ABC-CLIO

Encyclopedia of Body Adornment

by Margo DeMello

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Abortion in the United States

August 2007

Greenwood

Pages 360
Volumes 1
Size 7x10
Topics Geography and World Cultures/Culture
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Description

People everywhere have attempted to change their bodies in an effort to meet their cultural standards of beauty, as well as their religious and/or social obligations. Often times, this modification or adornment of their bodies is part of the complex process of creating and re-creating personal and social identities. Body painting has probably been practiced since the Paleolithic as archaeological evidence indicates, and the earliest human evidence of tattooing goes back to the Neolithic with mummies found in Europe, Central Asia, the Andes and the Middle East. Adornments such as jewelry have been found in the earliest human graves and bodies unearthed from five thousand years ago show signs of intentional head shaping. It is clear that adorning and modifying the body is a central human practice. Over 200 entries address the major adornments and modifications, their historical and cross-cultural locations, and the major cultural groups and places in which body modification has been central to social and cultural practices. This encyclopedia also includes background information on the some of the central figures involved in creating and popularizing tattooing, piercing, and other body modifications in the modern world. Finally, the book addresses some of the major theoretical issues surrounding the temporary and permanent modification of the body, the laws and customs regarding the marking of the body, and the social movements that have influenced or embraced body modification, and those which have been affected by it.

All cultures everywhere have attempted to change their body in an attempt to meet their cultural standards of beauty, as well as their religious and or social obligations. In addition, people modify and adorn their bodies as part of the complex process of creating and re-creating their personal and social identities. Body painting has probably been practiced since the Paleolithic as archaeological evidence indicates, and the earliest human evidence of tattooing goes back to the Neolithic with mummies found in Europe, Central Asia, the Andes and the Middle East. Adornments such as jewelry have been found in the earliest human graves and bodies unearthed from five thousand years ago show signs of intentional head shaping. It is clear that adorning and modifying the body is a central human practice. Over 200 entries address the major adornments and modifications, their historical and cross-cultural locations, and the major cultural groups and places in which body modification has been central to social and cultural practices. This encyclopedia also includes background information on the some of the central figures involved in creating and popularizing tattooing, piercing, and other body modifications in the modern world. Finally, the book addresses some of the major theoretical issues surrounding the temporary and permanent modification of the body, the laws and customs regarding the marking of the body, and the social movements that have influenced or embraced body modification, and those which have been affected by it.

Entries include, acupuncture, amputation, Auschwitz, P.T. Barnum, the Bible, body dysmorphic disorder, body piercing, branding, breast augmentation and reduction, Betty Broadbent, castration, Christianity, cross dressers, Dances Sacred and Profane, Egypt, female genital mutilation, foot binding, freak shows, genetic engineering, The Great Omi, Greco-Roman world, henna, infibulation, legislation & regulation, lip plates, medical tattooing, Meso-America, military tattoos, National Tattoo Association, nose piercing, obesity, permanent makeup, primitivism, prison tattooing, punk, rites of passage, scalpelling, silicone injections, Stalking Cat, suspensions, tanning, tattoo reality shows, tattooing, Thailand, transgender, tribalism.

Table of Contents

Preface
Introduction
Alphabetical List of Entries
1. Acupuncture
2. Alliance of Professional Tattooists
3. American Tattooing
4. Amputation
5. Animal Branding
6. Animal Surgical Procedures
7. Animal Tattooing
8. Animality
9. Anorexia and Bulimia
10. Apotemnophilia
11. Asceticism
12. Association of Professional Piercers
13. Auschwitz
14. Australia
15. Bakhtin, Mikhail
16. Bariatric Surgery
17. Barnum, P.T.
18. BDSM
19. Beauty
20. Bible
21. Biker Tattooing
22. Bio-Power
23. BMEZine.com
24. Body Building
25. Body Dysmorphic Disorder
26. Body Hair
27. Body Painting
28. Body Piercing
29. Body Play
30. Bondage
31. Borneo
32. Bourdieu, Pierre
33. Branding
34. Brazil
35. Breast Augmentation and Reduction
36. Breast Ironing
37. Breast Reconstruction
38. Broadbent, Betty
39. Castration
40. Celts
41. Chicanos
42. China
43. Christianity
44. Circumcision
45. Class and Status
46. Clitoral Piercing
47. Clitoridectomy
48. Collins, Sailor Jerry
49. Contemporary Tattooing
50. Cook, Captain James
51. Corsets
52. Cosmetic Dentistry
53. Cosmetic Surgery
54. Cosmetic Tattooing
55. Cosmetics
56. Criminality
57. Cross Dressers
58. Cutting
59. Dances Sacred and Profane
60. Dermal Anchoring
61. Ear Piercing
62. Ear Shaping
63. Ear Spools and Ear Plugs
64. Ear Stretching
65. Easter Island
66. Egypt
67. Encumberments
68. England
69. Enigma, The
70. Ethiopia
71. Facial Hair
72. Facial Piercing
73. Facial Tattoos
74. Female Genital Mutilation
75. Finger Nails
76. Flash
77. Flesh Coils
78. Flesh Tunnels
79. Foot Binding
80. Foucault, Michel
81. Fraternities
82. Freak Shows
83. Freaks
84. Gang members
85. Gauntlet
86. Genetic Engineering
87. Genital Mutilation
88. Genital Piercing
89. Genital Tattooing
90. Gender
91. Great Omi, The
92. Greco-Roman World
93. Hair Cutting and Head Shaving
94. Hair Styles
95. Hair Treatments
96. Hand Piercing
97. Hardy, Don Ed
98. Hawaii
99. Haworth, Steve
100. Head Binding
101. Health Issues
102. Henna
103. Hijras
104. Implants
105. India
106. Infibulation
107. Intersexuality
108. Inuit
109. Islam
110. Ivory Coast
111. Japan
112. Jewelry
113. Judaism
114. Labrets
115. Lazonga, Vyvyn
116. Legislation & Regulation
117. Lip Plates
118. Magic
119. Makeup
120. Maori
121. Marquesas
122. Marshall Islands
123. Medical Tattooing
124. Meso-America
125. Military Tattoos
126. Modern Primitives
127. Modern Primitives
128. Moko
129. Musfar, Fakir
130. National Tattoo Association
131. Native Americans
132. Navel Piercing
133. Neo-Paganism
134. New Guinea
135. New Zealand
136. Nigeria
137. Nipple Piercing
138. Nose Piercing
139. Obesity
140. Oral Piercing
141. Orchiectomy
142. Pacific Northwest Indians
143. Pain
144. Papua New Guinea
145. Pea
146. Penis Piercing
147. Permanent Makeup
148. PFIQ
149. Philippines
150. Piercing
151. Plastic Surgery
152. Pocketing & Stapling
153. Primitivism
154. Prison Tattooing
155. Punk
156. Rites of Passage
157. Roman
158. Russia
159. Samoa
160. Scalpelling
161. Scarification
162. Self-Mortification
163. Self-Mutilation
164. Sex Reassignment Surgery
165. Sideshow
166. Silicone Injections
167. Skin Whitening
168. Slavery
169. Spanner Case
170. Sprague, Eric
171. Stalking Cat
172. Stigmata
173. Stretching
174. Sudan
175. Super/Sub-incision
176. Surface Piercing
177. Suspensions
178. Tahiti
179. Tanning
180. Tattoo Community
181. Tattoo Magazines
182. Tattoo Reality Shows
183. Tattoo Removal
184. Tattoo Shows
185. Tattoo Technology
186. Tattooed Attractions
187. Tattooed Natives
188. Tattooing
189. Tattootime
190. Thailand
191. Tightlacing
192. Tonga
193. Tongue Splitting
194. Torture
195. Transgender
196. Transsexuals
197. Transvestites
198. Trepanation
199. Tribalism
200. Tuttle, Lyle
201. Wagner, Charlie
202. Ward, Jim
203. Wildenstein, Jocelyn
204. Yakuza
205. Zaire
206. Zeis, Milton
207. Zulueta, Leo
Topical List of Entries
The Encyclopedia
Resource Guide
Bibliography
About the Author
Index

Reviews/Endorsements

Reviews

"In this guide, cultural anthropologist Margo DeMello explores the worlds of body adornment and modification. Her survey includes the ornamentation practices of dozens of historic, native and modern cultures, from ancient Greece, Rome and India to Russia, Sudan and new Guinea. Over forty types of body adornmdent and modification are described and explained. Coverage includes ear shaping, foot binding and scarification. Bodybuilding, fingernail treatments and tanning are presented as types of noninvasive adornment....Intended as an introduction for the general reader, this guide will serve both academic and public libraries."—Lawrence Looks at Books

"[A]s an overview of a wide range of body modification practices throughout the world and time periods, this encyclopedia can be a quick starting point. Recommended for public libraries and undergraduate collections."—College & Research Libraries

"Presented by the author as the first of its kind to take a comprehesive look at body modifications and body adornment around the world throughout history, this volume is indeed a well-researched, compact reference work, encompassing 207 informative entries, accompanied by 64 black-and-white and color illustrations, an extensive bibliography, a general index, plus resource organization, magazines, and web sites....Written by a well-known and prolific author specializing in cultural anthropology, this volume is recommended to reference collections at large for the benefit of laymen, students, teachers, and scholars alike."—MultiCultural Review

"Body modification is a hot topic with social scientists and mainstream culture. While there are numerous report-style resources and celebrity tattoo books, none till this reference have covered the breadth and scope of the field as only a true encyclopedia can....The depth of topics covered will enthrall the casual reader and provide researchers with a tremendous amount of information."—VOYA

"Tattooing and piercing may be the first things that come to mind when one thinks of body adornment, but this encyclopedia has a much wider scope, covering all major body modifications and their place is society and culture."—Booklist/Reference Books Bulletin

"With over 200 entries, this encyclopedia provides a sophisticated and in-depth analysis of the phenomenon of piercing, painting, tattooing, and all manner of body modification. The author's anthropological approach appeals to both the casual reader and the serious researcher. The photo and illustration quality bring this visual topic to life."—American Libraries

"While for many, body adornment and modification brings to mind the pierced and tattooed factions of contemporary youth, the 207 subjects in DeMello's (cultural anthropology, U. of California at Davis) alphabetically-arranged encyclopedia also include animal and human branding, sexual reassignment surgery, makeup, and P.T. Barnum. Additionally, the body adornment practices of major cultural and ethnic groups are discussed, as are individuals key to the popularization and understanding of body modification in the West among them Barnum, whose inked freaks brought tattooing to a wider audience. Entries are crossed referenced."—Reference & Research Book News

"Cultural anthropologist Margo DeMello has written the Encyclopedia of Body Adornment to create a context for the many types of body modification and adornment found both in societies throughout history and in various subcultures in the modern world. She skillfully describes practices rooted in tradition as well as contemporary variations on ancient customs. . . . entries on both countries and societies of origin as well as innovators, popularizers, and contemporary groups do a good job of connecting old and new without overly privileging the new. A resource guide, thorough bibliography, and detailed index make the book a good research tool. There are a few tasteful black-and-white illustrations, plus a section of color plates. Each entry includes both specific references and cross-references to other entries. There was certainly potential to make this volume exploitative and provocative, but a professional, matter-of-fact tone makes it a good guide to both social and cultural research into the impulse behind some of today’s radical makeover reality shows and fascination with extremes of behavior and body."—ARBA

Awards

College & Research Libraries Selected Reference Works, 2007-08 RUSA 2007 Outstan

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