ear Plugs64. Ear Stretching65. Easter Island66. Egypt67. Encumberments68. England69. Enigma, The70. Ethiopia71. Facial Hair72. Facial Piercing73. Facial Tattoos74. Female Genital Mutilation75. Finger Nails76. Flash77. Flesh Coils78. Flesh Tunnels79. Foot Binding80. Foucault, Michel81. Fraternities82. Freak Shows83. Freaks84. Gang members85. Gauntlet86. Genetic Engineering87. Genital Mutilation88. Genital Piercing89. Genital Tattooing90. Gender91. Great Omi, The92. Greco-Roman World93. Hair Cutting and Head Shaving94. Hair Styles95. Hair Treatments96. Hand Piercing97. Hardy, Don Ed98. Hawaii99. Haworth, Steve100. Head Binding101. Health Issues102. Henna103. Hijras104. Implants105. India106. Infibulation107. Intersexuality108. Inuit109. Islam110. Ivory Coast111. Japan112. Jewelry113. Judaism114. Labrets115. Lazonga, Vyvyn116. Legislation & Regulation117. Lip Plates118. Magic119. Makeup120. Maori121. Marquesas122. Marshall Islands123. Medical Tattooing124. Meso-America125. Military Tattoos126. Modern Primitives127. Modern Primitives128. Moko129. Musfar, Fakir130. National Tattoo Association131. Native Americans132. Navel Piercing133. Neo-Paganism134. New Guinea135. New Zealand136. Nigeria137. Nipple Piercing138. Nose Piercing139. Obesity140. Oral Piercing141. Orchiectomy142. Pacific Northwest Indians143. Pain144. Papua New Guinea145. Pea146. Penis Piercing147. Permanent Makeup148. PFIQ149. Philippines150. Piercing151. Plastic Surgery152. Pocketing & Stapling153. Primitivism154. Prison Tattooing155. Punk156. Rites of Passage157. Roman158. Russia159. Samoa160. Scalpelling161. Scarification162. Self-Mortification163. Self-Mutilation164. Sex Reassignment Surgery165. Sideshow166. Silicone Injections167. Skin Whitening168. Slavery169. Spanner Case170. Sprague, Eric171. Stalking Cat172. Stigmata173. Stretching174. Sudan175. Super/Sub-incision176. Surface Piercing177. Suspensions178. Tahiti179. Tanning180. Tattoo Community181. Tattoo Magazines182. Tattoo Reality Shows183. Tattoo Removal184. Tattoo Shows185. Tattoo Technology186. Tattooed Attractions187. Tattooed Natives188. Tattooing189. Tattootime190. Thailand191. Tightlacing192. Tonga193. Tongue Splitting194. Torture195. Transgender196. Transsexuals197. Transvestites198. Trepanation199. Tribalism200. Tuttle, Lyle201. Wagner, Charlie202. Ward, Jim203. Wildenstein, Jocelyn204. Yakuza205. Zaire206. Zeis, Milton207. Zulueta, LeoTopical List of EntriesThe EncyclopediaResource GuideBibliographyAbout the AuthorIndex

Reviews/Endorsements

Reviews

"In this guide, cultural anthropologist Margo DeMello explores the worlds of body adornment and modification. Her survey includes the ornamentation practices of dozens of historic, native and modern cultures, from ancient Greece, Rome and India to Russia, Sudan and new Guinea. Over forty types of body adornmdent and modification are described and explained. Coverage includes ear shaping, foot binding and scarification. Bodybuilding, fingernail treatments and tanning are presented as types of noninvasive adornment....Intended as an introduction for the general reader, this guide will serve both academic and public libraries."—Lawrence Looks at Books

"[A]s an overview of a wide range of body modification practices throughout the world and time periods, this encyclopedia can be a quick starting point. Recommended for public libraries and undergraduate collections."—College & Research Libraries

"Presented by the author as the first of its kind to take a comprehesive look at body modifications and body adornment around the world throughout history, this volume is indeed a well-researched, compact reference work, encompassing 207 informative entries, accompanied by 64 black-and-white and color illustrations, an extensive bibliography, a general index, plus resource organization, magazines, and web sites....Written by a well-known and prolific author specializing in cultural anthropology, this volume is recommended to reference collections at large for the benefit of laymen, students, teachers, and scholars alike."—MultiCultural Review

"Body modification is a hot topic with social scientists and mainstream culture. While there are numerous report-style resources and celebrity tattoo books, none till this reference have covered the breadth and scope of the field as only a true encyclopedia can....The depth of topics covered will enthrall the casual reader and provide researchers with a tremendous amount of information."—VOYA

"Tattooing and piercing may be the first things that come to mind when one thinks of body adornment, but this encyclopedia has a much wider scope, covering all major body modifications and their place is society and culture."—Booklist/Reference Books Bulletin

"With over 200 entries, this encyclopedia provides a sophisticated and in-depth analysis of the phenomenon of piercing, painting, tattooing, and all manner of body modification. The author's anthropological approach appeals to both the casual reader and the serious researcher. The photo and illustration quality bring this visual topic to life."—American Libraries

"While for many, body adornment and modification brings to mind the pierced and tattooed factions of contemporary youth, the 207 subjects in DeMello's (cultural anthropology, U. of California at Davis) alphabetically-arranged encyclopedia also include animal and human branding, sexual reassignment surgery, makeup, and P.T. Barnum. Additionally, the body adornment practices of major cultural and ethnic groups are discussed, as are individuals key to the popularization and understanding of body modification in the West among them Barnum, whose inked freaks brought tattooing to a wider audience. Entries are crossed referenced."—Reference & Research Book News

"Cultural anthropologist Margo DeMello has written the Encyclopedia of Body Adornment to create a context for the many types of body modification and adornment found both in societies throughout history and in various subcultures in the modern world. She skillfully describes practices rooted in tradition as well as contemporary variations on ancient customs. . . . entries on both countries and societies of origin as well as innovators, popularizers, and contemporary groups do a good job of connecting old and new without overly privileging the new. A resource guide, thorough bibliography, and detailed index make the book a good research tool. There are a few tasteful black-and-white illustrations, plus a section of color plates. Each entry includes both specific references and cross-references to other entries. There was certainly potential to make this volume exploitative and provocative, but a professional, matter-of-fact tone makes it a good guide to both social and cultural research into the impulse behind some of today’s radical makeover reality shows and fascination with extremes of behavior and body."—ARBA

Awards

College & Research Libraries Selected Reference Works, 2007-08 RUSA 2007 Outstan

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